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III. i. Give Ritssian equivalents of the following phrases:
to exercise a great stylistic authority; a page to a countess; a never-ending stream of works; colour sketches on wood; a helmet and a shield; to emerge on the international scene; indefatigable energy; to raise the Cross; to make copies after Roman sculpture; the superhuman energy; the central panel of a triptych; to carry out a commission; dowager Queen of France; to be protected at every point by the divinities; a ceremonial gallery in the palace; conipositional inventiveness; Classical learning; the divine inter­vention; the years of exile; executioners; a tribute to; a Baroque artist; to receive its embodiment in; the Baroque testament; the energy of the composition; final coating; the redeeming power of love; Caravaggio's psychological interests; a complete picture in itself; a pyramid of struggling figures.
ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
появиться на международной арене; монументальные произведения; годы ссылки; композиционная изобретатель­ность; классическое образование; неуемная энергия; поль­зоваться большим авторитетом; нескончаемый поток работ; быть защищенным со всех сторон божествами; самостоятель­ная картина; палачи; сделать множество рисунков; копировать древнеримские статуи; центральная часть триптиха; выпол­нить заказ; вклад в; могущественный заказчик; парадная галерея дворца; божественное вмешательство; получить воплощение в; напоминать фигуры Микеланджело; искупляющая сила любви; богатство цвета; вдовствующая королева; цветные наброски на дереве.
iii. Make up questions with the given phrases.
iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms.
a) regent; to recount; testament; canvas; splendid; executioner;
b) murderer; queen; magnificent; to tell; picture; will.
IV. Here are descriptions of some of Rubens's works of art. Match them up to the given titles..
1. Cupids fly above the scene with bows, arrows, and torches,
2. Grotesque figures rain down from Heaven.
3. The executioners form a colossal pyramid.
4. The gods advise the King to accept her as his second bride.
a. Henry IV Receiving the Portrait of Maria de' Medici
b. Raising of the Cross
c. Garden of Love
d. Fall of the Damned
V. Translate the text into English.
Питер Паул Рубенс, крупнейший фламандский художник XVII в., был одним из самых образованных людей своего време­ни. Первые годы своей творческой жизни Рубенс провел в Ита­лии. В Венеции он изучал работы Тициана, в Риме - произве­дения Микеланджело. В Италии Рубенс быстро стал знаменитым. С 1601 г. он - придворный художник герцога Гон-зага в Мантуе. В 1608 г. Рубенс вернулся на родину во Фланд­рию. Он много работал над монументальными произведениями. На одном из них - алтарном образе "Воздвижение креста" - изображен распятый Христос. В 1621-1625 гг. Рубенс получил заказ на цикл из 21 картины "Жизнь Марии Медичи" от французской королевы, вдовы Генриха IV, для украшения Люксембургского дворца. Это - блистательное творение монументально-декоративного искусства. Здесь наряду с аллегорическими образ­ами и мифологическими персонажами Рубенс изобразил реаль­ные исторические лица.
Искусство Рубенса - типичное выражение барокко. Ху­дожник часто писал картины на сюжеты античных мифов. Рубенс оказал большое влияние на последующее развитие западноевро­пейского искусства.
VI. Summarize the text.
VII. Topics for discussion.
1. Rubens's mode of life and production system.
2. Rubens's style and characters.
3. Rubens as a Baroque painter.
UNIT XIII VELAZQUEZ (1599-1660)
Diego Rodriguez de Silva у Velazquez was the greatest Spanish painter. Born in Seville, Velazquez studied with the local Mannerist Francisco Pacheco. In 1623 Velazquez was appointed court painter and settled permanently in Madrid. By 1627 he was established in the royal household and got the rank of court chamberlain. It gave him a residence attached to the palace and a studio inside it. For more than 30 years Velazquez painted King Philip IV and members of the royal family and court, produced historical, mythological, and religious pictures. His paintings were influenced by Rubens and the Venetian artists.
Velazquez never deserted the integrity of his own style. He did not adopt the characteristic devices of allegorical figures, col­umns, curtains of boiling clouds utilized by most Catholic painters of the seventeenth century. Velazquez was attached to nature.
He visited Italy twice and expressed a frank dislike for Raphael and thus for the Italian idealism. Velazquez admired Ti­tian and copied Tintoretto as an exercise in freedom of the brush. Throughout his life Velazquez was deeply concerned with the principles of composition and design.
When Caravaggesques realism penetrated Spain, it was felt by the young Velazquez as a liberation. Velazquez's interpretation of this movement was original. His Triumph of Bacchus, of about 1628, contains numerous reminiscences of Titian's Bacchanal of the Andrians, reinterpreted in basically Caravaggesques terms. Bacchus is a rather soft Spanish youth, with a towel and a cloak around his waist, as if he had just climbed out of a neighbouring stream. Crowned with wine leaves himself he mischievously puts a crown upon a kneeling worshiper, who is a simple Spanish peas­ant. Other peasants are gathered around. One peasant with bris­tling moustache and a hat pushed back hands a cup of wine to­ward a spectator, while another tries to grab it. The proletarian invitation to join in the delights of wine is painted with a brilliance unequalled by any other Latin painter of the seventeenth century. Yet the emphasis of the solidity of flesh and rough clothing shows that Velazquez is a Mediterranean painter.
The Surrender of Breda, of 1635, is a magnificent painting. It is remarkable for its excellent equilibrium. The groups of Spanish victors and defeated Dutchmen are scrupulously equal­ized. The surrender is carried out with dignity unlike in the con­ventional representations of the glorification of the victors and the disgrace of the conquered.
After the second trip to Italy (1649-51) Velazquez painted his most complex imaginary picture, based on the myth of Arachne, The Weavers, c.1656. The central scene, the moment when Minerva turns Arachne, a mortal girl who challenged the goddess of spinning and weaving to a contest, into a spider — is depicted in the background. In the foreground the weaver's work­room is produced so convincingly that in later centuries this painting was taken for a large genre scene. The emotion of the workshop, the spinning of the wheel, the handling of the tale as an ordinary event, make this painting one of the most outstanding of Velazquez's mythological works.
