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6. Adam reclines on the fertile ground.
II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?
1. Where did Michelangelo learn to paint? Where did Michelangelo study sculpture?
2. What is the Pieta famous for? What does the ageless Virgin symbolize?
3. Where is Michelangelo's heroic style seen?
4. What was Michelangelo commissioned in 1505? What re­mained from this project? How did Michelangelo represent Moses? How are the Dying Slave and the Rebellious Slave carved?
5. What was Michelangelo commissioned in 1508? How large was the ceiling?
6. What does the painting of the Sistine Ceiling represent?
7. What scenes are pictured in the lunettes around the win­dows and in the spandrels at the corners? Why does the oak tree invade the scenes of the creation?
8. What does the Fall of Man combine?
9. Where is the beauty of Classical antiquity and the spiri­tuality of Christianity embodied?
10. What do the final scenes represent?
III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:
the ageless exquisite Virgin; a formidable creation; lunettes; an activist prophet; to carve a statue; a buttress; to design a tomb; over-life statues in marble; successive reductions; a counterpart to; Advent; Lent; to set in action; the ceiling painting; to flank niches; a flattened barrel vault; an ambitious undertaking; a formidable creation; to allude poetically to; the vault compartments above the windows; generations of the ancestry; in the spandrels at the cor­ners; to lift from the dust; a medieval hymn; to reach its supreme embodiment in; penitential periods; the resurrection at Easter; at Pentecost; to recline on the barren ground; a companion figure.
ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
ваять статую; соорудить гробницу; грандиозный замы­сел; неподвластная времени совершенная Мадонна; Воскре­шение на Пасху; пророк-деятель; статуи выше человеческого роста; контрфорс; Великий пост; Рождественский пост; рас­кинуться на голой земле; люнеты; в пазухах свода; внуши­тельное произведение; фланкировать ниши; пятидесятница; плоскость свода; поэтически ссылаться на; средневековый гимн; парная фигура; поколения предков; привести в движе­ние; последовательные сокращения; достичь наивысшего во­площения в; поднять из праха; соратник к.-л.
iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.
iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:
a) recline; barren; penitential; undertaking; to enhance;
b) sorrowful; endeavour; lean back; to intensify; infertile.
IV. Insert the missing prepositions. Retell the text.
... 1519 Michelangelo began working ... the Medici ... a fu­nerary chapel... the entombment ... Lorenzo the Magnificent, his murdered brother and two recently deceased dukes. Michelan­gelo's architecture supports the tombs ... the two dukes. ... simple rectangular niches sit the two dukes, dressed ... Roman armour ... their roles as captains ... the Roman Catholic Church. The sar­cophagi have been split ... the centre. ... either side recline figures ... the times ... day, Night and Day, Dawn and Twilight. These statues were not made ... their present positions. The composition should be completed ... the reclining river gods. Night and Day are the timeless symbols ... the princely power that has conquered the powers ... time (the times ... day) and ... space (the four rivers). When Michelangelo was engaged ... this work glorifying the Medici power, the Sack ... Rome destroyed temporarily the power ... his Medici patron. The republic was revived ... the third and the last time, and Michelangelo was placed ... charge ... its defences.
V. Insert the articles wherever necessary. Retell the text.
... High Renaissance in ... Rome and Florence was brief. It lasted hardly more than ... twenty five years from its beginning in ... Leonardo's Last Supper to ... death of... Raphael in ...1520. ... new style succeeded it. It existed for ... while ... side by ... side with ... latest phases of... High Renaissance art.... new style assumed ... name of Mannerism. ... name Mannerism was proposed by ... art historians in ... twentieth century. Like ... terms ... Romanesque and ... Gothic, Mannerism is here to stay. ... Mannerism indicates ... style founded upon repetition of... acquired manual techniques. In ... latest phases of ... sixteenth century art in ... central Italy there was much repetition of ... type and ... devices invented ear­lier, especially those of ... Michelangelo. There was nothing me­chanical what went on in ... Florence, ... Seine, ... Parma and ... many other Italian cities just before and just after ...1520. ... mo­ment was recognized as ... spiritual crisis.
VI. Here are descriptions of some of Michelangelo's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.
I. Sculpture:
1. The figure is turning languidly as if in sleep.
2. This is one of the artist's most formidable creations.
3. The exquisite Virgin presents the timeless reality of Christ's sacrifice.
4. The heroic style is seen in this statue.
5. The new figure type earlier created by Michelangelo is set here in action.
a. David
b. Pieta
c. Rebellious Slave
d. Moses
e. Dying Slave
II. Ceiling painting:
1. God stretches forth his hand, about to touch with his finger the extended finger of Adam.
2. It foreshadows the foundation of the Church.
3. In a single scene, one motion of the eye leads from the crime to punish­ment, linked by the Tree of Knowledge.
4. The scene shows the Lord twice, once creating sun and moon with a cruciform gesture of his mighty arms, then seen from the rear creating plants.
5. She looks down upon the altar, at the eternal Tree of Life.
6. He writes in a small volume.
7. The figure is represented as im- mensely old.
8. The figure is grieving above the papal throne.
a. Fall of Man
b. Creation of Sun, Moon, and Plants
c. Creation of Adam
d. Lord Congregating the Waters
g. Jeremiah
h. Daniel
e. Libyan Sibyl
f. Persian Sibyl
VII. Translate the text into English
Центральную часть потолка Микеланджело посвятил сценам священной истории, начиная от сотворения мира. Под живописным карнизом Микеланджело написал пророков и си­вилл, в люнетах изобразил эпизоды из Библии и предков Христа как простых людей. В девяти центральных композициях развер­тываются события первых дней творения: отделение света от тьмы, отделения тверди от воды, сотворение светил и растений, сотворение Адама и Евы, грехопадение и изгнание из Рая, все­мирный потоп, опьянение Ноя. Микеланджело сотворил чудо. Целой жизни не одного, а многих людей не хватило бы, чтобы завершить это великое творение. Микеланджело работал один. Он создал гимн человеку. Бог - это прежде всего творец, не знающий преград на пути созидания. Адам идеально прекрасен в сцене "Сотворение Адама". Величие, мощь, благородство выра­жены в образах пророков и сивилл.
Несмотря на большое количестве фигур, роспись Сик­стинского плафона логически ясна и легко обозрима. Она не раз­рушает плоскости свода, а выявляет тектоническую структуру.
VIII. Summarize the text.
IX. Topics for discussion.
1. Michelangelo's sculpture.
2. Michelangelo's ceiling painting.
3. Michelangelo's artistic heritage.
UNIT VII RAPHAEL (1483-1520)
Raffaello Sanzo, known as Raphael, was the third giant of the High Renaissance. In his art the High Renaissance ideal of harmony comes to its most complete expression.
Raphael was born in Urbino. First taught by his father, Giovanni Santi, a mediocre painter, Raphael worked for some time in the studio of Perugino.
In 1504 Raphael painted The Marriage of the Virgin for a church of Citta di Castello. The central group is unified around the motive of Joseph putting the ring on Mary's finger. The architec­ture of the distant Temple grows out of a wide piazza. The Dome of the Temple is identified with that of Heaven. The perspective of the squares in the piazza moves through the open doors of the building to the point of infinity.
About 1505 Raphael arrived in Florence and achieved im­mediate success. Leonardo and Michelangelo, who were working there on the murals for the council chamber in the Palazzo Vec-chio, had establislied the High Renaissance style. Raphael met the demand with ease and grace. Having absorbed Perugino's feeling for light and colour, Leonardo's composition, Michelangelo's strength and power, Raphael put his personal stamp on everything he did; he was called the "Apostle of Beauty".
During his three-year stay in Florence he painted a great number of portraits and Madonnas. The loveliest of which is the Madonna of the Meadows dated 1505. The pyramidal group was influenced by Leonardo's composition of the Madonna and Saint Anna. But Raphael's picture is simpler. The Virgin sits before an airy landscape with a lake in the distance. The Child stands in front of her. Kneeling before Him is child St John the Baptist, holding the reed Cross. The bodies and heads of the children, the Virgin and the background landscape are full of harmony. To Raphael harmony was the basic purpose of any composition.
