LINEBURG


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°à§âèòèå ·å«®âå·å±êèµ °å±ó°±®â. Ðà§âèòèå §íàíè©, µ®§ÿ©±òâà, 󵮤 §à ¤åòü¬è è ï°å±òà°å«»¬è. Ê §àíÿò»¬
ó¬åíè© è ï®òåíöèà«à «þ¤å©, °àá®òàþùèµ â °à¬êൠêàꮩ- ®òí®±ÿò±ÿ °àá®òàþùèå ï® í੬ó, ±à¬®§àíÿò»å, â®åíí®±«ó¦àùèå.
«èá® ®°ãàíè§àöèè, ï°®ôå±±èè è«è íàöè®íà«üí®© °àá®·å© Ï®«íàÿ §àíÿò®±òü ®§íà·àåò ï°àêòè·å±êè ﮫí®å ®áå±ïå·åíèå
±è«». ò°ó¤®±ï®±®áí®ã® íà±å«åíèÿ °àá®·è¬è ¬å±òà¬è. —à±òè·íàÿ
§àíÿò®±òü ﮤ°à§ó¬åâàåò ⮧¬®¦í®±òü ó±ò°®èòü±ÿ íà °àá®òó
160. ÌOBILITY (OF INDIVIDUALS) “ íà íåï®«í»© °àá®·è© ¤åíü è«è ±å§®íí»© ïå°è®¤; íåﮫíàÿ
¬®áè«üí®±òü. ‘ï®±®áí®±òü ·å«®âåêà à¤àïòè°®âàòü±ÿ ê §àíÿò®±òü ±«ó¦èò è±ò®·íèꮬ á姰àá®òèö».
í®â®© ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®© ±°å¤å; ±ï®±®áí®±òü è ⮧¬®¦í®±òü
167. EMPLOYMENT RATE “
¬åíÿòü ¬å±ò® °àá®ò» è«è ±ôå°ó ¤åÿòå«üí®±òè.
ó°®âåíü §àíÿò®±òè. “°®âåíü â®â«å·åíí®±òè â ò°ó¤®â»å
161. LABOUR FORCE “ ï°®öå±±». Çàâè±èò ®ò ±®®òí®øåíèÿ ¬å¦¤ó ꮫè·å±ò⮬
°àá®·àÿ ±è«à. Îáùåå ·è±«® «èö â °àá®ò®±ï®±®áí®¬ ò°ó¤®±ï®±®áí®ã® íà±å«åíèÿ è ·è±«®¬ °àá®·èµ ¬å±ò, à òaê¦å
⮧°à±òå ®ò 16 «åò è ¤® ï°èíÿò®ã® ⮧°à±òà ⻵®¤à íà ïåí±èþ, ®ò ±®®òâåò±òâèÿ °àá®·èµ ¬å±ò ⮧¬®¦í®±òÿ¬ °àá®òíèê®â
°àá®òàþùèµ è«è á姰àá®òí»µ, è±ê«þ·àÿ íå¤åå±ï®±®áí»µ. è±ï®«ü§®âàòü èµ, ·ò®, â ±â®þ ®·å°å¤ü, ®ã°àíè·åí® ï°®ôå±±èå©,
±ïåöèà«è§àöèå©, ®ï»ò®¬ °àá®ò», §íàíèÿ¬è è ó¬åíèÿ¬è.
162. WORKFORCE “
168. EMPLOYEES “
°àá®·àÿ ±è«à, °àá®òíèêè (ï°å¤ï°èÿòèÿ/®°ãàíè§àöèè).
Ðàá®òíèêà¬è â °à¬êൠï°å¤ï°èÿòèÿ ±·èòàþò±ÿ °àá®òàþùèå íà °àá®òíèêè. Íàè᮫åå ®áùè© òå°¬èí, ®á®§íà·àþùè©
ﮫíóþ è íåﮫíóþ ±òàâêó, ï® ¤®«ã®±°®·í»¬ è â°å¬åíí»¬ «þ¤å©, °àá®òàþùèµ ï® í੬ó, íå ÿâ«ÿþùèµ±ÿ ï°å¤ï°èíè¬àòå«ÿ¬è
ê®íò°àêòଠ(íå ïóòàòü ± labour force!). è ±à¬®§àíÿò»¬è. ‚ ¬å¦¤óíà°®¤í®© ï°àêòèêå ï°å¤ï®«àãàåò±ÿ
48 49
íà«è·èå ê®íò°àêòà ± °àá®ò®¤àòå«å¬. ò°ó¤®â»¬è íàâ»êà¬è.