Velazquez's masterpiece, and one of the most extraordinary paintings of the seventeenth century is Las Meninas (The Ladies-in-waiting), of 1656. It was initially titled The Portrait of the Fam­ily. The painter is depicted in his studio in the royal palace, at work upon a canvas, so large that it can only be this very picture, unique in scale in his entire production. In the centre the light falls on the glittering figure of the five-year-old princess, who has paid the painter a visit, accompanied by two ladies-in-waiting, one of whom kneels to give her a cup of water. On the right two dwarfs are portrayed; one is gently teasing with his foot an elderly dog. Through the open door in the background wall light falls on a court official, pausing for a moment, on the steps. Most important of all the mirror alongside the door reflects the King and Queen. who also honour the painter with their presence. Despite the apparent ease and informality of the subject, the picture is care­fully balanced in a series of interlocking pyramids that can be ranked with the greatest designs of the Renaissance. In light and dark the illusion of the picture is as real as the intimate and quiet mood. Velazquez's brush suggests the reality of objects through the sparks and reflections of light on hair, silk, flowers and embroidery, spots of light and colour set down by touches of the brush create the illusion of form. Las Meninas is the culmination of Velazquez's work. In this painting the artist demonstrates to all time the nobility of his art - a rank that no king can award.
Velazquez had no immediate followers, but the painters of suc­ceeding centuries such as Goya and Manet highly esteemed him.
Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:
Velazquez [viPl{skwiz]; Madrid [m@Pdrid]; Seville [s@Pvil]; Philip [Pfilip]; Mediterranean [medit@Preinj@n]; crown [Pkraun]; Order [P?d@]; Santiago [s{ntiPOg@u]; Chamberlain [P¶eimb@lin]; Arachne [@Pr{kni]; Goya [Pgoj@]; Manet [m{Pnei]
NOTES
Triumph of Bacchus - "Вакх"
Surrender of Breda - "Сдача Бреды"
The Weavers - "Пряхи"
Las Meninas - "Менины"
TASKS
I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the fol­lowing statements true or false
1. For twenty years Velazquez painted King Philip IV and members of the royal family and court.
2. Velazquez adopted the characteristic machinery of allegori­cal figures, utilized by most Catholic painters of the seventeenth cen­tury.
3. Velazquez's Triumph of Bacchus contains numerous remi­niscences of the Nertherlandish masters.
4. The Surrender of Breda is a work of universal importance.
5. In The Weavers the central scene is depicted in the fore­ground.
6. In Las Meninas Velazquez shows the nobility of his art.
II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?
1. Where was Velazquez trained? What position did he obtain at the court?
2. Whose works did Velazquez distaste and whose paintings did he admire? What did Caravaggesques realism mean to Velazquez?
3. What did Velazquez depict in the Triumph of Bacchus? What shows that Velazquez is a Mediterranean painter?
4. What is pictured in the Surrender of Breda? In what way does it differ from other pictures of this kind?
5. What makes The Weavers Velazquez's most complex alle­gorical painting? What legend was the basis of this work of art?
6. What does Las Meninas portray? What makes Las Meninas Velazquez's masterpiece? What are the figures depicted in this pic­ture doing? What is Las Meninas (a group portrait, a self-portrait or a genre painting)?
III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:
to be appointed court painter; to settle permanently in; royal household; to get the rank of; Court Chamberlain; a residence at­tached to the palace; members of the royal family and court; the integ­rity of one's style; the characteristic devices; allegorical figures; to be attached to nature; freedom of the brush; throughout the life; princi­ples of composition; Caravaggesques realism; numerous reminis­cences; a Mediterranean painter; to fall under the influence of; the studio in the royal palace; to work upon a canvas; to create the illu­sion of form unique in scale; to pay the painter a visit; dwarfs; to honour the painter with the presence; informality of the subject; in­terlocking pyramids.
ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
целостность стиля; иллюзия формы; члены королевской семьи и двора; принципы композиции и рисунка; предшествую­щий век; получить должность; придворный художник; ряд пере­секающихся пирамид; карлики; в светотени; аллегорические об­разы; типичные атрибуты; гофмейстер; свобода мазка; много­численные цитаты из; постоянно поселиться в; трактовка направ­ления; средиземноморский художник; уникальная по масштабу картина; почтить своим присутствием студию художника.
iii. Make up sentences ofyour own with the given phrases.
iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:
a) local; court; trip; interpret; supreme; reminiscences; dwarfs; demonstrate; appoint; attain;
b) royal household; render; exquisite; quotations; Lilliputians; show; place; gain; journey; native.
IV. Here are descriptions of some of Velazquez's works of art. Match them up to the given titles..
1. The mirror alongside the door re- flects the King and Queen, who honour the painter with their presence.
2. Crowned with wine leaves himself he mischievously puts a crown upon a kneeling worshiper.
3. The painting is noted for its clas- sical equilibrium.
4. This painting is one of the most significant of Velazquez's mythological works.
a. Triumph of Bacchus
b. Surrender of Breda
c. The Weavers
d. Las Meninas
V. Translate the text into English.
Диего Родригос де Сильва Веласкес - выдающийся ху­дожник "золотого испанского века", родился в Севилье, учился у местного художника Франсиско Пачеко.
В 1626 г. Веласкес переехал в Мадрид и стал придворным художником короля Филиппа IV. В 1627 г. художник получил звание гофмейстера. После знакомства с Рубенсом, который по­сетил Испанию в 1628 г. Веласкес отправился в Италию, где про­вел три года. Работы итальянских художников оказали большое влияние на Веласкеса. Его стиль стал более свободным и бле­стящим, колорит менее темным в тенях.
В конце 20-х годов Веласкес написал картину "Вакх". Эту мифологическую сцену он интерпретировал как жанровую. Идеализации нет даже в фигуре самого Вакха. Контрасты света и тени, золотистый тон - все типичные черты караваджизма, пере­плетаются с характерными только для Веласкеса чертами.