In 1508 Julius II invited twenty-six-year-old Raphael to paint the Stanze (chambers) of the Vatican. Raphael retained the position as court painter until his early death. His ideals of figural and compositional harmony came to be recognized as the High Renaissance principles. Classical artists of succeeding centuries (Poussin in the 17-th century and Ingres in the 19-th century) turned to Raphael as the messiah of their art and doctrine. The first room frescoed by Raphael was Stanza della Segnatura. From the complex iconographic programme, it is possible to single out two frescoes on the opposite walls: they typify the Classical and Christian elements reconciled in the synthesis of the High Renais­sance. The Disputa (Disputation over the Sacrament), the most complete expression of the doctrine of the Eucharist in Christian art, faces the School of Athens, an equally encyclopaedic presenta­tion of the philosophers of pagan antiquity. In the Stanza painted afterwards, Raphael abandoned the perfect but static harmony for more dynamic compositions, which brought him to the threshold of the Baroque.
From this period dates the Sistine Madonna, so called be­cause Saint Sixtus II kneels at the Virgin's right. The picture was intended to commemorate the death of Julius II in 1513. The saint's bearded face is a portrait of the aged pontiff. Saint Bar­bara, patron saint of the hour of death, looks down at his coffin, on which the papal tiara rests. The Virgin, showing the Child, walks toward the observers on the luminous clouds. In harmoniz­ing form and movement this painting represents the pinnacle of Raphael's achievements. The Virgin and Child in their perfect beauty represent the ultimate in the High Renaissance vision of the nobility of the human countenance and form.
After the death of the warrior pope Julius II Giovanni de Medici became Roman pope. Raphael painted the portrait of Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de'Medici and Luigi de'Rossi in 1517 (the fateful year when Martin Luther, whom the Pope ex­communicated in 1520, nailed his theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenburg). Raphael has shown Leo X as he was in an unsparing portrait - corpulent, shrewd, pleasure-looking. Raphael endowed his subject with a new mass and volume. His analysis of the character was unexpected and profound. Raphael has shown the Pope who was incapable of holding the Roman Catholic Church together.
One of Raphael's last and greatest paintings was the Trans­figuration of Christ, painted in 1517. In contrast to the traditional rendering of the subject, Raphael painted an accompanying inci­dent as well. It was told by Matthew and Luke. When Peter, James, and John had accompanied Christ to the top of a high mountain, the remaining Apostles were unable without his pres­ence to cast out the demons from the possessed boy. The lowei section is composed of the agitated figures of the Apostles and the youth plunged into semidarkness. The upper loop is composed of Christ, Moses, Elijah, and three Apostles. Christ and the prophets fly in the air as if lifted up by the spiritual experience. In this vision of Christ Raphael embodied his beliefs.
The great painter died on Good Friday, April 6, 1520, at the age of thirty-seven. His funeral was held in the Pantheon and the Transfiguration was placed above his bier.
To his contemporaries Raphael's death seemed the end of an era, but a closer look shows that, in a way, the High Renaissance synthesis of Classical and Christian had already started to dis­solve. Inevitably, it was an unstable equilibrium. Nonetheless the great solution remained, on the walls of the Vatican, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and in the churches and palaces of Florence and Rome. Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael left a vision of the powers of the human being and the grandeur of human imagi­nation that had not been approached since the days of the ancient Greeks. These solutions continued to inspire artists in every cen­tury after the short-lived High Renaissance itself passed into his­tory.
Make sure you know how to pronounce the/allowing words:
Raphael [Pr{fei@l]; Urbino [yPbOnou]; messiah [miPsai@]; tiara [tiPOr@]; Wittenburg [Pvitnbyg]; Martin Luther [PmOtin Plui@]; Pantheon [Pp{nii@n]; Eucharist [Pjuk@rist]; Elijah [iPlaid?@]; Matthew [Pm{iju]; Luke [luk]; Ingres [P{ngr]; luminous [Plumin@s]
NOTES
Marriage of the Virgin - "Обручение Марии"
Madonna of the Meadows - "Мадонна в зелени"
Disputa (Disputation over the Sacrament) - "Богословие" или "Диспута"
Schools of Athens- "Афинская школа"
Sistine Madonna - "Сикстинская Мадонна"
Transfiguration of Christ - "Преображение"
Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de'Medici and Luigi de'Rossi - "Портрет папы Льва X с кардиналом Джулиано де Медичи и Луиджи де Росси"
Stanza della Segnatura [Pst{nz@ del@ senj@Ptur@] – Станца делла Сеньятура "зал Подписи"
Eucharist - евхаристия, святое причастие
The Vatican [Pv{tik@n] - Ватикан
Good Friday - Великая пятница, пятница на страстной
неделе
TASKS
I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false
1. In Raphael's art the High Renaissance ideal of harmony comes to its most complete expression.
2. In 1505 in Rome Raphael achieved immediate success.
3. The Sistine Madonna recalls the Madonna of the Rocks.
4. Raphael, invited by Sixtus IV to paint the Stanza of the Vatican, retained the position as court painter until his death.
5. Raphael came to the threshold of the Baroque.
6. The 20-th century painters turned to Raphael as the messiah.
II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?
1. Whose styles did Raphael absorb?
2. What did Raphael paint in 1504? What is depicted in this picture?
3. What was Raphael fond of painting during his three-year stay in Florence? Which one was the loveliest? How did Raphael group the figures?
4. What was the first room frescoed by Raphael? What frescoes is it possible to single out from the complex iconographic programme? What do these frescoes represent? What brought Raphael to the threshold of the Baroque style?
5. What painting represents the pinnacle of Raphael's achievements? How are the Virgin and the Child depicted? What do the saints symbolize?
6. Whose portrait did Raphael paint in 1517? What year was it? How did Raphael portray the sitter? What did he want to show?
7. What was Raphael's greatest painting? What was its subject? Was it a traditional rendering of the subject? What is the lower section composed of? What is the upper loop composed of? What did Raphael embody in this vision? Where was this painting placed?
8. What was Raphael's death to his contemporaries? What does a closer look at the short-lived High Renaissance show?
III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases
the pinnacle of the achievements; messiah of the art; to put a personal stamp on; succeeding centuries; to abandon the static harmony for dynamic compositions; a threshold of the Baroque; to endow the subject with; Good Friday; to commemorate the death of; to pass into history; patron saint of the hour of death; the fateful year; an unsparing portrait; the traditional rendering of the subject; a synthesis of Classical antiquity and Christian spiri­tuality; an unstable equilibrium; to inspire artists in every century; the ultimate in the High Renaissance vision.
ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
духовный опыт; воплотить свои верования; вершинь живописных работ Высокого Ренессанса; шаткое равновесие, вдохновлять художников; Великая Пятница; традиционное изображение темы; наделить образы; судьбоносный год; почтить память; покровительница смертного часа; отказать­ся от статики гармонии ради динамики композиции; мессия искусства; работать над фресками; оставить печать на; объе­динить вокруг; беспощадный портрет; на пороге Барокко; вдохновлять художников последующих веков; синтез христианской духовности и классической античности.
iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.
iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:
a) to dissolve; to embody; beliefs; to endow; to distinguish; spiritual; profound; fateful; luminous; to abandon;
b) to bestow; deep; momentous; bright; to desert; to vanish; to manifest; doctrines; to characterise; airy.
IV. Insert the missing prepositions. Translate the text. Retell the text.
The "School ... Athens" presents ... an ideal architecture the chief philosophers ... all periods ... Greek antiquity engaged ... learned argument. The figures form a circle ... depth ... the lofty structure, culminating ... the central arch, where ... the distant sky Plato ['pleitou], holding the "Timaeus" [taiPmO@s] points ... Heaven as the source ... ideas ... which the early forms originate, while Aristotle [P{ristotl], holding his Ethics [Peiiks], indicates earth u;. the object ... all observations. ... the upper left Socrates [Psokr@tOz] discusses philosophical principles ... the youths ... Athens. ... the lower left Pythagoras [paiPi{g@raes] delineates his proportion system ... a slate ... pupils. ... the right Euclid [Pjuklid] uses another slate to demonstrate a geometric theorem.