169. EMPLOYERS “ 175. SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP “
°àá®ò®¤àòå«è. ‚ ꮬïàíèè, ôè°¬å è íà ï°å¤ï°èÿòèè “ ±®öèà«üí®å ïà°òíå°±òâ®. α®á»© òèï ±®öèà«üí®-
«èöà, ®òâåò±òâåíí»å §à ï°èíÿòèå °åøåíè©, êà±àþùèµ±ÿ ò°ó¤®â»µ ®òí®øåíè©, ï°è±óùèµ °»í®·í®© ýê®í®¬èêå,
íà©¬à °àá®òíèê®â. Êàê ï°àâè«®, ýò® ¬åí夦尻 ï® ïå°±®íà«ó ®áå±ïå·èâàþùè© íà ®±í®âå °àâí®ï°àâí®ã® ±®ò°ó¤íè·å±òâà
è«è °à§âèòèþ ·å«®âå·å±êèµ °å±ó°±®â. Ëèöà, ®òí®±ÿùèå±ÿ ê íàå¬í»µ °àá®òíèê®â è °àá®ò®¤àòå«å© ®ïòè¬à«üí»© áà«àí± è
ýò®© êàòåã®°èè, ï°å¤±òàâ«ÿþò ï°å¤ï°èÿòèå/ꮬïàíèþ/ôè°¬ó °åà«è§àöèþ èµ ®±í®âí»µ èíòå°å±®â. αí®âíàÿ öå«ü
â à±±®öèàöèÿµ °àá®ò®¤àòå«å©, â® â§à謮®òí®øåíèÿµ ± ±®öèà«üí®ã® ïà°òíå°±òâà ±®±ò®èò â ±®â¬å±òí®© °à§°àá®òêå,
ã®±ó¤à°±ò⮬ è ï°®ô±®þ§à¬è. ï°èíÿòèè è °åà«è§àöèè ±®öèà«üí®-ýê®í®¬è·å±ê®© è ò°ó¤®â®©
ﮫèòèêè, ®±í®âàíí®© íà ±áà«àí±è°®âàíí®±òè èíòå°å±®â
170. SELF-EMPLOYMENT “ ®áùå±òâà, íàå¬í»µ °àá®òíèê®â è °àá®ò®¤àòå«å©. αí®âí»¬
±à¬®§àíÿò®±òü. ‘ମ§àíÿò®±òü ï°å¤ï®«àãàåò §àíÿò®±òü, ®°ãàí®¬ ±è±ò嬻 ±®öèà«üí®ã® ïà°òíå°±òâà íà â±åµ ó°®âíÿµ
ï°è ê®ò®°®© ®ò±óò±òâóþò °àá®ò®¤àòå«è è °àá®òíèêè è«è ·è±«® ÿâ«ÿþò±ÿ ò°åµ±ò®°®ííèå è ¤âó±ò®°®ííèå ꮬ豱èè. ‚
ï®±«å¤íèµ íå§íà·èòå«üí®. íà±ò®ÿùåå â°å¬ÿ â±å ᮫üøåå §íà·åíèå ï°è®á°åòàåò
±®öèà«üí®å ïà°òíå°±òâ® â ±ôå°å ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã®
171. SELF-EMPLOYED “ ®á°à§®âàíèÿ, ê®ã¤à °àá®ò®¤àòå«è, ï°å¤±òàâ«ÿþùèå èíòå°å±»
±à¬®§àíÿò»å. Ëèöà, ±à¬®±ò®ÿòå«üí® ®áå±ïå·èâàþùèå °»íêà ò°ó¤à è ®ï°å¤å«åíí»¬ ®á°à§®¬ ô®°¬è°óþùèå åã® è
±åáÿ °àá®ò®© (ï°å¤ï°èíè¬àòå«è, ô尬尻). §àèíòå°å±®âàíí»å â êâà«èôèöè°®âàíí»µ °àá®òíèêàµ,
±òàí®âÿò±ÿ ±óáúåêò®¬ â °à§âèòèè ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã®
172. UNEMPLOYMENT “ ®á°à§®âàíèÿ è ®áó·åíèÿ è ®ï°å¤å«ÿþò ï®ò°åáí®±òè â ó¬åíèÿµ
á姰àá®òèöà. ‘®öèà«üí®-ýê®í®¬è·å±êàÿ ±èòóàöèÿ, íà °»íêå ò°ó¤à â êà·å±òâå «ï®ò°åáèòå«ÿ» ó±«óã ±è±ò嬻
µà°àêòå°è§óþùàÿ±ÿ òå¬, ·ò® ·à±òü àêòèâí®ã® ò°ó¤®±ï®±®áí®ã® ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã® ®á°à§®âàíèÿ è ﮤã®ò®âêè. ëóá®êèå
íà±å«åíèÿ íå ¬®¦åò íà©òè °àá®òó, ê®ò®°óþ ±ï®±®áíà 觬åíåíèÿ, ﰮ豵®¤ÿùèå â ®á«à±òè ò°ó¤à è §àíÿò®±òè,
â»ï®«íèòü. Îá󱫮â«åíà ï°åâ»øåíè¬ ê®«è·å±òâà «þ¤å©, íå®áµ®¤è¬®±òü °à§°åøåíèÿ ýê®í®¬è·å±êèµ ï°®á«å¬ â öå«ÿµ
¦å«àþùèµ ï®«ó·èòü °àá®òó, ï® ±°àâíåíèþ ± ·è±«®¬ °àá®·èµ ®áå±ïå·åíèÿ ê®íêó°åíò®±ï®±®áí®±òè è ýôôåêòèâí®±òè
¬å±ò, ±®®òâåò±òâóþùèµ ï°®ôè«þ è êâà«èôèêàöèè ï°å¤ï°èÿòè©, á»±ò°®ã® è à¤åêâàòí®ã® °åàãè°®âàíèÿ íà
ï°åòåí¤åíò®â íà ýòè ¬å±òà. 觬åíåíèÿ, ±âÿ§àíí»å ± °à§âèòèå¬ í®â»µ òåµí®«®ãè© è °®±ò®¬
“íå¬àòå°èà«üí»µ èíâå±òèöè©” ò°åáóþò ±®®òâåò±òâóþùå©
173. EMPLOYABILITY “ ®°ãàíè§àöèè êâà«èôèöè°®âàíí®ã® ò°ó¤à è ®±®á®ã® âíè¬àíèÿ
±ï®±®áí®±òü ê ò°ó¤®ó±ò°®©±òâó: ±òåïåíü ¬®áè«üí®±òè ê ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®© ﮤã®ò®âêå ⧰®±«®ã® íà±å«åíèÿ.