В последнее десятилетие жизни художник написал три самых известных картины: "Венера с зеркалом", "Менины", "Пряхи". "Менины" - это, по своей сути, групповой портрет. Художник, а это автопортрет самого Веласкеса, у мольберта пишет короля и королеву, отражение которых зрители видят в зеркале. На переднем плане изображена инфанта Маргарита в окружении фрейлин, карлицы, придворных и собаки. В дверях художник поместил фигуру канцлера. Композиция картины объ­единяет черты группового портрета и жанровой картины. Влия­ние Веласкеса на искусство последующих веков велико. Он вдохновлял художников от романтиков до пост­импрессионистов.
VI. Summarize the text.
VII. Topics for discussion.
1. Velazquez's realism.
2. Velazquez's artistic heritage.
UNIT XIV THE 'LITTLE MASTERS'
The open market system, under which Dutch pictures were sold, produced artists skilful in painting a particular type of sub­ject. They specialized in landscapes, riverscapes, seascapes, city-scapes, travelscapes; skating scenes, moonlight scenes, shipping and naval battles; interiors, exteriors; gardens, polite conversa­tions, parlour intrigue, housekeeping, tavern brawls; hunting scenes, churches, still lifes and portraits, single, double, or group.
At least forty of the 'little masters' are very talented.
An early leader of Dutch landscape painting, Jan van Goyen (1596-1656), was one of the Dutch masters to place human figures to a position in which they could no longer determine the mood of a scene but merely establish the scale. Van Goyen was fascinated by water. But the celestial architecture of shifting clouds was even more important than water in his landscapes. In River Scene, painted by Van Goyen shortly before his death, the land with fish­ermen's cottages, windmills, and a distant church, is visible only in tiny patches. All else is clouds and water, save for two boats mov­ing slowly toward the centre. People are mere spots, as are the flying gulls. An almost monochromatic vision, limited to translu­cent browns in the foreground and grey greens elsewhere, is regis­tered by means of light, shimmering water, and distant land.
A View of Haarlem, of about 1670, by Jacob van Ruisdael (1628/29-82), opens up an immense prospect from the vantage point of the dunes. The city appears only on the flat horizon, a sparkle of windmills and spires is dominated by the mass of the Great Church. The immensity of the space is increased by the light falling from between clouds on the farmhouses and the linens whitening in the foreground. The birds fly higher and the clouds seem more remote than in Van Goyen's picture.
One of the greatest Dutch landscapes is the Avenue at Middelbarnis, of 1689, by Meyndert Hobbema (1638-1709), Ruisdael's pupil. Constructed on the humble theme of a rutted country road plunging into the picture between feathery trees that have long lost lower branches for use as firewood, the spatial climax is compel­ling.
Albert Cuyp (1620-91), influenced by Dutch painters who had travelled in Italy, preserves a similar feeling for space in his Landscape with Cattle and Figures, of about 1650, which is intensi­fied by the animals and people grouped in the foreground.
The art of Pieter De Hooch (1629-after 1684) glorifies the harmony of the perfect bourgeois household, with everything in its proper place and respect for cleanliness and order raised almost to a religious level. The Linen Cupboard, of 1663, is De Hooch's Baroque climax. In this picture, illuminated by an unseen win­dow, De Hooch depicts the simple act of counting neatly folded sheets taken from their carved and inlaid cabinet in an interior whose cleanliness matches its perfect perspective and its clear bright colour; the black-and-white marble floor leads the eye through the door to the view across the street. By means of pic­tures on the wall the painter shows that art is a part of the ideal daily life.
The opposite of De Hooch's religious order is the disorder of Jan Steen (1625/26-79), who revived the humour of the Late Gothic burlesque. To this day a "Jan Steen household" is the Dutch expression for a house in which nothing goes right. Every­thing goes wrong in The World Upside Down, which is a parody on De Hooch's Linen Cupboard. It was also intended as a moraliz­ing picture. Jan Steen, who kept a tavern, was never tired of rep­resenting the effects of visits to him. Here the scene shifts to the kitchen; the same lady of the house in the same costume as in De Hooch's Linen Cupboard has fallen asleep; beer runs from the keg over a floor strewn with garbage, a pipe and a hat; children, a pig, a dog, a duck, and a monkey are where they ought not to be and are doing what they ought not to do. The housemaid hands a glass of wine to her sweetheart, nobody pays any attention to an elderly man reading from a book or to an old woman trying to bring some order into the situation. To intensify the effect, Steen is treating his figures with conviction and vigour.
Dutch still lifes were often intended to appeal to the eye and the palate at once. Some are crowded with an unappetizing profu­sion of fruit or game, but the most tasteful and tasty are those restricted to the makings of between-meals snacks (they are tradi­tionally referred to as 'breakfast pieces'). White wine, a bit of sea­food or ham, lemon, pepper, and salt are the subjects, along with polished silver, crystal goblets and a rumpled tablecloth. The spec­tator is tantalized not only by the delicacy with which the carefully selected objects arc painted, but also by the expensive carelessness with which a lemon has been left partly peeled and a silver cup overturned.
Willem Heda (1599-1680/82) was the master of still life. In his Still Life, despite limitations of subject matter, he demonstrates an unexpected eloquence in the rendering of golden light, as well as sensitivity in establishing the precise relationships between transparent, translucent, reflecting, and mat surfaces - a silent drama of pure sense presented in the style of a Caravaggio relig­ious scene against the typical background of nowhere, fluctuating between shadow and light.
Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:
Hobbema ['hobim@]; Hals [h{ls]; Cuyp [kaip]; Ruisdael [PraIzdOl]; Haarlem [PhOl@m]; genre [P?Onr@]; burlesque [byPlesk]; fluctuate [Pflok¶ueit]; eloquence [Pel@kw@ns]; palate [Pp{lit]; horizon [h@Praizn]; tantalise [Pt{nt@laiz]; monochrome [Pmon@kr@um]
TASKS
I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the fol­lowing statements true or false.
1. Jan van Goyen placed figures to a dominant position.
2. Heda's still-lifes are referred to as "breakfast pieces".
3. De Hooch represented genre scenes of the lower classes life.
4. Jacob van Ruisdael was the best Dutch landscape painter.
5. To this day a "Jan Steen household" is the Dutch expres­sion for the harmony of the perfect bourgeois household.
6. One of the greatest Dutch landscapes is the Avenue at Middelbarnis by Meyndert Hobbema.
II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?