V. Insert the article wherever necessary. Translate the text. Retell the text.
... "Disputa" begins in ... Heaven. God ... Father presides over ... familiar Deesis with Christ enthroned, displaying his ... wounds. On either side, in ... floating semicircle of ... cloud, ... Apostles and ... saints from ... New Testament alternate with ... prophets and ... patriarchs from ... Old Testament.. Below ...
throne of Christ,... Dove of... Holy Spirit, flanked by ... child angels, with four open gospels, flies downward toward ... Host. They are dis­played on ... altar . On either side of ... alter sit... Four Fathers of... Church and ... groups of... theologians from all ages of... Christianity engaged in ... argumentation over ... nature of... Eucharist. Among ... recognizable portraits are those of... Dante ['d^cnti], and to ... left of ... door, and in front of him, ... Sixtus IV. Every figure is based on Raphael's fundamental spiritual principle.
VI. Here are descriptions of some of Raphael's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.
1. The painting is an encyclopaedic presentation of the philosophers of pa­gan antiquity.
2. The central group is unified around the motive of Joseph putting the ring on Mary's finger.
3. Raphael has shown the sitter as he was in an unsparing portrait.
4. The Virgin, showing the Child walks toward us on the luminous clouds.
5. This is the most complete expression of the doctrine of the Eucharist in Christian art.
6. In contrast to the traditional rendering of the subject, Raphael painted an accompanying incident as well.
7. The Virgin seats before a deep landscape.
a. Sistine Madonna
b. School ofAthens
c. Madonna of the Meadows
d. Transfiguration of Christ
e. Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de 'Medici and Luigi de'Rossi
f. Marriage of the Virgin
g. Disputa(Disputation over the Sacrament)
VII. Translate the text into English.
Идеалы Высокого Возрождения наиболее полно вопло­тились в произведениях Рафаэля. Всем своим творчеством художник подчеркивал красоту и гармонию человека. Рафа­эль создал возвышенный образ совершенного человека, нахо­дящегося в гармонии с окружающим миром.
В 1504 г. Рафаэль приехал во Флоренцию, где работали тогда два великих его современника — Леонардо да Винчи и Микеланджело. Многое почерпнув у них, Рафаэль создал за­мечательные изображения "Мадонн" и портреты. Портреты "Папы Юлиана II" и "Льва X" считаются наилучшими.
В 1508 г. папа Юлий II поручил Рафаэлю роспись станц - личных папских покоев в Ватикане. В 1509 художник при­ступил к работе в "Станце печати", роспись которой состоит из четырех фресок. Это -"Богословие" (спор отцов церкви о причастии), "Поэзия" (изображает величайших поэтов клас­сической древности и итальянского Возрождения), "Правосудие" (фреска представляет основоположников свет­ского и церковного законодательства) и "Афинская школа" (собрание философов и ученых античности). Росписи в станцах являются одной из высочайших вершин искусства Высо­кою Возрождения.
"Сикстинская Мадонна" — одно из самых вдохновен­ных произведений художника. В этой картине сочетается жизненная правдивость образа с чертами идеального совер­шенства.
В последние годы жизни Рафаэль помимо живописи за­нимался также архитектурой, в которой проявил себя как один из крупнейших мастеров своего времени.
VIII. Summarize the text.
IX. Topics for discussion
1. Raphael as the artist of the High Renaissance ideal of harmony.
2. Raphael's frescoes.
3. The High Renaissance heritage.
UNIT VIII TITIAN (1490-1576)
The monarch of the Venetian School in the sixteenth century was Titian. A robust mountaineer came to Venice as a boy from the Alpine town of Pieve di Cadore and lived well into his nine­ties. The young painter was trained in the studios of both Gentille Bellini and Giovanni Bellini. Then he assisted Giorgione with the lost frescoes that once decorated the exteriors of Venetian palaces.
Once independent, Titian succeeded in establishing colour as the major determinant. Although he visited central Italy only in 1545-46, Titian was aware, probably, by means of engravings, of what was going on in Florence and Rome and assimilated High Renaissance innovations to his own stylistic aims. Titian generally began with a red ground, which communicated warmth to his col­ouring; over that he painted figures and background often in bril­liant hues.
Titian's life was marked by honours and material rewards. He made himself wealthy. His palace in Venice was the centre of a near-princely court, fulfilling the worldly ideal of the painter's standing as formulated by Leonardo da Vinci. In 1553 Titian be­gan his acquaintance with the Emperor Charles V. There is a leg­end that the Emperor, on a visit to Titian's studio, stooped to pick up a brush the painter had dropped. Titian was called twice to the imperial court.
An early work, painted by Titian about 1515, is known as Sacred and Profane Love. The subject of this enigmatic picture has never been satisfactorily explained. Two women who look like sisters sit on either side of an open sarcophagus, which is also a fountain in the glow of late afternoon. One is clothed, another is nude save for a white scarf. The shadowed landscape behind the clothed sis­ter leads up to a castle, toward which a horseman gallops while rabbits play in the dimness. Behind the nude sister the landscape is filled with light, and huntsmen ride behind a hound about to catch a hare, while the shepherds tend their flocks before a village with a church tower, touched with evening light. Cupid stirs the waters in the sarcophagus-fountain. The picture becomes a glorification of the beauty and redeeming power of love. Sometimes it is inter­preted as the passage from virginity through the water of suffer­ing, a kind of baptism, to a new life in love.
Titian made a series of mythological paintings for a cham­ber in the palace of the duke of Ferrara. One of these, the Baccha­nal of the Andrians, of about 1520, is based on the description by the third-century Roman writer Philostratus of a picture he saw in a villa near Naples. The inhabitants of the island of Andros dis­port themselves in a shady grove. The freedom of the poses (within Titian's triangular system) is completely new. Titian has taken the greatest visual delight from the contrast of warm flesh with shim­mering drapery and light with unexpected dark.
Like his mythological pictures, Titian's early religious paintings are affirmations of health and beauty. The Assumption of the Virgin, 1515-18, is his sole venture into the realm of the colos­sal. It represents the moment when the soul of the Virgin was re­united with her dead body. Above the powerful figures of the Apostles on earth, Mary is lifted physically into a golden Heaven on a glowing cloud by numerous child angels, where she is awaited by God the Father. The bright reds, blues, whites of drapery, the rich light of the picture carry Titian's triumphant message through the spacious interior of the Gothic Church of the Frari in Venice.
In the Madonna of the House of Pesaro, 1519-26, Titian applied his triangular compositional principle to the traditional Venetian Madonna group. The symmetry is broken up by a radi­cal view from one side. The scene is a portico of the Virgin's pal­ace. At the steps plunging diagonally into depth Titian painted the kneeling members of the Pesaro family and an armoured figure who gives the Virgin as a trophy a Turk, taken in battle. The col­umns are seen diagonally, their capitals are outside the frame. At the top clouds float before the columns, on which stand child an­gels with the Cross. The colours are rich and deep.
Titian's portraits do not often sparkle with colour as the male costume of the sixteenth century was black. In his Man with the Glove Titian's triangular principle is embodied in the balanced relationship of the gloved and ungloved hands to the shoulders and the youthful face. The carefully modelled hands and features are characteristic of Titian's portraits. Even in this picture, domi­nated by black and by the soft greenishgray background, colour is everywhere dissolved in the glazes, which mute all sharp contrasts.
A subject that occupied Titian in his mature years is the nude recumbent Venus - a pose originally devised by Giorgione. In 1538 Titian painted the Venus of Urbino for the duke of Camerino. The figure relaxes in ease on a coach in a palace inte­rior whose inlaid marble floor and wall hangings make gold, greenish, soft red-and-brown foil for her beautiful body, the floods of her warm, light brown hair. Pure colour rules in the picture of Titian's middle period. In his later years form appealed to Titian less; substance itself was almost dissolved in the movement of col­our.