è«è ï®òåíöèà« °àá®òíèêà/·å«®âåêà, ﮧ⮫ÿþùàÿ/è© å¬ó Ï®ýò®¬ó ï°å¤ï°èÿòèÿ â»íó¦¤åí» ó¤å«ÿòü â±å ᮫üøåå
ﮫó·èòü è ±®µ°àíèòü °àá®òó, ï®â»øàÿ ±â®þ ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üíóþ âíè¬àíèå â®ï°®±à¬ ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®© ﮤã®ò®âêè, ê®ò®°àÿ
ꮬïåòåíöèþ. ‚ °ó±±ê®¬ ÿ§»êå íåò ®¤í®§íà·í®ã® ±òàí®âèò±ÿ ±ò°àòåãè·å±êè¬ ôàêò®°®¬, ®áå±ïå·èâàþùè¬ ò°åáó嬻å
±®®òâåò±òâèÿ ýò®¬ó òå°¬èíó, ï®ýò®¬ó ®í ï°è⮤èò±ÿ ±ò°óêòó°í»å 觬åíåíèÿ. ‘.ï. â ±ôå°å ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã®
®ïè±àòå«üí®. ®á°à§®âàíèÿ è ®áó·åíèÿ °à§âèâàåò±ÿ ï® òàêè¬ íàï°àâ«åíèÿ¬,
êàê:
174. UNEMPLOYED “ “ íåï°å°»âí®å ®áó·åíèå;
á姰àá®òí»©. —å«®âåê â ò°ó¤®±ï®±®áí®¬ ⮧°à±òå, “ ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üíàÿ ®°èåíòàöèÿ ¬®«®¤å¦è è ⧰®±«®ã®
èùóùè© °àá®òó è íå è¬åþùè© â®§¬®¦í®±òè ﮫó·èòü °àá®òó íà±å«åíèÿ;
â ±®®òâåò±òâèè ±® ±â®è¬ ®á°à§®âàíèå¬, ï°®ôè«å¬, “ ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí»å êâà«èôèêàöèè, âê«þ·àÿ
50 51
ï°®ãí®§è°®âàíèå è àíà«è§ ±ï°®±à, â§àè¬í®å 178. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING “
ï°è§íàíèå êâà«èôèêàöè© è èµ «ï°®§°à·í®±òü»; ïå°åã®â®°» ® §àê«þ·åíèè ꮫ«åêòèâí®ã® ¤®ã®â®°à (¬å¦¤ó
“ °å±ó°±» è ôèíàí±è°®âàíèå. ï°å¤ï°èíè¬àòå«ÿ¬è è ï°®ô±®þ§à¬è). ‚à¦í»© ý«å¬åíò
‚ °à¬êൠýòèµ íàï°àâ«åíè© â ±ôå°ó èíòå°å±®â ±®öèà«üí®ã® ¤èà«®ãà, ï°è⮤ÿùè© ê §àê«þ·åíèþ
âµ®¤ÿò ±«å¤óþùèå â®ï°®±»:
±®öèà«üí»µ ïà°òíå°®â ꮫ«åêòèâí»µ ¤®ã®â®°®â. ‚ ¬å¦¤óíà°®¤í®© ï°àêòèêå â °ÿ¤å
ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®å ®áó·åíèå, ®ï°å¤å«åíèå ±®¤å°¦àíèÿ ±ò°àí ꮫ«åêòèâí»å ¤®ã®â®°à íà ®ò°à±«å⮬, °åãè®íà«üí®¬ è
ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã® ®á°à§®âàíèÿ è ï®â»øåíèÿ êà·å±òâà íàöè®íà«üí®¬ ó°®âíå âê«þ·àþò â ±åáÿ â®ï°®±»
ó·åáí»µ ï«àí®â è ï°®ã°à¬¬ è ô®°¬è°®âàíèå å¤èí®ã® ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã® ®áó·åíèÿ è ®áó·åíèÿ ¤«ÿ °»íêà ò°ó¤à.
åâ°®ï婱ê®ã® ï°®±ò°àí±òâà ¤«ÿ ¤è±òàíöè®íí®ã® ®áó·åíèÿ;
®ï°å¤å«åíèå 󱫮âè© è öå«å© °à§°àá®òêè ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí»µ 179. SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED GROUPS “
êâà«èôèêàöè© è á৮⻵ ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí»µ íàâ»ê®â è ±®öèà«üí® íå§àùèùåíí»å (“®á姤®«åíí»å”) ã°óïï»/±«®è
ó¬åíè©; ®±óùå±òâ«åíèå ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®© ®°èåíòàöèè ®áùå±òâà. Êàòåã®°èÿ íà±å«åíèÿ, óù嬫åííàÿ â ï°àâൠï®
(â»ÿâ«åíèå ±âÿ§å© ¬å¦¤ó ®±í®âí»¬ ®á°à§®âàíèå¬ è ï°è·èíå ï«®µ®ã® ®á°à§®âàíèÿ, áå¤í®±òè è«è ï°èíफå¦í®±òè
ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí»¬ ®áó·åíèå¬, â ®±®áåíí®±òè, ±®¤å©±òâèå ê ¬åíüøèí±òâà¬.
ò°ó¤®ó±ò°®©±òâó ¬®«®¤å¦è); ï°®¤®«¦èòå«üí®±òü ®áÿ§àòå«üí®ã®
®áó·åíèÿ; ﮤã®ò®âêà ï°åﮤàâàòå«ü±ê®ã® ±®±òàâà; 180. SECOND CHANCE TRAINING/EDUCATION “
®°ãàíè§àöèÿ è °åà«è§àöèÿ ï°®è§â®¤±òâåíí®ã® ®áó·åíèÿ; ”®°¬à
®á°à§®âàíèå/®áó·åíèå “âò®°®ã® øàí±à”.