1. What system produced the "little masters"? In what did they specialize? Were all the "little masters" of high quality?
2. What was Jan van Goyen famous for? What did he like to paint? What is Van Goyen's masterpiece? What is depicted in this picture?
3. What did Jacob van Ruisdael paint in 1670? What is this landscape noted for? How is the immensity of the space increased?
4. What did Albert Cuyp paint in 1650? How did he inten­sify the space?
5. What is represented in the Linen Cupboard? How did De Hooch render the religious order of the bourgeois life? What did the painter show by means of pictures on the wall?
6. What kind of picture is the World Upside Down? What does it demonstrate?
7. What do Dutch still lifes depict? Who was one of the chief practitioners of Dutch still lifes ? What did he demonstrate in his paintings? What did he establish?
III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:
genre scenes; a sense of composition and colour; translucent browns; still life; polished silver; the harmony of the bourgeois household; to establish the relationships between transparent and mat surfaces; vantage point; to be of extremely high quality; the realm of space and light; to appeal to the eye and the palate; to determine the mood of the scene; the celestial architecture of shifting clouds; dashing brushwork; windmills and spires; break­fast pieces; to make pictures lively; housemaid; a monochromatic vision; moralizing picture; carved and inlaid cabinet; according to the compositional principles; sketchy touches of the brush; to handle figures with conviction and power; burlesque; religious scenes; riverscapes; seascapes; travelscapes; hunting scenes.
ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
оживить картину; стремительные мазки; царство про­странства и света; система открытого рынка; "завтраки"; начи­щенное серебро; жанровая живопись; дорожный пейзаж; пере­местить сцену на кухню; моралистическая картина; морские битвы; эскизные мазки; специализироваться по отдельным видам тематики; шумные сцены в таверне; небесная архитектура дви­жущихся облаков; чувство композиции и цвета; одноцветная кар­тина; прославлять гармонию буржуазного быта; натюрморт; воз­родить поздне-готический бурлеск; резной инкрустированный комод; великолепная панорама; место, дающее хороший обзор.
iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.
iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:
a) remote; to fluctuate; shimmering; burlesque; transparent; celestial;
b) to wave; distant; glowing; parody; translucent; heavenly.
IV. Here are names of the "Little Masters". Match them up to the titles of the paintings. Describe these works of art.
1. Pieter De riooch
2. W i I lem С laesz Heda
3. Jan van Goyen
4. Jan Steen
5. Aelbert Cuyp
6. Meyndert Hobbema
7. Jacob van Ruisdael
a. Landscape with Cattle
b. Still Life
c. Avenue at Middelbarnis
d. A View of Haarlem
e. The World Upside Down
f. Linen Cupboard
g. River Scene
V. Translate the text into English and Figures.
Станковая живопись - основное достижение голланд­ского искусства XVII в. Бытовая живопись стала одним из ведущих жанров. В истории искусства создатели этого жанра называются "малыми голландцами". Голландцы хотели ви­деть в картинах весь мир. Каждый состоятельный (well-to-do) голландец считал картину лучшим украшением своего жи­лища. Большой спрос и связанная с этим конкуренция вызва­ли специализацию художников по отдельным видам темати­ки: одни писали портреты, другие - жанровые сцены, натюрморты, пейзажи: городские, сельские, дорожные. Рас­цвет пейзажной живописи в голландской школе относится к середине XVII в. Крупнейшим мастером реалистического пей­зажа был Якоб ван Рейсдал.
Наивысшего расцвета достиг натюрморт. Виллем Хеда чаще всего изображает "завтраки": блюда с окороком или пи­рогом на скромно сервированном столе. С течением времени "завтраки" Хеды сменяются роскошными "десертами" Калфа. На смену простой утвари приходят мраморные столы, ковровые скатерти, серебряные кубки, хрустальные бокалы.
VI. Summarize the text.
VII. Topics for discussion.
1. Dutch landscape.
2. Dutch genre painting.
3. Dutch still-life.
UNIT XV HALS (1581/85-1666)
Recognized today as one of the most brilliant of all portrait­ists, Frans Hals was probably born in Antwerp and was brought to Haarlem as a child. Interested in human face and figure, Hals was blessed with a gift for catching the individual in a moment of action, feeling, perception, or expression and recording that mo­ment with unerring strokes. Among his early commissions were group portraits of the militia companies that had been largely re­sponsible for defending the new Dutch republic in the hostile world; these paintings radiate its self-confidence and optimism. Hals usually shows the citizen-soldiers in the midst of the ban­quets. The compositions, picturing a dozen or more males, mostly corpulent and middle-aged, each of whom had paid equally and expected to be recognizable, were not conductive to imaginative painting. The predecessors of Hals had composed these group portraits in alignments hardly superior compositionally to a mod­ern class photograph. It was the genius of Rembrandt to raise them to a level of high drama. But Hals in his Banquet of the Offi­cers of the Saint George Guard Company, of 1616 has a superb job within the limitations of the traditional type. The moment is re­laxed, the gentlemen turn toward each other or toward the painter as if he had been painting the whole group at once, which was not certainly the case. Massive Baroque diagonals - the curtain pulled aside, the flag, the poses, the ruffs - tie the picture together into a rich pattern of white and flashing colours against the black cos­tumes. Broad brushstrokes indicate the passage of light on colour with a flash and sparkle unknown even to Rubens.
The warmth of Hals's early style is seen in The Laughing Cavalier. The date 1624 and the subject's age 26 are inscribed in the background, and since the Cavalier's diagonal shadow also falls on it, it is clearly a wall. The Caravaggesque nowhere is thus converted into a definite here. The wall is irradiated with light and seems insubstantial. The armours proclivities of the young man are indicated by the arrows, torches and bees of Cupid and the winged staff and hat of Mercury embroidered in red, silver and gold on the dark brown of his slashed sleeve, with his glowing complexion, dangerous moustaches, snowy ruff and dashing hat, the subject is the symbol of Baroque gallantry. The climax of the painting is the taunting smile on which every compositional force converges.