In 1546 Titian painted a full-length Portrait of Pope Paul III and his Grandsons. Undoubtedly, this painting was carried to a point that satisfied both artist and patron. The brushstrokes are free and sweeping. But the question still arises whether the picture is really finished. The sketchy technique characteristic of the back­grounds in Titian's early works was applied by the artist to the whole picture. Veils of pigment transform the entire painting into a free meditation in colour. Colour indeed, is the principle vehicle of Titian's pictorial message.
In the works of his extremely old age, form was revived and colour grew more brilliant. Titian's late paintings of pagan sub­jects are unrestrained in their power and beauty. The devices of rapid movement and excellent colour, ignoring details were used to increase emotional effect in the very late Crowning with Thorns, probably painted about 1570, six years before the artist's death. The hail of brushstrokes creates cloudy shapes. The agony of Christ and the fury of his tormentors are expressed in storms of colour. The last religious works of Titian reached a point beyond which only Rembrandt in the seventeenth century could proceed.
Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:
Titian [PtiS@n]; Giorgione [d?o:rPd?ounei]; Venus [PvOn@s]; Cupid [Pkjupid]; Venice [PvOn@s]; Venetian [viPnOS@n]; Gothic [goiik]; bac­chanal [Pb{k@nl]; Veronese [ver@uPneizi]; sarcophagus [sOPkof@g@s]; Naples [neiplz]; Alpine [P{lpain]; Susannah [suPz{n@]; profane [pr@Pfein]
NOTES
Sacred and Profane Love - "Любовь земная и небесная"
Bacchanal of the Andrians - "Вакханалия"
Assumption of the Virgin -"Ассунта"
Madonna of the House of Pesaro - "Мадонна Пезаро"
Man with the Glove - "Юноша с перчаткой"
Venus of Urbino - "Венера"
Portrait of Pope Paul III and his Grandsons - "Портрет Папы Павла III с Алессандро и Оттавио Фарнезе"
Crowning with Thorns - "Бичевание Христа"
TASKS
I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the fol­lowing statements true or false.
1. The subject of the Sacred and Profane Love has been sufficiently determined.
2. Titian never ventured into the realm of the colossal.
3. The recumbent pose was originally devised by Leonardo.
4. The colours in the Madonna of the House of Pesaro are deep.
5. Titian's portraits sparkle with colour.
6. Titian's last religious works have never been surpassed.
II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?
1. Where did Titian come from? Where was he trained?
2. How did Titian implement Leonardo's ideal of the painter's standard? Was he treated like equal by the princes of his time? Can you prove it?
3. What mythological pictures are analysed in the text?
4. What does the Sacred and Profane Love represent? What is there in the background? What does Cupid do? What does this picture glorify? What colours dominate in this painting? How is this work of art interpreted?
5. What is depicted in the Bacchanal of the Andrians?
6. What religious paintings are described in the text? What is depicted in these pictures? What differs one picture from another? How are Madonnas shown? What do these pictures symbolize?
5. What portraits are mentioned in this text? How did Ti­tian portray the sitters? Where did Titian apply his triangular principle?
6. What did Titian's latest work depict? What devices did Titian use to express the agony of Christ and the fury of his tor­mentors?
III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:
the exteriors of Venetian palaces; to foil for; brushstrokes; free meditation in colour; pagan subjects; freedom of poses; by means of engravings; sarcophagus; carefully modelled hands; mythological and religious pictures; to break up the symmetry; a radical view from one side; to mute all sharp contrasts; the rich light of the picture; the picture is interpreted as; a triangular prin­ciple; veils of pigments; a palace interior; in the mature years; to apply a sketchy technique to; movement of colour; inlaid floor, wall hangings; a recumbent pose; altarpieces; shimmering drapery.
ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
картины на мифологические и христианские сюжеты; звучная живописная гамма; в зрелом возрасте; тенистый пей­заж; инкрустированный пол; шпалеры; лессировка; тщательно выписанные руки; принцип треугольника; заказать картину; применить технику наброска к; алтарные образа; картина трактуется как; творческое наследие; нарушить симметрию; движение цвета; подчеркнуть путем контраста; фасады вене­цианских дворцов; приглушать яркие краски, грунтовка.
iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.
iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:
a) to disport; to foil for; recumbent; determinant; to glorify; allegorical; shimmering; characteristically; frescoes; to redeem;
b) to contrast with; reclining; to worship; to entertain; element; mythological; glowing; to protect; murals; predominantly.
IV. Here are descriptions of some of Titian's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.
1. The soul reunited with the body to be lifted corporally into Heaven.
2. The agony of Christ is expressed in storms of colour.
3. The figure relaxes in ease on a coach in a palace interior.
4. The triangular principle is embodied in the balanced relation ship of the gloved and ungloved hands to the shoul­ders and the youthful face.
5. The people disport themselves in a shady grove.
6. Two women sit on either side of an open sarcophagus.
7. The columns are seen diagonally.
8. The sketchy technique was applied to the whole picture.
a. Madonna of the House ofPesaro
b. Portrait of Pope Paul III and his Grand­sons
c. Crowning with Thorns
d. Sacred and Profane Love
e. Venus of Urbino
f. Assumption of the Virgin
g. Bacchanal of the Andrians
h. Man with the Glove
V. Replace the expressions in italics in the following sentences with expressions from the text which have the same meaning.
1.Titian helped Giorgione to restore the external murals of the Venetian palaces. 2. When Titian became free he succeeded in establishing colour as the main element. 3. The painting worships the protecting power of love 4. The people of the island of Andros entertain themselves in a dark forest. 5. A pose of reclining Venus was initially invented by Giorgione. 6. The Assumption of the Virgin is Titian's single endeavour into the realm of the tremendous. 7. The smooth and carefully modelled hands and features are typical for Titian's portraits. 8. Titian's late works of art of heathen subjects are free in their power and beauty.
VI. Insert the missing prepositions. Translate the text. Retell the text.
Susannah at her Bath, ... Jacopo Robusti, called Tintoretto, ... 1560, can be considered as one ... the great works ... Venetian Mannerism. The story ... Susannah, the Biblical "Heroin ... Chas­tity", is taken ... the Old Testament. Two men secretly entered her garden while she was ... her bath unaware ... their presence. When she rejected their advances they accused her falsely ... her husband. Only the prophet Daniel's wise judgement saved her ... the death sentence which had been passed ... her alleged adultery. Here Tin­toretto uses the characteristic Mannerist device ... exaggeration and distortion in his drawing to portray the innate tension ... that moment... the story. The sharp contrast... light and darkness, ... terrifying proximity and the far distance, all contribute ... the sur­prise and admiration that the picture evokes. Over and above all these Mannerist tricks lies the magic of Venetian painting ... its preference ... brownish-hues expressed ... clearly visible brush­strokes.
VII. Insert the article wherever necessary. Translate the text. Retell the text.
The Raising of the Widow's Son in Nian, around 1565/70, was painted by ... Veronese when his colour achieved ... clarity and brilliance hitherto unknown in ... Venice. He uses ... sky and architecture as ... cool foil for ... jewel-like colour of... clothing. It gives ... worldly, festive atmosphere to ... New Testament story of how Christ raised ... young man from ... dead. Veronese has put ... figure of... grateful mother into ... centre of ... picture and ... young man who has been raised from ... dead is only just visible in ... lower left-hand corner. ... picture is thought as if it were ... quotation from ... play with ... figures and architecture scattered around. In this way Veronese draws ... observers into ... action and, as so often in ... Mannerist art, mixes ... levels of reality.
VIII. Translate the text into English.
Тициан Вечелло - величайший художник венецианского Возрождения - создал произведения на мифологические и христианские сюжеты. Тициан оставил после себя богатейшее творческое наследие. Оно оказало огромное влияние на ху­дожников последующих веков.