®áå±ïå·åíèå §àíÿò®±òè, â ò®¬ ·è±«å è ï°å¦¤å â±åã® “ ±°å¤è ﮫó·åíèÿ ®á°à§®âàíèÿ è«è ®áó·åíèÿ, ﮧ⮫ÿþùàÿ ï°®¤®«¦èòü
¬®«®¤å¦è (ýòà ï°®á«å¬à í൮¤èò±ÿ íà ïå°å±å·åíèè ±ôå° ®á°à§®âàíèå (íà ó°®âíå íåï°å°»âí®ã®/ï°®¤®«¦åíí®ã®
®á°à§®âàíèÿ, íà·à«üí®ã® ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã® ®áó·åíèÿ; ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã® ®á°à§®âàíèÿ è«è â»±øåã® ®á°à§®âàíèÿ)
ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®© ®°èåíòàöèè, ®±â®åíèÿ ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí»µ ¤«ÿ «èö, ê®ò®°»å °àíåå òàꮩ ⮧¬®¦í®±òè íå è¬å«è.
êâà«èôèêàöè© è ï°®¤®«¦åíí®ã® ®áó·åíèÿ; ®íà ï°è®á°å«à
®±®á®å §íà·åíèå â ±âÿ§è ± °®±ò®¬ á姰àá®òèö» ±°å¤è 181. LABOUR MARKET TRAINING “
¬®«®¤å¦è è ï®â»øåíèå¬ ±ï°®±à ±® ±ò®°®í» ï°å¤ï°èÿòè© íà ®áó·åíèå ¤«ÿ °»íêà ò°ó¤à. Ï°èíÿò»© ¬å¦¤óíà°®¤í»©
êâà«èôèöè°®âàííóþ °àá®·óþ ±è«ó); ®°ãàíè§àöèÿ è òå°¬èí, ®§íà·àþùè© °à§«è·í»å òèï» è ô®°¬» ﮤã®ò®âêè
ôóíêöè®íè°®âàíèå ±è±ò嬻 ¤à«üíå©øåã® ®áó·åíèÿ; åã® êर®â ¤«ÿ °»íêà ò°ó¤à; âê«þ·àåò â ±åáÿ êó°±» íà·à«üí®ã®
¤®±òóïí®±òü è ®áå±ïå·åíèå §àê®í®¤àòå«üí®ã® §àê°åï«åíèÿ ó°®âíÿ, ¤àþùèå ¤®±òóï ê ò°ó¤®â®© ¤åÿòå«üí®±òè, ï°®ã°à¬¬»
â±åµ ïå°å·è±«åíí»µ â»øå â®ï°®±®â. Ï®¬è¬® ýò®ã® ï®â»øåíèÿ êâà«èôèêàöèè °àá®òíèê®â è ïå°åﮤã®ò®âêó
±®öèà«üí»å ïà°òíå°» íåè§áå¦í® â®â«åêàþò±ÿ â °åøåíèå á姰àá®òí»µ, ê®ò®°»å °åà«è§óþò±ÿ «èá® ®á°à§®âàòå«üí»¬è
ï°®á«å¬ °åãè®íà«üí®© èíô°à±ò°óêòó°» è °åãè®íà«üí®ã® ó·°å¦¤åíèÿ¬è ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã® ®á°à§®âàíèÿ, «èá®
°à§âèòèÿ. ±ïåöèà«üí»¬è ®°ãàíè§àöèÿ¬è, §àíè¬àþùè¬è±ÿ ýòè¬ â褮¬
®áó·åíèÿ, ï°å¤ï°èÿòèÿ¬è è«è ±®®òâåò±òâóþùè¬è ·à±òí»¬è
176. SOCIAL DIALOGUE “ ®°ãàíè§àöèÿ¬è. Êàê ï°àâè«®, ôèíàí±è°óþò±ÿ è§ ô®í¤®â
±®öèà«üí»© ¤èà«®ã. ”®°¬à °åà«è§àöèè ±®öèà«üí®ã® §àíÿò®±òè (ô®í¤®â ±ò°àµ®âàíèÿ íà ±«ó·à© á姰àá®òèö»),
ïà°òíå°±òâà, ï°®öå±± â§à謮¤å©±òâèÿ ±®öèà«üí»µ ïà°òíå°®â. ó·°å¦¤åíí»¬è â °à¬êൠﰮã°à¬¬ ﮤ¤å°¦êè á姰àá®òí»µ,
ôèíàí±è°ó嬻µ ã®±ó¤à°±ò⮬.
177. TRIPARTITE BODIES “
ò°åµ±ò®°®ííèå ®°ãàí» (±®öèà«üí®ã® ïà°òíå°±òâà). Êàê 182. TRAINING MARKET “
ï°àâè«®, ꮬ豱èè, ï°å¤±òàâ«ÿþùèå ò°è ±ò®°®í» °»í®ê ®á°à§®âàòå«üí»µ ó±«óã. лí®ê, íà ê®ò®°®¬
±®öèà«üí®ã® ïà°òíå°±òâà ê«à±±è·å±ê®ã® òèïà. ﰮ豵®¤èò ®á¬åí ®á°à§®âàòå«üí»¬è ó±«óãà¬è ¬å¦¤ó òå¬è,
êò® èµ ï°å¤®±òàâ«ÿåò, è ï®ò°åáèòå«ÿ¬è.