The opposite of this glittering portrait is the sombre Malle Babbe, of about 1630-33. Nobody knows who the old creature was or the meaning of her nickname. Often called an "old crone" she might be from forty to sixty years old. Hals has caught her in the midst of a fit of insane laughter. Possibly she is a town idiot and the owl on her shoulder is a symbol of foolishness. The expression seized in a storm of strokes is rendered with a demonic intensity.
About 1664 when he was past 80, Hals showed a still differ­ent side of his character and ability in the Regentesses of the Old Man's Almshouse. Painted almost entirely in black and white and shades of grey, this solemn picture is united by diagonal move­ments. The painter had only devastated faces and white collars of the women as component elements. Each of the subjects has re­acted in a separate way to age and experience, yet all participate in a calm acceptance of the effects of time. In its simplicity the composition shows an expressive depth unexpected in the generally excited Hals.
Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:
Hals [h{ls]; Haarlem [PhOl@m]; Antwerp [P{ntwyp]; cavalier [k@v@Pli@]; banquet [Pb{nkwit]; regentess [PrOd?@ntis]
NOTES
Banquet of the Officers of the Saint George Guard Company - "Портрет офицеров гильдии святого Георгия "
The Laughing Cavalier - "Портрет молодого офицера"
Malle Babbe - "Мале Бабе"
Regentesses of the Old Man's Almshouse - "Регентши приюта для престарелых"
TASKS
I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false
1. Today Hals is recognized as the most brilliant portraitist.
2. Hals shows citizen-soldiers in the midst of the banquets.
3. Malle Babbe is a glittering portrait.
4. The warmth of Hals's early style is seen in the Regentesses of the Old Man's Almshouse.
5. The Laughing Cavalier is the symbol of Baroque gallantry.
6. The subjects of the Regentesses of the Old Man's Alms­house participate in a calm acceptance of the effects of time.
II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?
1. What gift was Hals blessed with?
2. What were Hals's early commissions? Why were not Hals's portraits conductive to imaginative painting? How did Hals's predecessors compose their group portraits? Who could raise group portraits to a level of high drama?
3. What is the Banquet of the Officers of the Saint George Guard Company noted for? What has Hals pictured in this work of art? What ties the picture together?
4. Where is the warmth of Hals's early style seen? How old is the subject? What makes the subject the symbol of Baroque gallantry? How did Hals interpret the Caravaggesque nowhere?
5. What is the opposite of The Laughing Cavalier? When was it painted? Whom has Hals depicted in it?
6. In what painting did Hals show a different side of his character? How old was he at that time? What did the painter show in this work?
III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:
to catch the individual in a moment of action; group por­traits in alignments; unerring strokes; a moment of perception; to be blessed with the gift; effects of time; to radiate one's self-confidence; Caravaggesque nowhere; a slashed sleeve; sketchy brushstrokes; armours proclivities; a taunting smile; to be irradiated with light; snowy ruff; a dashing hat; devastated faces; to be conductive to; the predecessors of the painter; show the citizen-soldiers in the midst of the banquets; to raise the portraits to a level of high drama; to tie the picture together; a glittering portrait; militia companies; a solemn picture; component elements.
ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
опустошенные лица; быть наделенным даром; широкие мазки; сияющий портрет; лихо заломленная шляпа; круглый плоеный жесткий воротник; стрелковые гильдии; предшествен­ники художника; след времени; полные, средних лет мужчины; связать картину воедино; насмешливая улыбка; изображать стрельцов в разгар веселого застолья; склонность к военному искусству; сиять самоуверенностью; групповой портрет, постро­енных в шеренгу людей; рукав с разрезами; эскизная манера письма; поздний период творчества; поднять на уровень драмы.
iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.
iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:
a) strokes; radiate; traditional; indicate; predecessor;
b) conventional; precursor; brushwork; shimmer; show.
IV. Here are descriptions of some of Hals's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.
1. The model was caught in the midst of a fit of insane laughter.
2. The painter had only devastated faces and white collars of the figures as component elements.
3. The climax of the painting is the taunting smile.
4. Broad brushstrokes indicate the passage of light on colour with a flash and sparkle unknown even to Rubens.
a. The Laughing Cavalier
b. Banquet of the Officers of the Saint George Guard Company
c. Regentesses of the Old Man's Almshouse
d. Malle Babbe
V. Translate the text into English.
Франс Халс - крупнейший портретист Голландии XVII в. Халс написал серию групповых портретов. Это в основ­ном изображения членов добровольных стрелковых гиль­дий города Гарлема. "Портрет офицеров гильдии святого Георга" (1616) является одним из лучших. Яркие краски, не­принужденное расположение фигур - нравились современни­кам Халса. С полотен смотрят плотные, уверенные в своих силах люди средних лет. Халс изображает их обычно в това­рищеской пирушке. Групповые портреты Халса - одно из высших достижений голландской живописи.
Индивидуальные портреты Халса носят черты жанро­вой картины. Лучшим примером этого является портрет ста­рухи, "гарлемной ведьмы", Малле Баббе, с совой на плече. Эскизная манера была типична для Халса. Незадолго до смерти Халс написал два групповых портрета обитателей приюта для престарелых, в одном из которых он окончил свои дни. На портретах изображены старые люди, покорив­шиеся времени. Монохромный колорит портретов создает особый трагизм, подчеркивая драматизм судьбы самого больного, одинокого и нищего художника, создавшего свои самые драматические произведения на девятом десятке жизни.
Искусство Халса имело большое значение для развития портрета, бытового жанра, пейзажа и натюрморта в целом.
VI. Summarize the text.
Vll. Topics for discussion.
1. Hals's style and characters.
2. Hals's artistic achievements.
UNIT XVI REMBRANDT (1608-1669)
Rembrandt van Rijn is the greatest Dutch master, one of the su­preme geniuses in the history of art. To this day the art of Rembrandt remains one of the most profound witnesses of the progress of the soul in its earthly pilgrimage toward the realization of a higher des­tiny. The son of a prosperous miller, Rembrandt was born in Leiden in 1608. He was trained as a painter by two minor local artists. His rapid success promoted him to move to Amsterdam in 1631.
In 1632 Rembrandt's worldly success was assured. He had more commissions and pupils than he could accept. He married Suskia van Uylenburg, the lovely daughter of a wealthy family. He bought a splendid house, started a collection of paintings and rarities.