Слава рано пришла к Тициану. Уже в 1516 г. он стал первым живописцем Венецианской республики. Около 1520 г. герцог Феррарский заказал Тициану цикл картин на мифоло­гические сюжеты. Богатые венецианцы заказывали Тициану алтарные образа. Тициан создал монументальные компози­ции: "Вознесение Марии" и "Мадонна Пезаро". Громадная картина "Вознесение Марии" изображает вознесение Мадон­ны на небо. Насыщенные цвета одежды Марии на фоне свет­лого неба передают радость.
Много сил Тициан отдавал портретной живописи. В "Венере" Тициана многие видят портрет Элеоноры Урбинской. Введение бытовой сцены в интерьер картины вместо пейзажного фона передает ощущение реальной жизни. Бле­стящий портретист, Тициан раскрывал черты характера сво­их моделей. Групповой портрет впервые созданный Тициа­ном получил свое развитие только в эпоху барокко.
IX. Summarize the text.
X. Topics for discussion:
1. Titian's mythological paintings.
2. Titian's religious paintings.
3. Titian's portraits.
UNIT IX THE CARRACCI
The pioneers of Baroque monumental painting in Rome were the brothers Agosto and Annibale Carracci and their cousin Ludovico. They all came from Bologna, a city with a long artistic tradition, a heritage of Renaissance masterpieces and a direct cul­tural connection with the Eternal City. Between 1585 and 1590 the Carracci founded the Academy of the Incamminati, which was to play an important part in the Italian artistic culture of the seven­teenth century.
Annibale (1560-1609) was historically the most significant artist of the Carracci family and artistically the most gifted. At first he was fond of Correggio and Veronese, but later he devel­oped new power under the influence of the antique, and of Michelangelo and Raphael, Annibale Carracci presents a variety of motives and themes. To the exhausted schemes of Mannerism he opposed a combination of classical beauty and the respect for the real fact.
In Bologna in the 1580s all three Carracci had been helpful in the formation of a new kind of Renaissance - not a revival of Classical antiquity nor a discovery of the world and of man, but a revival of the Renaissance itself after a long Mannerist interlude. The Carracci aimed at a synthesis of the vigour and majesty of Michelangelo, the harmony and grace of Raphael, and the colour of Titian.
The first major undertaking of Baroque painting in Rome was the gallery of the Palazzo Fornese, painted almost entirely by Annibale Carracci. The frescoes were commissioned by Cardinal Odoardo Farnese. The ceiling frescoes adopted from the Sistine Ceiling such ideas as large scenes, small scenes, seated nudes, simulated marble architecture and both marble and bronze sculp­ture. But these were organised according to a new principle in the illusionistic tradition of Mantegna. The simulated architecture applied to the barrel vault is "supported" by the simulated sculp­tural caryatids and youths that flank pictures into the structure. Four additional paintings with gilded frames are made to look as if they had been applied later. The complex layer of forms and illusions comes to a climax in the central scene.
The subject matter of the Love of the Gods, incompatible with the ecclesiastic status of its patron, veils a deep Christian meaning that accounts for the complex organisation and for cen­tral climax. The four smaller lateral scenes represent incidents in which the loves of gods for mortals were accepted, the two hori­zontal framed pictures depict episodes in which mortals refused, the two end ones reproduce the love of Cyclops Polyphemus for the nymph Galatea, and the central panel portrays the Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne. This central scene is flanked by Mercury and Paris and by Pan and Selena. The composition in which the chariots of the god and the mortal are borne along in splendid procession, accompanied by deities and Loves explains the framed pictures and justifies the four unframed lateral scenes. The entire complex structure of eleven scenes symbolises the Triumph of Di­vine Love. After the Mannerist interlude of public prudery, it was typical of the new Baroque attitude that a cardinal could commis­sion a monumental Christian interpretation of ancient erotic myths. It is essential for our understanding of the Baroque that divine love, conceived as the principle at the heart of the universe, should be the motive power that draws together all the elements of the ceiling and resolves all conflicts in an unforeseeable act of re­demption. The painting of the Farnese Gallery is a superb crea­tion. The substance and the drive of the Farnese Gallery had a great impact on other ceiling compositions of the seventeenth cen­tury, and on Baroque monumental painting in general; especially the work of Peter Paul Rubens was greatly influenced by Annibale's style.
In addition to the principles of ceiling painting, Annibale Carracci excelled in his painting of romantic landscapes as well as historical subjects. He established a new type of landscape with figures in his Landscape with the Flight into Egypt, of about 1603-4. The sacred figures in relation to the vastness of the landscape are tiny. They are on a level with the observer and the landscape is no longer fantastic but based on a real one. The landscape was derived from studies made outdoors but constructed in the studio. Although a prolific artist Annibale Carracci painted little later in life. He died at Rome and was buried in the Pantheon near Raphale.
Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:
Baroque [b@Prok]; chariot [PtS{ri@t]; Bologna [b@Pl@unj@]; Pan [p{n]; caryatid [k{riP{tid]; Cyclops [Psaiklops]; Selena [siPlOn@]; Paris [Pp{ris]; nymph [nimf]; Polyphemus [poliPfOm@s]; Galatea [g{l@Pti@]; Bacchus [Pb{k@s]; Ariadne [{riP{dni]
NOTES
Love of Gods - "Метаморфозы"
Landscape with the Flight into Egypt - " Пейзаж с Бегством в Египет"
TASKS
I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the fol­lowing statements true or false.
1. The pioneers of Baroque monumental painting in Flor­ence were the brothers Carracci.
2. The major undertaking of Baroque painting in Rome was the gallery of the Palazzo Fornese, painted entirely by Ludovico Carracci.
3. The subject matter of the Love of the Gods was incom­patible with the ecclesiastic status of its patron.
4. After the Mannerist interlude of public prudery a cardinal could commission frescoes on the subjects of ancient myths.
5. Divine love, conceived at the heart of the universe, is re­garded as the motive power that draws together all the elements of the ceiling.
6. In the Love of Gods the Carracci established a new land­scape with figures.
II. How well have you read? Can you answer the questions?
1. What was in progress in sixteenth-century Bologna? What kind of Renaissance did the Carracci try to form? What was the Carracci's aim?
2. What did the Carracci adopt for their ceiling frescoes from the Sistine Ceiling? Why did the Carracci apply simulated architec­ture and sculpture to the barrel vault?
3. What does the subject matter of the Love of Gods veil? How is the Love of Gods interpreted?
4. What gods and goddesses are pictured in the Love of Gods'?
5. What do the four smaller lateral scenes in the Love of Gods depict? What do the two horizontal framed pictures show? What do the end scenes represent? What does the central panel show? What comes to a climax in the central scene? What is flanked by Mercury, Paris, Pan and Selena? How are these gods pictured?
6. What else did the Carracci establish in addition to the princi­ples of ceiling painting? Where were these principles applied?
III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:
a revival of the Renaissance; a long Mannerist interlude; to commission ceiling frescoes; vigour and majesty; caryatids; illusionistic tradition; simulated marble and bronze statues; chariots of the god and the mortal; a barrel vault; gilded frames; the complex layer of forms; the subject matter; to flank pictures; to be incompatible with an ecclesiastic status; a heritage of masterpieces; accompanied by deities; to veil a deep meaning; horizontal framed pictures; a central panel; lateral scenes; unframed pictures; the triumph of divine love; public prudery; sacred figures; conceived at the heart of the universe; the motive power; to resolve all conflicts; an unforeseeable act of redemption; a superb creation; the substance and the drive; on the level; derive the landscape from studies made outdoors; to construct the landscape in the studio.
ii. -Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
материя и энергия; картины в рамах; цилиндрический свод; великолепное творение; всеобщее ханжество; продолжительный период Маньеризма; сила и мощь; в сопровождении божеств; священные образы; наследие шедевров Ренессанса; колесницы богов и смертных; не соответствовать духовному статусу за­казчика; искупление грехов; кариатиды; нарисованные мра­морные и бронзовые статуи; сложный ряд форм; движущая сила; боковые сцены; зарожденный в центре вселенной.
iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.
iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:
a) lateral; antiquity; to account for; to flank; to accept; to resolve; conceive; superb; sacred; to panel;
b) divine; sidelong; ancient times; to explain; to connect; to receive; originate; excellent; to line; to solve.