52 53
â»ï®«íåíèÿ §à¤à·è, ®ò«è·àþù婱ÿ ®ò ò®©, ¤«ÿ â»ï®«íåíèÿ
183. ÎN-THE-JOB-TRAINING “ ê®ò®°®© «èö® ừ® ï°èíÿò® íà °àá®òó. ‚ ¬å¦¤óíà°®¤í®¬
®á°à§®âàíèè: ±®âå°øåí±òâ®âàíèå °àá®òíèꮬ ±â®èµ §íàíè© è
®áó·åíèå íà °àá®·å¬ ¬å±òå (â ï°®öå±±å °àá®ò»):
ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®å ®áó·åíèå â 󱫮âèÿµ ®á»·í®© ò°ó¤®â®© ó¬åíè© è«è ï°è®á°åòåíèå í®â»µ («èá® ¤«ÿ òåêóùå© °àá®ò»
±èòóàöèè; ¬®¦åò ±®±òàâ«ÿòü âå±ü ï°®öå±± ®áó·åíèÿ è«è è«è ï°®ôå±±èè, «èá® ¤«ÿ í®â®©). ‚ ïå°â®¬ ±«ó·àå
ꮬáèíè°®âàòü±ÿ ± §àíÿòèÿ¬è, ﰮ⮤謻¬è â ¤°óãèµ ïå°å⮤èò±ÿ êàê ï®â»øåíèå êâà«èôèêàöèè, â® âò®°®¬ “ êàê
󱫮âèÿµ. ˜è°®ê® °à±ï°®±ò°àíåííàÿ ô®°¬à ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã® ïå°åﮤã®ò®âêà è«è ïå°å®áó·åíèå. Ì®¦åò èíèöèè°®âàòü±ÿ
®áó·åíèÿ ⠬妤óíà°®¤í®© ï°àêòèêå. ±à¬è¬ °àá®òíèꮬ è«è ê®íê°åòí»¬ °àá®ò®¤àòå«å¬ è
®±óùå±òâ«ÿòü±ÿ íà ¬å±òí®¬ è«è íàöè®íà«üí®¬ ó°®âíå «èá® ±
184. OFF-THE-JOB-TRAINIG “ öå«üþ ó¤®â«åòâ®°åíèÿ ï®ò°åáí®±òè °»íêà ò°ó¤à, «èá® ¤«ÿ
®áó·åíèå âíå °àá®·åã® ¬å±òà. αóùå±òâ«ÿåò±ÿ âíå à¤àïòàöèè ®ï»òí»µ °àá®òíèê®â ê ø谮ꮬà±øòàáí»¬
°à¬®ê ®á»·í®© ò°ó¤®â®© ±èòóàöèè. Ì®¦åò ï°®µ®¤èòü êàê íà 觬åíåíèÿ¬ ò°åá®âàíè©, ï°å¤úÿâ«ÿ嬻µ ê °àá®·å© ±è«å.
±à¬®¬ ï°å¤ï°èÿòèè, òàê è â ±ò®°®ííå© ®°ãàíè§àöèè/ó·åáí®¬
188. EDUCATIONAL LEAVE “
§àâå¤åíèè. Îá»·í® ýò® ·à±òü ó·åáí®© ï°®ã°à¬¬», ê®ò®°àÿ
ꮬáèíè°óåò±ÿ ± ®áó·åíèå¬ íà °àá®·å¬ ¬å±òå. ó·åáí»© ®òïó±ê. ‘è±òå¬à ﮤ¤å°¦êè ®áó·åíèÿ
°àá®òíèê®â, ï°èíÿòàÿ â °ÿ¤å §àïà¤í»µ ±ò°àí (íàï°., â
185. TRAINEE “ Áå«üãèè, ”°àíöèè è Èòà«èè) â °à¬êൠíàöè®íà«üí»µ
ꮫ«åêòèâí»µ ¤®ã®â®°®â. ”èíàí±è°óåò±ÿ è§ ®áùèµ íà«®ã®â è
®áó·àþù話ÿ, ®áó·à嬻©.
íà«®ã®â íà ô®í¤ §à°àá®òí®© ï«àò» ï°å¤ï°èÿòè©. Îᮧíà·àåò
186. IN-COMPANY/IN-FIRM TRAINING “ §àê®í®¤àòå«üí® ó±òàí®â«åíí»© ®ï«à·èâà嬻© ó·åáí»© ®òïó±ê
¤«ÿ ï°®µ®¦¤åíèÿ ±®®òâåò±òâóþùèµ ê󰱮⠮áó·åíèÿ.
®áó·åíèå íà ï°å¤ï°èÿòèè, âíóò°èôè°¬åíí®å/
âíóò°èï°®è§â®¤±òâåíí®å ®áó·åíèå. ‚ °®±±è©±ê®¬ ®á°à§®âàíèè:
189. JOB ROTATION “
ï°å¤®±òàâ«åíèå °àá®òíèêଠ®á°à§®âàòå«üí»µ ó±«óã ï®
®±â®åíèþ ï°®ã°à¬¬ ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã® ®á°à§®âàíèÿ è °®òàöèÿ íà °àá®·å¬ ¬å±òå. ‚ ¬å¦¤óíà°®¤í®© ï°àêòèêå:
ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®© ﮤã®ò®âêè; ÿâ«ÿåò±ÿ ·à±òüþ ±®öèà«üí®© è ô®°¬à ®áó·åíèÿ ¤«ÿ °»íêà ò°ó¤à, ê®ò®°àÿ ﮧ⮫ÿåò
ýê®í®¬è·å±ê®© ±ò°àòåãèè ï°å¤ï°èÿòè©, à òàê¦å ý«å¬åíò®¬ ±®â¬å±òèòü íåï°å°»âí®å ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®å ®á°à§®âàíèå è
ã®±ó¤à°±òâåíí®© ±®öèà«üí®© è ®á°à§®âàòå«üí®© ﮫèòèêè. ‚ ®áó·åíèå §àíÿò®ã® íà±å«åíèÿ ± ®áó·åíèå¬ á姰àá®òí»µ íà
¬å¦¤óíà°®¤í®© ï°àêòèêå è¬ååò ò® ¦å §íà·åíèå è °àá®·å¬ ¬å±òå. Ýòà ¬®¤å«ü ï°å¤ó±¬àò°èâàåò «§à¬åùåíèå»
ï°å¤ï®«àãàåò ®°ãàíè§àöèþ è ®±óùå±òâ«åíèå ®áó·åíèÿ °àá®òíèê®â íà ïå°è®¤ ï°®µ®¦¤åíèÿ è¬è êàê®ã®-«èá® êó°±à
±è«à¬è ±à¬®ã® ï°å¤ï°èÿòèÿ/ôè°¬»/ꮬïàíèè. Ì®¦åò ®áó·åíèÿ á姰àá®òí»¬è ã°à¦¤àíà¬è, ê®ò®°»å â ýò®ò ïå°è®¤
ï°®µ®¤èòü êàê íà °àá®·å¬ ¬å±òå, òàê è ± ®ò°»â®¬ ®ò ±®âå°øåí±òâóþò ±â®è ó¬åíèÿ.