The universal artist dealt with many world subjects. Rembrandt painted, engraved and drew more than eighty self-portraits. Rem­brandt was a master of portraiture. He created around fifty portraits.
The best group portraits painted by Rembrandt are the Anat­omy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, of 1632, and The Night Watch, of 1642. In the former Rembrandt has not only painted faces, beards and lace ruffles, he has given the composition a new drama. Mystery domi­nates in his painting, reminding the living of their own inevitable des­tiny. As for The Night Watch, the members of the Company of Cap­tain F.B. Cocq were dissatisfied with the colossal group portrait. The subject of the painting is the formation of the militia company for a parade. Through wonderful effective lightning Rembrandt has turned a narrative prose into a dramatic poetry. Real events are submerged in the symphonic tide of the colouring. All the men paid equally to have themselves depicted, yet some are sunk in a shadow, one man is con­cealed except for his eyes. It was inevitable that Rembrandt would lose popularity as a portrait painter, although not at once.
In Amsterdam Rembrandt began to paint in a highly imaginative Baroque style. He was influenced by Caravaggio's sharp light-and-dark contrasts and by Rubens's spiral composi­tions. A brilliant example of this is the Angel Leaving Tobit and Tobias, of 1637. Rembrandt has followed the book of Tobit avail­able to him as a source in the Apocrypha. The formerly blind To­bit cured by the Archangel Raphael, prostrates himself in grati­tude, while his son Tobias looks upward in wonder at the departing figure. Seen sharply from the back the angel is taken from the sight into an open cloud in a flash of light. Along with luminary effects goes a new technical freedom. The smooth, de­tailed early manner is gone. The forms are quickly sketched.
In 1642 Saskia died. Rembrandt's commissions slackened off as a result of his unconventional painting. In 1655 Rembrandt found himself in the midst of several financial troubles. At that period he painted The Polish Rider. The precise meaning of this painting has not been determined. Probably it is an allegory of the man's earthly journey, its many dangers and uncertain destination. In the grim and rocky valley a pool can be seen. Against the dark hill there is a hut. Near the crest there is a ruined castle. The youth rides in light, alert, with his weapons at ready. The figure and his horse stand forth in a new sculptural grandeur, intensified by the fact that many of the impastos have been laid on with a palette knife. The artist carved the pigments, especially in the dark rocks and the bony forms of the horse.
Etching played a special role in Rembrandt's vast produc­tion. He produced more than 290 etchings. For him it was an in­dependent art form. The painter was unique in exploring various etching techniques. His etchings differed from those of his con­temporaries in the loose, freehand style. Rembrandt had a large collection of drawings and prints by other artists including Man-tegna, Carracci, Titian, Raphael and Bruegel. He used their works for inspiration, but there was also an element of competition: Rembrandt tried to surpass his predecessors.
Probably in 1669, the year of his own death, Rembrandt painted the Return of the Prodigal Son. This painting stands at the ultimate peak of Christian spirituality, illuminating the relation­ship of the Self to the Eternity and can be interpreted as union with divine love. This parable was a favourite in the Baroque art. In Rembrandt's dark background one can distinguish two dim faces, a seated figure, and more brightly lighted the law-abiding eldest son. In a spontaneous gesture of loving forgiveness, the gentle, aged father comes into light to press to his bosom the cropped head of his ragged son. Faces are reduced. Only the hands of the father and the tired feet of the son are painted in detail. The painting is an allegory of the earthly pilgrimage of man finding rest and meaning in divine redemption. Rembrandt's language in this work is entirely that of colour and texture. Rich tans and ochres in the prodigal's worn garments are inundated by the glowing red of his father's festal cloak against the deep brown of the encompassing dark; solid masses in thick impastos gleam against the translucent glazed.
The biblical theme was very important to Rembrandt. In 1634 the artist created the Holy Family, John the Baptist Preach­ing, Ecce Homo. In Ecce Homo Jesus stands before Pilate, the procurator, the man who is to judge him. Pilate, convinced of Christ's innocence, presents him to the people with the words "See, the man!" - in Latin: "Ecco Homo". But the people and the priests cry out that Jesus must be crucified. The Passion of Christ was a popular subject. Rembrandt painted a series of seven pic­tures illustrating this episode. Abraham's Sacrifice was produced by Rembrandt in 1635. In Christ Appearing to Mary Magdalen, of 1638, Rembrandt shows Mary's shock of recognition.
Moses Breaking the Tablets was created in 1659. The Old Testament recounts that Moses led the children of Israel out of Egypt and through the wilderness. At Mount Sinai he received God's laws - the Ten Commandments - written on 'stone tablets'. But while Moses was on the mountain the people built an idol: a golden calf. When Moses came down from the mountain he saw the people dancing around the idol. In the anger he smashed the stone tablets. Rembrandt illustrates the moment just before Moses threw down the tablets.
Besides many paintings of biblical scenes Rembrandt took themes from mythology. In Diana Bathing with her Nymphs, with the Stories of Acteon and Callisto, c. 1634, Rembrandt combined two stories taken from Ovid's Metamorphoses. In the Rape of Ga­nymede, of 1635, the artist shows how Jupiter, turned into an ea­gle, carries Ganymede off to Olympus, to place him later in the Heavens as one of the signs of the Zodiac, Aquarius.
Rembrandt was not understood in his own life-time. He died in poverty. But it is the spirituality of his art that distinguishes Rembrandt from his Dutch contemporaries and makes him the greatest artist of the world.
Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:
Rembrandt [Prembr{nt]; Leiden [Plaid@n]; Amsterdam [{mst@Pd{m]; Metamorphoses [met@Pm?f@sis]; commandment [k@PmOndm@nt]; Sinai [Psainai]; Ovid [Povid]; Pilate [Ppail@t]; Apoc­rypha [@Ppokrif@]; Abraham [Peibr@h{m]; pilgrimage [Ppilgrimid?]; archangel [?kPeind?@l]; Aquarius [@Pkwe@ri@s]; Jupiter [d?upit@]
NOTES
Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp - "Урок анатомии доктора Тулпа"
The Night Watch - "Ночной дозор"
The Polish Rider - "Польский всадник"
Return of the Prodigal Son - "Возвращение блудного сына"
Holy Family - "Святое семейство"
John the Baptist Preaching - "Проповедь Иоанна Кресги-теля"
Abraham, 's Sacrifice - "Жертвоприношение Авраама"
Moses Breaking the Tablets - "Моисей, разбивающий скрижали "
Christ Appearing to Mary Magdalen - "Явление Христа Марии Магдалине"
Rape of Ganymede - "Похищение Ганемеда"
Diana Bathing with her Nymphs, with the Stories of Act eon and Callisto - " Диана, купающаяся с нимфами"
Self-Portrait - "Автопортрет"
Suskia van Uylenburg - Саския ван Эйленборх
TASKS
I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the fol­lowing statements true or false.