IV. Match the names of the mythological personalities with the stories given below.
Galatea; Cyclops Polyphemus; Bacchus; Paris; Ariadne; Pan; Selena; Mercury.
1. She was the daughter of Minos [Pmain@s], the king of Crete [PkrOt]. She gave a ball of thread to Theseus [PiOsjus] so that he could find his way back from the Labyrinth [Pl{birini].
2. The god of shepherds and herds, he was extremely ugly. He was half-god, half-goat. He had a beard, horns on his forehead [Pf?rid] and a hairy body.
3. He served as a herald of gods; there were wings on his helmet and his heels; and he bore a sceptre [Psept@].
4. He was the giant with supreme natural powers, he had one eye and tended his herds. He lived in a cave on the island of Sicily. He was a cannibal and did not have knowledge of wine. He was occupied only with his sheep.
5. He was the son of the king of Troy. Zeus gave him a diffi­cult job of judging which of the three goddesses Hera, Athena or Aphrodite ought to receive the golden apple (the apple of discord) with the words: "To the most beautiful".
6. The god of wine and gaiety. Wherever he went, he spread the culture of wine and the rituals associated with every stage of its cultivation.
7. The goddess of Moon, the daughter of the Titans [Ptait@nz] Hyperion [haiPpi@ri@n] and Thea [Pii@].
8. The nymph who was loved by the shepherd Acis [Peisis] and by Cyclops Polyphemus. Polyphemus, jealous of Acis' success in winning the love of the nymph, crushed him under the rock, but the nymph turned him into a river.
V. Translate the text into English.
Аннибале и Агостино Карраччи и их двоюродный брат Лодовико основоположники барокко. В 1585 в Болонье они создали "Академию направленных на истинный путь". Новое направление получило название "болонский академизм". Принципы болонской Академии, которая стала прообразом всех европейских академий будущего, наблюдаются в твор­честве Аннибале Карраччи, самого талантливого из братьев. Искусство Карраччи получило признание и распространение, так как отвечало официальной идеологии. Братья Карраччи -художники монументально-декоративной живописи. Их са­мое знаменитое произведение - роспись галереи Фарнезе в Риме на сюжет "Метаморфоз" Овидия, типично для бароч­ной живописи.
Аннибале Карраччи - родоначальник героического пейзажа. Карраччи скрупулезно изучал природу. Он считал, что для того, чтобы она стала предметом изображения, ее необходимо облагородить (to polish). Пейзаж с деревьями, руинами, с маленькими фигурками людей подчеркивает ве­личие природы. Идеи Карраччи были развиты его учени­ками, в творчестве которых принципы академизма были почти канонизированы.
VI. Summarize the text.
VII. Topics for discussion.
1. Carracci's ceiling painting.
2. Carracci's landscape.
UNIT X CARAVAGGIO (1573-1610)
The real giant of seventeenth-century painting in Italy is Michelangelo Merisi, called Caravaggio after his native town in Lombardy. After studying with an obscure local master, he ar­rived in Rome around 1590. Considered a revolutionary painter Caravaggio was the leading artist of the Naturalistic School. He lived on the fringe of respectable society. His short life was marked by violence and disaster. Caravaggio was a lifelong rebel against convention. He shocked conventional people by represent­ing religious scenes in terms of daily life. He was in chronic trouble with authority and had to flee Rome in 1606 after he killed a man in a brawl over a tennis match. During the next years he wandered around Italy. Caravaggio died of malaria in his thirty-seventh year on his return journey to Rome, with a papal pardon in sight. Nev­ertheless the style of this unruly genius revolutionized European art.
In 1597 Cardinal del Mount obtained for Caravaggio the commission to paint three pictures of Matthew and scenes from his life for the Contarelli Chapel in the Church of San Luigi dei Francesi in Rome. The greatest of these is the Calling of Saint Matthew, painted about 1599-1600, an event often represented but never in this soul-stirring way. The background is a wall in a Ro­man tavern; a window is the only visible background object. Matthew is seated "at the receipt of custom" (Matthew 9:9) with three gaudily dressed youths at a rough table on which coins are visible; figures and objects are painted in a hard, firm style that seems to deny the very existence of Venetian colourism. Suddenly, Christ appears at the right, saying, "Follow me". His figure is almost hidden by that of Peter. Christ shows only his face and his right hand, illuminated by a strong light from an undefined source at the upper right.
Despite his oft-expressed contempt for Renaissance mas­ters, Caravaggio often visually, as if in a vernacular translation, quoted Michelangelo Buonarroti. Christ points along the beam of light with a strikingly real hand whose gesture repeats that of God the Father in the Creation of Adam. Matthew points to his own breast as if to say, "Who, me?" In this realistic scene happens the triumph of divine love. Christ instils a new soul in Matthew.
In 1601 Caravaggio painted the Conversion of Saint Paul. It was a favourite subject during the Counter-Reformation. This scene was usually shown with a vision of Christ descending from heaven, surrounded by clouds and angels. Against a background of nowhere Saul has fallen from his horse toward us, drastically foreshortened. He hears the words; but his servant hears nothing and looks down at his master unable to account for the light that shines all around and has blinded Saul. In this picture climax reaches the stage of cataclysm.
Caravaggio's paintings were condemned by Bolognese art­ists and critics in Rome, and some were even refused by the clergy. Nonetheless, a decade after his tragic death Caravaggio's everyday naturalism, his hard pictorial style, his intense light-and-dark con­trasts had inspired a host of followers in Rome, Naples, Spain, France, the Netherlands. His revolutionary art must be considered a major factor in the formation of two of the greatest painters in the 17-th century Rembrandt and Velazquez.
Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:
Caravaggio [kOrOPvOdd?ou]; Rembrandt [Prembr{nt]; Mat­thew [Pm{iju]; Saul [s?l]; Lombardy [Plomb@di]; Netherlands [PneD@l@ndz]
NOTES
Calling of Saint Matthew - "Призвание апостола Матфея"
Conversion of Saint Paul - "Обращение Савла"
"at the receipt of custom" (Matthew 9:9) - "у сбора пошлин"
TASKS
I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the fol­lowing statements true or false.
1. Caravaggio's life was happy and eventless.
2. The style of this genius revolutionized European art.
3. Caravaggio never rebelled against convention.
4. The Calling of Saint Matthew is a realistic painting.
5. Saint Paul was pictured drastically foreshortened.
6. Caravaggio's naturalism inspired a great number of fol­lowers in Europe.
II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?
1. Where was Caravaggio trained? What society did Caravaggio live in? What was Caravaggio's relationship with authority?
2. How did Caravaggio protest against convention?
3. How did Caravaggio arrange the figures in the Calling of Saint Matthew? What did Caravaggio deny in this painting?
4. What was Caravaggio's attitude to the Renaissance mas­ters? How did Caravaggio quote Michelangelo in the Calling of Saint Matthew? What was the source of this quotation?
5. What was the favourite subject during the Counter-Reformation? How did Caravaggio picture it? Did Caravaggio paint Saul against a background of nowhere? Was it Caravag­gio's greatest achievement? What were his other achievements?
6. How were Caravaggio's paintings treated by artists and critics during his life-time? Did this attitude change after his death?
III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:
a background of nowhere; a hard, firm style; light-and-dark contrasts; pictorial style; drastically foreshortened; a long-life rebel; conventional people; to represent religious scenes in terms of daily life; an unruly genius; to obtain a commission; scenes from smb's life; to represent an event in the soul-stirring way; a background object; to deny the existence of; the realistic scene; Venetian colourism; to quote; gaudily dressed youths; a vernacular translation; the beam of light; to instil a new soul; to descend from heaven; an unidentified source of light; Renaissance masters.
ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
изображать религиозный сюжет как повседневное событие; луч света; обыватели; венецианский колоризм; перевод на народ­ный язык; вдохнуть новую душу; тяжелый, жесткий стиль; цити­рование; изобразительный стиль; свет без указания источника; заказчики отказывались от картин; ниспровергать классические традиции художников Ренессанса; спустя десятилетие; излюб­ленный сюжет; божественная любовь; нейтральный фон; единст­венный различимый предмет на заднем плане; реалистические сцены; новаторское искусство.
iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.
IV. Here are descriptions of some of Caravaggio 's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.
1. Christ points along the beam of light with a strikingly real hand whose gesture repeats that of God the Father in the Creation of Adam.
2. Against a background of nowhere he has fallen from his horse toward us, drastically foreshortened.
a. Conversion of Saint Paul
b. Calling of Saint Matthew
V. Translate the text into English.
Микеланджело Меризи, известный как Караваджо, дал на­звание реалистическому течению в искусстве, которое нашло последователей во всей Западной Европе. Караваджо брал темы из окружающей действительности. Реалистические принципы сделали Караваджо наследником Ренессанса, даже несмотря на то, что он часто выражал свое презрение к великим художникам Ренессанса. Караваджо утверждал принципы реалистического искусства, бросив вызов общепринятым нормам. Картины на религиозные сюжеты он писал как жанровые. Герои произведе­ний Караваджо — картежники, гадалки, авантюристы. Их изо­бражениями Караваджо положил начало бытовой живописи. Ка­раваджо накладывал краску широкими мазками, выхватывая из мрака светом наиболее важные части композиции. Эта контраст­ность световых пятен создавала атмосферу внутреннего драма­тизма. Герои Караваджо помещены в простую обстановку. Ино­гда произведения Караваджо были настолько реалистичны, что заказчики отказывались от них. Искусство Караваджо породило истинных последователей его художественного метода, полу­чившего название "караваджизма".
VI. Summarize the text.
VII. Topics for discussion.
1. Caravaggio's style and characters.
2. Caravaggio's mode of life and work.
3. Caravaggio's artistic legacy.
UNIT XI POUSSIN (1593/94-1665)
Nicolas Poussin is the embodiment of the Classical spirit. His paintings are the product not only of great imagination and pictorial skill but also of a discipline and control that grew firmer as the painter aged. Born in the small town in Normandy, Poussin went to Paris in his late adolescence. He had access to the royal collection of paintings where he was impressed by the works of Raphael and Titian, and to the royal library where he studied engravings after Raphael. After two trips to Italy, Poussin settled down in Rome in 1624. It was unlikely that he would ever enjoy official success. The world of nobles, popes, and monarchs was not for him. Poussin made only one large altarpiece for St. Peter's, and was dissatisfied with it.
An attempt by King Louis XIII to have Poussin work on ceiling painting for the Long Gallery of the Louvre ran afoul of the artist's refusal to consider ceiling paintings different from those on walls, and to turn over the execution of vast projects to assis­tants. The latter objection ruled out the customary colossal Ba­roque monumental commissions.
Poussin's paintings reflect his interest in antiquity and in Stoic philosophy. In his early work the Inspiration of the Poet, painted about 1628-29, Classical figures are arranged before a landscape in low afternoon light. Poussin attempted to recapture the magic of Titian through warm colouring unified by soft glazes and through subtle and surprising passages of lights and darks, especially the way light touches the edge of Apollo's lyre and part of his cheek, leaving the rest in shadow. This is an allegorical scene in keeping with seventeenth century ideas, the poet (it is easy to view him as a painter) owes his gifts to divine inspiration. About 1630 an illness gave Poussin a break during which he could formulate the theoretical basis of his art. Poussin abandoned his earlier lyrical style in favour of the grand manner, which required first of all a subject - drawn from religion, history or mythology -that avoided anything 'base' or 'low'. Poussin maintained that the subject must be so clarified in the painter's mind, that he will not block the essence of narrative with insignificant details. Then the painter must consider the conception, that is, the recounting of the story in an impressive way. Then the artist must devise the com­position which must not be so carefully constructed that it looks laboured, but should flow naturally. Last comes the style or man­ner of painting or drawing.
At another point Poussin explained his theory of the modes of painting by analogy with the modes or scales in Greek music, and mentioned five, the Dorian, the Phrygian, the Lydian, the Hypolydian and the Ionic. He carried his ideas of the modes systematically into execution. His Rape of the Sabines, of about 1636-37, exemplifies the Phrygian mode adapted to 'frightful wars'. The picture fulfils all Poussin's requirements for the grand manner. The subject is lofty; the conception is powerful; the com­position effortless and natural for all its references to ancient and Renaissance statuary figures and groups; and the style beyond all praise. The composition is staged in a limited space, flanked on one side by the temple portico in which Romulus stands and lim­ited at the rear by a basilica.
A later work, the Holy Family on the Steps, of 1648, is probably in the Hypolydian mode, which 'contains within itself a certain sweetness which fills the soul of the beholders with joy. It lends itself to divine matters, glory and Paradise'. The pyramidal composition suggests the Madonna groups of Leonardo and Raphael which Poussin knew and studied. Like Tintoretto, he ar­ranged little draped wax figures on a stage with the lightning care­fully controlled and with a backdrop of landscape and architec­ture. He would experiment with figural relationships till he found the right grouping, then build a larger arrangement of modelled and draped figures and paint from it, referring to reality only when necessary. The grave, ideal quality of Poussin's art triumphs in Classical compositions arranged before simple, cubic architec­ture that bypasses the Baroque, the Renaissance, and the Middle Ages, going straight back to Roman models. While the faces of his figures often appear standardized and almost expressionless, the grandeur of Poussin's art appears in the balance of forms, colour, and lights. Such compositions inspired Ingres in the early 19-th century, formed the basis for the still life and figure paintings of Cezanne in the late 19-th and early 20-th centuries.
Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:
Poussin [puPs{n]; Normandy [Pn?m@ndi]; lyre [Plai@]; Paris [Pp{ris]; Louvre [Pluvr@]; Greek [PgrOk]; Dorian [Pd?ri@n]; Phry­gian [Pfrid?i@n]; Lydian [Plidi@n]; Hypolydian [haip@uPlidi@n]; Ionic [aiPonik]; Sabines [Ps{bainz]; Cezanne [seiPzOn]
NOTES
Inspiration of the Poet- "Вдохновение поэта"
Rape of the Sabines - "Похищение Сабинянок"
Holy Family on the Steps - "Святое семейство на ступенях храма"
TASKS
I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the fol­lowing statements true or false.
1. Nicolas Poussin embodies the Renaissance spirit.
2. Poussin made a lot of altarpieces.
3. Poussin was fond of ceiling painting.
4. Poussin invented five modes or scales in music.
5. Poussin formulated the theoretical basis of his art in 1648.
6. Poussin worked in the grand manner early in life.
II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?
1. What do Poussin's paintings reflect?
2. What did Poussin attempt to recapture in the Inspiration of the Poett?
3. What were the main theoretical principles of Poussin's art? How did Poussin connect painting and music?
4. With what Poussin's painting is the Phrygian mode asso­ciated? Why? What is the subject of this painting?
5. Why is the Holy Family on the Steps associated with the Hypolydian mode? Whose influence can be traced in this painting?
6. How did Poussin paint his monumental compositions? Where does Poussin's art triumph? Where does its grandeur ap­pear? Who was inspired by Poussin's compositions?
III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:
the embodiment of the Classical spirit; pictorial skill; the royal collection of paintings; the theory of modes; to study engrav­ings; to work on ceiling painting; by analogy with; the execution of vast projects; colossal Baroque monumental commissions; the interest in antiquity; to arrange figures before a landscape; pas­sages of lights and darks; statuary figures; an allegorical scene; to be in keeping with; to owe one's gifts to; divine inspiration; to formulate a theoretical basis of; to abandon the lyrical style; wax figures; the essence of narrative; insignificant details; to bypass the Baroque; to devise a composition; the manner of painting.
ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
интерес к античности; по аналогии с; божественное вдохновение; лира Аполлона; создать алтарный образ; обра­щаться к действительности; избегать низкого в искусстве; отказаться от лирического стиля; в соответствии с идеалами; восковые фигуры; вдохновлять художников; воплощение духа классицизма; претворить в жизнь грандиозные планы; распи­сывать потолок; сформулировать основы теории классициз­ма; теория музыкальных ладов; незначительные детали; тор­жество композиции классицизма.
iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.
iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:
a) expound; soft; monarch; rule out; subtle; analogy;
b) sovereign; exclude; smooth; interpret; faint; comparison.
IV. Here are descriptions of some of Poussin's works of art. Match them up to the given titles and describe them.
1. It contains within itself a certain sweetness which fills the soul of the beholders with joy.
2. The light touches Apollo's lyre and part of his cheek
3 The subject is lofty, the conception is powerful, the composition effortless and natural.
a. Rape of the Sabines
b. Holy Family on the Steps
c. Inspiration of the Poet
V. Translate the text into English.
Никола Пуссен - создатель классического направления в живописи. Предметом искусства классицизма провозглашалось только прекрасное; идеалом классицизма служила античность. Пуссен интересовался античным искусством и искусством Воз­рождения. В 1623 г. Пуссен отправился в Италию. С 1624 г. он жил в Риме. Влияние караваджизма чувствуется в некоторых работах Пуссена. Темы полотен художника разнообразны: мифо­логия, история. Ветхий Завет, Новый Завет. В начале 40-х годов в творчестве Пуссена произошел перелом.
В 1640 г. Пуссен приехал в Париж по приглашению ко­роля Людовика XIII. Первый период творчества Пуссена завер­шился, когда в буколические темы ворвалась тема смерти. В 40-50-е годы колористическая гамма Пуссена становится все сдер­жанней. Основное внимание уделяется рисунку и скульптурности форм. Лучшими у позднего Пуссена остаются пейзажи, в кото­рых человек трактуется как часть природы.
VI Summarize the text.
VII Topics for discussion
1. The theoretical basis ofPoussin's art.
2. The role of music in Poussin's paintings.
3. Poussin's artistic influence.
UNIT XII RUBENS (1577-1640)
Peter Paul Rubens exercised in Flanders a great stylistic authority. Born near Cologne, the son of a Protestant emigre from Antwerp, he spent his childhood in Germany. He received a thor­ough grounding in Latin and in theology, spent a few months as a page to a countess, and grew up as an unparalleled combination of scholar, diplomat and painter. Rubens spoke and wrote six mod­ern languages, and was probably the most learned artist of all time. His house in Antwerp was a factory from which massive works emerged in a never-ending stream. Although most paintings were designed by Rubens in rapidly painted colour sketches on wood, all the large ones were painted by pupils and then retouched by the master.
Rubens was the man of extraordinary character and intelli­gence. One visitor recounted how Rubens could listen to a reading of Roman history in Latin, carry on a learned conversation, paint a picture, and dictate a letter all at the same time.
Rubens first emerged on the international scene during his visit to Italy in 1600 where he remained for eight years. Artistically Rubens was an adopted Italian, with little interest in the Early Netherlandish masters. With indefatigable energy he set out to conquer the fortress of Italian art. He made hundreds of drawings and scores of copies after Roman sculpture as well as paintings.
An early work in Antwerp Cathedral, the Raising of the Cross, a panel more than fifteen feet high, painted in 1609-10, shows the superhuman energy with which Rubens attacked his mighty concepts. This central panel of a triptych is a complete picture in itself. There is no hint of Caravaggio's psychological interests. The executioners, whose muscularity recalls Michelan­gelo's figures, raise the Cross, forming a colossal pyramid of struggling figures. In this painting the typical High Renaissance interfigural composition is transformed into a Baroque climax.
The power of Rubens can be seen at its greatness in the Fall of the Damned, painted about 1614-18, a waterspout of hurling figures raining down from Heaven, from which the rebels against divine love are forever excluded.
As his style matured, Rubens's characteristic spiral-into-the-picture lost the dark shadows of his early works and took on a Titianique richness of colour.
In 1621-25 Rubens carried out asplendid commission from Maria de'Medici, dowager Queen of France, widow of Henry IV, and regent during the minority of her son Louis XIII. Twenty one large canvases represent an allegorized version of the Queen ca­reer, showing her protected at every point by the divinities of Olympus. The series were originally installed in a ceremonial gal­lery in the Luxembourg Palace. All the canvases show the magnifi­cence of Rubens's compositional inventiveness and the depth of his Classical learning; but Henry IV Receiving the Portrait of Maria de ' Medici is one of the best. The ageing King, whose hel­met and shield are taken by Cupids, is advised by Minerva to ac­cept as his second bride the Florentine princess, whose portrait is presented by Mercury, as Juno and Jupiter smile upon the pro­posed union. The happy promise of divine intervention; the youth­ful figure; the grandeur of the armoured king, and the distant landscape make this painting one of the happiest of Rubens's allegorical works. The Queen never paid for the series. But when she was driven out of France by her former protege Cardinal Richelieuw, she took refuge in Flanders. Rubens helped to support her during her twelve years of exile - a remarkable tribute not only to the generosity of a great man but also to the position of a Baroque artist who could finance a luckless monarch.
In 1630, then 53 years old Rubens married Helene Fourment, a girl of 16. The artist's happiness received its perfect em­bodiment in the Garden of Love painted about 1638, a fantasy in which seven of the Fourment sisters are happily disposed throughout the foreground before the fantastic fountain-house in Rubens's own garden in Antwerp. Cupids fly above the scene with bows, arrows , a rose garland, and torches, and on the right sits a statue of Venus astride a dolphin. All the movements of Rubens's colour, all the energy of his composition are summed up in the radiance of the picture, the happiest Baroque testament to the re­deeming power of love.
Make sure you know how to pronounce the/allowing words:
Antwerp [P{ntwyp]; Luxembourg [Ploks@mbyg]; Cologne [k@Pl@un]; Protestant [Pprotist@nt]; emigre [Pemigrei]; Medici [Pmedi¶O]; dowager [Pdau@d?@]; protege [Ppr@ute?ei]; Richelieuw [PrOS@ljy]; Juno [Pd?unou]; Minerva [miPnyv@]; Flanders [PflOnd@z]; Louis[Plui]; regent [PrOd?@nt]
NOTES
Raising of the Cross - "Воздвижение креста"
Fall of the Damned - "Падение проклятых"
Garden of Love - "Сад наслаждений"
TASKS
I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false.
1. Peter Paul Rubens was the most educated person of his time.
2. Rubens was fond of High Renaissance masters.
3. As Rubens's style matured, it took on a richness of colour.
4. Rubens's figures were disembodied and mystical.
5. In 1621-25 Rubens carried out a splendid commission from Louis XIII.
6. Rubens depicted the major Roman gods in the portrait of Maria de' Medici.
II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?
1. When and where did Rubens first emerge on the interna­tional scene? Where was Rubens educated?
2. What could Rubens allegedly do at one and the same time? How did Rubens produce his works of art?
3. What is represented in the Raising of the Cross? What kind of painting is it? Where can the power of Rubens be seen? What is depicted in this painting?
5. How did the Michelangelo and the Titian influence Rubens's works of art? In what way did Rubens's works differ from the masterpieces of the Renaissance masters?
6. What do twenty one large canvases present? What is the best painting? What does it portray? What gods and goddesses are depicted there? How are they shown? What do they symbolize? What makes this painting one of the happiest of Rubens's alle­gorical works? How long did Rubens support the dowager Queen of France? What did it show?
7. What is represented in the Garden of Love? What re­ceived its full embodiment in this picture?

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