ï°®è§â®¤±òâà, è«è è¬åòü ꮬáèíè°®âàíí»© µà°àêòå°.
190. COMPANY OPERATED WORKSHOP/TRAINING “
187. RE-TRAINING “ ï°å¤ï°èÿòèå¬. Îáó·åíèå
®áó·åíèå, ®°ãàí觮âàíí®å
ïå°åﮤã®ò®âêà. Ð৫è·í»å â褻 ®áó·åíèÿ, ®á󱫮â«åíí»å °àá®òíèê®â, ï°å¤®±òàâ«ÿå¬®å °àá®ò®¤àòå«å¬, êàê ï°àâè«®,
觬åíåíèÿ¬è â µà°àêòå°å è ±®¤å°¦àíèè ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí»µ íà ±à¬®¬ ï°å¤ï°èÿòèè. Ì®¦åò ï°å¤ó±¬àò°èâàòü ï°èâ«å·åíèå
§à¤à·; ¬®¦åò á»òü ·à±òè·í®©, ±âÿ§àíí®© ± ¬®¤å°íè§àöèå© ï°åﮤàâàòå«å© è§ âíåøíèµ ï® ®òí®øåíèþ ê ï°å¤ï°èÿòèþ
ò°ó¤®â®ã® ï°®öå±±à, è«è ï®«í®©, ⻧âàíí®© ®ò¬è°àíèå¬ ±ò°óêòó°, ®±óùå±òâ«ÿþùèµ ®áó·åíèå, à òàê¦å ﰮ⮤èòü±ÿ
è¬åþù婱ÿ ó °àá®òíèê®â ï°®ôå±±èè «èá® °å§êè¬ ±®â¬å±òí® ã°óïﮩ ï°å¤ï°èÿòè© ± °à±ï°å¤å«åíèå¬ ®á«à±òå©
±®ê°àùåíèå¬ ±ï°®±à íà íåå. ‚ ᮫åå ó§ê®¬ ï®íè¬àíèè ﮤã®ò®âêè â §àâè±è¬®±òè ®ò °å±ó°±®â è ±ïåöèôèêè
®§íà·àåò ®±â®åíèå í®â»µ §íàíè© è ó¬åíè©, íå®áµ®¤è¬»µ ¤«ÿ ï°å¤ï°èÿòè©-ó·à±òíèê®â.
54 55
195. LEVY “
191. TRAINING COMPANY “
íà«®ã. ‚ °ÿ¤å ±ò°àí: â ±è±òå¬å ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã®
“®áó·àþùàÿ” ꮬïàíèÿ. ’å°¬èí, ·à±ò® è±ï®«ü§ó嬻© â
®á°à§®âàíèÿ è ®áó·åíèÿ “ ôèê±è°®âàííàÿ ±ó¬¬à (íàï°è¬å°,
àíã«®ÿ§»·í®© «èòå°àòó°å ¤«ÿ ®á®§íà·åíèÿ ꮬïàíèè/ï°å¤ï°èÿòèÿ,
ï°®öåíò ®ò ô®í¤à §à°àá®òí®© ï«àò»), ê®ò®°óþ ¤®«¦í»
®°ãàíè§óþùå© (-åã®)/°åà«è§óþùå© (-åã®) ï°®ã°à¬¬» ®áó·åíèÿ ¤«ÿ
â»ï«à·èâàòü â±å °àá®ò®¤àòå«è â ô®í¤ ﮤ¤å°¦êè
°àá®òíèê®â.
®á°à§®âàíèÿ è ®áó·åíèÿ ¤«ÿ °»íêà ò°ó¤à . Ýò®ò íà«®ã
ïå°å°à±ï°å¤å«ÿåò±ÿ ¬å¦¤ó °àá®ò®¤àòå«ÿ¬è, ®°ãàíè§óþùè¬è
192. TRAINING ALLOWANCE “
®áó·åíèå ±â®èµ °àá®òíèê®â.
±òèïåí¤èÿ. Ï®±®áèå, â»ï«à·èâàå¬®å «èöà¬, ï°®µ®¤ÿùè¬
®áó·åíèå. ’å°¬èí ®á»·í® è±ï®«ü§óåò±ÿ ï°è ®ïè±àíèè
196. TRAINING TAX/LEVY “
¬®¤å«å© ôèíàí±è°®âàíèÿ ®áó·åíèÿ ¤«ÿ °»íêà ò°ó¤à.
íà«®ã íà í󦤻 ®áó·åíèÿ (±¬. levy).
193. DUAL SYSTEM OF VET “
197. PAYROLL TAX “
¤óà«üíàÿ ±è±òå¬à ®á°à§®âàíèÿ/®áó·åíèÿ. Χíà·àåò
í૮㠱 ô®í¤à §à°àá®òí®© ï«àò». ‚ °ÿ¤å ±ò°àí “
±®·åòàíèå ®áó·åíèÿ â ó·åáí®¬ §àâå¤åíèè ± ®áÿ§àòå«üí»¬è
ôèê±è°®âàíí»å ®ò·è±«åíèÿ ± ô®í¤à §à°àá®òí®© ï«àò» íà
ïå°è®¤à¬è ï°®è§â®¤±òâåíí®© ¤åÿòå«üí®±òè. Ê«à±±è·å±êè¬
í󦤻 ®áó·åíèÿ ¤«ÿ °»íêà ò°ó¤à. ‘¬. (training levy).