1. Rembrandt painted, engraved and drew more than eighty portraits and fifty self-portraits.
2. The Night Watch by Rembrandt was a traditional portrait of the citizen-soldiers in alignment.
3. Mystery dominates in the Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp.
4. The Return of the Prodigal Son is a brilliant example of the highly imaginative Baroque painting.
5. In the Polish Rider the figure and his horse stand forth in a new sculptural grandeur.
6. Rembrandt was not fond of etching.
II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?
1. What does Rembrandt's art remain to this day?
2. Was Rembrandt a master of portraiture? What portraits did he create? What are Rembrandt's best group portraits? What dominates in the Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp?
3. What is the subject of The Night Watch Were the com­missioners satisfied with this Rembrandt's work of art? What did they expect? How are they depicted?
4. Why did Rembrandt begin to lose popularity as a por­traitist?
5. What is the best example of Rembrandt's highly imagi­native painting in the Baroque style? What is represented in this painting?
6. What did Rembrandt paint in 1655?
7. How is The Polish Rider interpreted? How is the youth portrayed? What technique did Rembrandt use in this painting?
8. What role did etching play in Rembrandt's production?
9. What does the Return of the Prodigal Son represent? When was it created? How is the painting interpreted?
10. What mythological paintings did Rembrandt execute?
11. What distinguishes Rembrandt from his contemporar­ies?
III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:
a self-portrait; a study; a master of portraiture; to portray the subjects; a shoulder-length portrait; a half-length portrait; life-size pictures; group portraits; effective lightning; a narrative prose; an imaginative style; luminary effects; a parable; a technical free­dom; unconventional painting; to lay on the impastos; a palette knife; to carve the pigments; to produce etchings; to surpass the predecessors: 'stone tablets'; colour and texture; rich tans and ochres; the encompassing dark; to gleam against the translucent glazed; spirituality of the art; the Ten Commandments.
ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
скрижали; прокуратор; библейская тема; окружающая чернота; мастихин; техника офорта; превзойти предшествен­ников; законопослушный; создавать офорты; терять популяр­ность; гамма красок; притча; наложение красок густым слоем; сюжетно-тематический; этюд; многочисленные произведения нетрадиционная живопись; изобразительный стиль; авто­портрет; портрет во весь рост; поясной портрет; погрудный портрет; групповой портрет; Десять Заповедей.
iii. Make up questions with the given phrases.
iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms.
a) carve; dim; various; theme; spiritual; law-abiding;
b) chisel; conventional; diverse; subject; dusky; religious.
IV. Insert the missing prepositions. Translate the text..
Saint Paul at his Writing-Desk, was painted by Rembrandt c. 1629/30. The pious Paul was a fervent opponent ... the Christian religion.... a journey to combat the Christians he was blinded and thrown ... ... a supernatural power. This event changed Paul totally. The enemy ... Christianity became Apostle: now he travelled to spread the Word. Here Rembrandt painted St Paul seated ... his desk ... the corner ... a room. His left hand is illuminated ... a light coming forth ... ... the book ... the desk. This book, and the sword hanging... the wall are the attributes ... St. Paul. The sword refers ... his behead­ing, while the book refers ... his conversion.
V. Insert the articles whenever necessary. Translate the text..
Rembrandt's Belshazzar's Feast, was created in 1635. ... Babylonian king Belshazzar [belPS{z@] is celebrating with his nobles, wives and concubines. Everyone is drinking wine from ... vessels stolen from ... Temple in Jerusalem. Suddenly ... divine hand appears and starts writing ... strange script. Daniel was able to decipher ... text: which reads, "Mene mene tekel ufarsin". ... text in Hebrew let­ters foretold ... death of Belshazzar and ... end of his empire. ... Belshazzar's feast was a warning in ... 17-th century usage: profane feasts always end in ruin. Here Rembrandt portrayed ... dramatic mo­ment. He was ... master when it came to paint violent emotions.
VI. Here are descriptions of some of Rembrandt's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.
1. It is an allegory of the man's earth ly journey.
2. Mystery dominates in this paint­ing, reminding the living of their own inevitable destiny.
3. The angel is taken from the sight into an open cloud.
4. The subject of the painting is the formation of the militia company for a parade.
5. This painting stands at the ultimate peak of Christian spirituality.
6. The text in Hebrew letters foretold the death.
a. Return of the Prodigal Son
b. Angel Leaving Tobit and Tobias
c. The Polish Rider
d. Belshazzar's Feast
e. Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp
f. The Night Watch
VII. Translate the text into English.
Рембрандту ван Рейну удалось раскрыть сложный внут­ренний мир человека. Рембрандт писал жанровые и религиоз­ные сцены, портреты, автопортреты.
Традиционная для голландского искусства тема группо­вого портрета в картине Рембрандта "Урок анатомии докто­ра Тульпа" приобретает новый характер. Картина восприни­мается не как групповой портрет, а как жизненный эпизод. В "Ночном дозоре" Рембрандт остановился на моменте, когда по сигналу тревоги на площадь выходят стрелки. В результате получился не групповой портрет, а полная жизненной убеди­тельности сцена. Последней наиболее значительной работой художника является "Возвращение блудного сына".
Рембрандт был выдающимся мастером офорта. Его офорты на самые различные темы: портреты, пейзажи, быто­вые и религиозные сцены - отличаются смелостью и разно­образием художественных приемов.
Богатые голландские бюргеры - основные заказчики Рембрандта - не поняли гениального художника. Трагически одиноким, почти нищим умер Рембрандт в 1669 году.