ï°è¬å°®¬ ¤óà«üí®© ±è±ò嬻 ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã® ®á°à§®âàíèÿ
è ®áó·åíèÿ ÿâ«ÿåò±ÿ ±è±òå¬à ÍÏÎ â Ãå°¬àíèè. Ï°å¤ï®«àãàåò
198. EDUCATIONAL/TRAINING GRANT “
ï°ÿ¬®å ó·à±òèå â ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®¬ ®á°à§®âàíèè
ã°àíò íà ®áó·åíèå. ‚ ¬å¦¤óíà°®¤í®¬ ®á°à§®âàíèè
ï°å¤ï°èÿòè©, ê®ò®°»å ï°å¤®±òàâ«ÿþò ⮧¬®¦í®±òè ¤«ÿ
±ó¬¬à, ï°å¤®±òàâ«ÿå¬àÿ ·à±òí®¬ó «èöó ¤«ÿ ï°®µ®¦¤åíèÿ
ï°àêòè·å±ê®ã® ®áó·åíèÿ è íå±óò â±å ±âÿ§àíí»å ± íè¬
êó°±à ®áó·åíèÿ. Ì®¦åò ï®ê°»âàòü êàê â±þ ±ò®è¬®±òü
°à±µ®¤», âê«þ·àÿ å¦å¬å±ÿ·í®å ï®±®áèå (±òèïåí¤èþ)
®áó·åíèÿ, òàê è åã® ·à±òü. Îá»·í® ®òí®±èò±ÿ ê ±è±òå¬å
®áó·àþùå¬ó±ÿ. “·åáí»å §àâå¤åíèÿ ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®ã®
íåï°å°»âí®ã® ®á°à§®âàíèÿ è ®áó·åíèÿ ¤«ÿ °»íêà ò°ó¤à.
®á°à§®âàíèÿ è ®áó·åíèÿ ÿâ«ÿþò±ÿ ±à¬®±ò®ÿòå«üí»¬è
®°ãàíè§àöèÿ¬è, íà °àâí®ï°àâí®© ®±í®âå ±®ò°ó¤íè·àþùè¬è ±
199. TAX EXEMPTION “
ï°å¤ï°èÿòèÿ¬è, íà áà§å ê®ò®°»µ ®±óùå±òâ«ÿåò±ÿ
®±â®á®¦¤åíèå ®ò íà«®ã®â. ‚ ¬å¦¤óíà°®¤í®© ï°àêòèêå “
ï°®è§â®¤±òâåíí®å è«è ï°àêòè·å±ê®å ®áó·åíèå. î±ó¤à°±òâ® â
·à±òè·í®å ®±â®á®¦¤åíèå ®ò °ÿ¤à íà«®ã®â ï°å¤ï°èÿòè©,
«èöå ±â®èµ ®°ãàí®â íà °à§«è·í»µ ó°®âíÿµ ꮬïåí±è°óåò
®°ãàíè§óþùèµ ®áó·åíèå ±â®èµ ±®ò°ó¤íèê®â.
ïóòå¬ °à§«è·í»µ â»ï«àò ®ê®«® ®¤í®© ò°åòè §àò°àò
ï°å¤ï°èÿòèÿ íà ï°®ôå±±è®íà«üí®å ®áó·åíèå.
200. JOB/WORK PLACEMENT “
ò°ó¤®ó±ò°®©±òâ®. Îáå±ïå·åíèå ã°à¦¤àí °àá®ò®© â
194. SUBSIDY “
ï°®¬»ø«åíí®±òè, ó·°å¦¤åíèÿµ, ±å«ü±ê®¬ µ®§ÿ©±òâå. ‚ ±ôå°å
±óá±è¤èÿ. Ï®±®áèå â ¤åíå¦í®© è«è íàòó°à«üí®©
®áó·åíèÿ ¤«ÿ °»íêà ò°ó¤à ýò®ò òå°¬èí òàê¦å è±ï®«ü§óåò±ÿ
ô®°¬å, ï°å¤®±òàâ«ÿ嬮å è§ ±°å¤±òâ ã®±ó¤à°±òâåíí®ã®
ï°è ®á®§íà·åíèè ⮧¬®¦í®±òè ï°®µ®¦¤åíèÿ ï°®è§â®¤±òâåíí®ã®
áþ¤¦åòà, ¬å±òí»µ áþ¤¦åò®â è«è è§ ±ïåöèà«üí»µ ô®í¤®â
®áó·åíèÿ íà ï°å¤ï°èÿòèè, ï°å¤®±òàâ«ÿ嬮㮠è
ôè§è·å±êè¬ è þ°è¤è·å±êè¬ «èöà¬, ¬å±òí»¬ ®°ãàíà¬, ¤°óãè¬
®ï«à·èâà嬮㮠°àá®ò®¤àòå«å¬.
ã®±ó¤à°±òâà¬. Íàï°è¬å°, ã®±ó¤à°±òâåíí»å ±óá±è¤èè
°àá®ò®¤àòå«ÿ¬, ±®§¤àþùè¬ ¤®ï®«íèòå«üí»å ó·åáí»å ¬å±òà
201. TRAINING VOUCHER “
¤«ÿ ï°®è§â®¤±òâåíí®ã® ®áó·åíèÿ è ®áó·åíèÿ íà °àá®·å¬
®á°à§®âàòå«üí»© âàó·å°. ‚ “·è±ò®¬” âè¤å “ öå«å⮩
¬å±òå.