VIII. Summarize the text.
IX. Topics for discussion.
1. Rembrandt's portraits.
2. Rembrandt's biblical paintings.
3. Rembrandt's mythological paintings.
4. Rembrandt as the greatest artist of the world.
VOCABULARY
A
accomplish [@PkompliS] v - за­вершить
Advent ['{dv@nt] - 1. Рождественский пост; 2. Второе пришествие Христа
against; ˜ the deep brown -на фоне темно коричневого alignments; in ˜ -построенные в шеренгу allegorical; ˜ works-аллегорические произведения allude; to ˜ - ссылаться на
Almighty - Всевышний
aloof [@Pluf] - далекий
altar [P?lt@] - алтарь
altarpiece - алтарный образ
analysis -анализ; ˜ of char­acter - анализ образов
angels [Peind?@lz] - ангелы
annunciation A. -Благовещение
anticipate - предвосхищать
antique - античный
antiquity; classical ˜ -классическая античность
apostle [@Pposl] - апостол
apprentice - подмастерье
apse - апсида; in the ˜ - в апсиде
arch [OtS] – арка
archaic [OPkeiik] - архаичный
archangel [OkPeind?@l] -архангел
architect - архитектор
architecture - архитектура
arrange v - расположить; to ˜ frescoes - расположить роспись
arrangement - расположение
art - искусство; applied ˜ -прикладное искусство art gallery - картинная галерея
art historians - искусствоведы
artist - художник; graphic ˜ , black and white ˜ -график artistic; ˜ tradition -художественная традиция
Arts - изобразительное искусство
assumption; A. - Успение, Вознесение
attention - внимание;
attenuated [@Ptenjueitid] - бесплотный, невесомый
authentic [?Pientik] - подлинный
authenticity [?PienPtis@ti] - подлинность
B
bacchanal [Pb{k@nl] - вак­хический; вакханальный
background - задний план, фон; in the ˜ - на заднем плане; against the blue ˜ - на голубом фоне; the landscape ˜ - пейзажный фон; а ˜ object -фоновый предмет; the Caravaggesque ˜ = the ˜ of nowhere - нейтральный фон; perspective ˜ - фоновая перспектива
banquet [Pb{nkwit] - пирушка
baptise - крестить
baptism В. - крещение
Baptist -креститель
Baroque [b@Prok] - Барокко
barrel vault- цилиндрический свод
barren [Pb{r@n] - бесплодный
bas-relief- барельеф
base n - пьедестал
base v; on - основываться на
basic a; ˜ principles of - основные принципы
betray; to ˜ the cause - предать дело
Bible [Pbaibl] - Библия
biblical [biblikl] - библейский
bier [bi@] - гроб
bishop - епископ
black and white - черно-белый
bless - благословлять
brawl [br?l]; tavern ˜ s-шумные сцены в таверне
breakfast pieces - "завтраки"
brilliance, brilliancy -интенсивность (цвета красок)
brilliant - великолепный
bring (hold) together -объединять
broad; ˜ style, technique -свободная манера письма; ˜ strokes - свободные мазки
bronze - бронза
brush - кисть; sketchy touches of the ˜ эскизные, контурные мазки
brushing - манера
brushstroke - мазок, the ˜ s are free and sweeping – мазки свободны и размашисты; broad ˜s - широкие мазки
brushwork - 1. мазки; dashing ˜ - стремительные мазки; 2 манера
bulbous - луковичный
bury [Pberi] - погребать
burial [Pberi@l] - погребение
burlesque [byPlesk] - пародия
bust [Pbost]-6rocr
buttress [Pbotris] - контрфорс
Byzantine [biPz{ntain] - Византийский
С
с. = circa [Psyk@] около, приблизительно (о дате)
canvas [Pk{nv@s] - холст; on ˜ - на холсте
capital - капитель
capture - передать
cardinal - кардинал
caricature (cartoon) -карикатура
cartoon- картон; on ˜ - на картоне
carve - ваять, вырезать (из камня, дерева, кости); ˜ а statue - изваять статую
carver - резчик
caryatids [k{riP{tidz] -кариатиды
cast [t] n - слепок
cast v - 1. ваять из бронзы; 2. бросить
castle [kOsl] - замок
catch v - передать; ˜ a like­ness - передать сходство
cathedral - собор
ceiling; ˜ frescoes (painting) - плафон; потолочная роспись
celebrated - знаменитый; ˜ picture - знаменитая картина
ceremonial - парадный; ˜ portrait - парадный портрет; ˜ gallery - парадная галерея; ˜ representation of smb - парадное изображение к.-л.
chamberlain [P¶eimb@lin] -камерарий
chapel [P¶{pl] - капелла
character - образ (изображаемое лицо)
characteristically - в основном
chariot [P¶{ri@t] - колесница
chisel v - вырезать резцом; ваять из камня, дерева, кости
Christian [Pkristj@n] n -христианин; а - христианский
Christmas [Pkrism@s] -Рождество Христово
circular - круглая (в плане)
citizen-soldiers - стрельцы стрелковой гильдии
cityscape - городской пейзаж
coat - слой; ˜ of paint - слой краски; primary ˜ -первоначальный слой; final ˜ - последний слой
cockleshell n - раковина моллюска
colour n - цвет, краска; glow­ing ˜ - яркие краски; primary ˜ - основной цвет; secondary ˜ - сложный цвет; a riot of ˜s, a wide ˜ scheme (range) - богатство красок; richness of ˜ - богатство красок
colour a; ˜ sketches on wood - цветные наброски на дереве
column [Pkol@m]- колонна
commandment [k@PmOndm@nt] - заповедь; the Теп С. - десять заповедей
commission n - заказ; to obtain (get) a ˜ - получить заказ; early ˜s - первые заказы
commission v - заказать
commissioner - заказчик
companion; ˜ pieces - парные произведения
compare to - сравнить с
composition - композиция; to arrange a ˜ - составить композицию
compositional inventiveness - композиционная изобрета­тельность
concave- вогнутый
conceal [k@nPsOl] v - скрывать
concept - замысел
conception- замысел
conductive; ˜ to - склонный к

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