ï«àòå¦ ï®ò°åáèòå«þ ®á°à§®âàòå«üí»µ ó±«óã, ê®ò®°»© ¤®«¦åí
56 57
á»òü è±ï®«ü§®âàí ¤«ÿ ®ï«àò» ®áó·åíèÿ â ó·åáí®¬ §àâå¤åíèè ÀÍÃËÎßÇÛ—ÍÛ… ’…ÐÌÈÍÛ ‘
ï® â»á®°ó ï®ò°åáèòå«ÿ. „®êó¬åíò, è¬åþùè© ®ï°å¤å«åííóþ
“ÊÀÇÀÍÈ…Ì ÍÎÌ…ÐÀ ‘Ë΂ÀÐÍÎÉ
ï®êóïàòå«üíóþ ±ï®±®áí®±òü, ê®ò®°»© ¬®¦åò á»òü ®á¬åíåí íà
‘’À’ÜÈ
®á°à§®âàòå«üí»å ó±«óãè è ¤®ï®«íåí ±®á±òâåíí»¬è è«è
±ò®°®ííè¬è ±°å¤±òâà¬è. Îá°à§®âàòå«üí»å âàó·å°»
Course fees/tuition fees 42
Access to education 2
ï°å¤íà§íà·åí» ¤«ÿ ï®â»øåíèÿ ®òâåò±òâåíí®±òè ®áó·à嬮ã®
Cost-effectiveness 17
Accreditation 83
§à ±®á±òâåíí®å ®áó·åíèå ïóòå¬ ï°å¤®±òàâ«åíèÿ ⮧¬®¦í®±òè
‘reaming 41
Accountability 40
â»á®°à ó·åáí®ã® §àâå¤åíèÿ, ô®°¬» è â°å¬åíè ®áó·åíèÿ.
Credit 104
Achievement (of students) 93
Curriculum 76
Adaptation 153
Administration of funds 14
Demand-driven (VET)
Adult education/training 64
programme 18
Advanced level of secondary
Disbursement of funds 15
VET 59
Distance learning/education 65
Apprenticeship 72
Dropout rate 25
Anticipatory training 79
Dual system of VET 193
Anticipation of skill needs 117
Assessor 98
Education 1
Assessment 95
Educational leave 188
Attainment 94
Educational/training grant 198
Attitude 139
EC 46
Awarding body 87
Employment 166
Employment rate 167
‚asic skills 118
Employees 168
Employers 169
Career guidance/vocational
Employability 173
guidance/orientation training/
Enrolment 26
vocational orientation/
Entrepreneurship 152
information 13
Evaluation 96
CEDEFOP 47
Examination 88
Certification 84
Certification (of education) 86
Feedback 107
College 69
Final state certification 85
Collective bargaining 178
Follow-up 106
Company operated
Formal learning/education 4
workshop/training 190
Further education/training 62
Compatibility of qualifications
133
GDP 142
Competence 134
Generic skills 125
Competence-based VET 135
Globalization 141
Continuing VET 60
Core/key competences 136
High school 66
Core/key skills 119
Higher education 61
Course costs 43
Household 148
Course design 81
58 59
Norm-based financing/funding training 31
Human resources 158 Secondary sector 145
(of VET institutions) 36 Training provider 32
Human resources development 159 Secondary VET 58
Training tax/levy 196
Second chance training/
Occupational area 150 Training voucher 201
ILO 48 education 180
Îccupational/job/skill Transferable skills 123
In-company training 186 Self-employed 171
profile 126 Transparency 131
Informal learning (education)/ Self-employment 170
Occupational standards 112 Transparence of qualifications 132
non-formal learning (education) 5 Self-financing 39
Occupational structure 149 Tripartite bodies 177
Initial VET 57 Self-managed learning 6
Off-the-job-training 184
Input-related funding 24 Sixth form college 70
În-going assessment 97 Unemployed 174
Integrated curricula 77 Skill 115
În-the-job-training 183 Unemployment 172
In-service training 8 Skill mismatch 121
Outcome 90 Upper secondary education 52
ISCED 49 Skill needs/qualification 116
Outcome-based/
IT 45 Skill specialization 120
outcome-related funding 23 Validation 100
Skill training (specialisation) 74
VET (Vocational education and
Job rotation 189 Skill transfer 122
Payroll tax 197 training 3
Job/work placement 200 Skilled occupation/worker 151
Per capita funding 37 Vocational school 67
Small and medium enterprises 154
Performance 91 Vocational standards 111
Key actors/players 10 Social dialogue 176
Performance criteria 92
Knowledge 105 Socially disadvantaged groups 179
Post-compulsory education 53 World of work 163
Knowledge society 19 Social exclusion 30
Post-secondary education 54 Workforce 162
Social partnership 175
Pre-service training 9 Work organisation 164
Labour force 161 Social skills 124
Ðre-vocational education and Work role 165
Labour market 155 Solvency of the public budget 16
training 56
Labour market forecast 157 Stakeholders 11
Primary education 50
Labour market mobility 156 Standard 109
Primary sector 144
Labour market training 181 Standardisation 110
Private sector 143
Learning 28 Standard setting 109
Professional standards 113
Learning-by-doing 7 Subsidy 194
Programme 78
Learner/student/pupil centered
Public 146
learning 29 Tax exemption 199
Legal framework of VET 35 Technical school/technicum 71
Qualification 127
Levy 195 Terms of reference 44
Qualification levels 128
Licensing 82 Tertiary education 55
Qualification requirements 129
Life-long learning 63 Tertiary sector 147
Qualification standards 130
Lump sum financing 38 Test 89
Quality assurance 101
Lyceum 68 ’racers study 140
Quality assessment 102 Trainee 185
Quality management 103
Ìobility (of individuals) 160 Training 27
Modernisation of VET/VET Training allowance 192
Range statement 114
reform 34 Training company 191
Recognition of competences 137
Modular training 80 Training/Educational route/
Recognition of qualifications 138
Monitoring 99 trajectory 12
Resource shortage 20
Multi-channel funding 21 Training market 182
Re-training 187
Multi-level funding 22 Training profile 33
Sandwich courses 73
Multi-level educational institution 75 ’raining provision/provision of
60 61

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