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djhbnm gjnhtåyjcnb ¤njuj fåbnehbtynf. Pfzdktybt kbxyjuj öfhfrnthf lftn eybdthcbnt- Gjpfåjnmntcm j njv, xnjås dfit cjxbytybt lfdfkj bcnbyyjt ghtlcnfdktybt j dfc b
nfv ifyc pfukzyenm dfv d leie, gjkexbnm ghtlcnfdktybt j xtkjdtrt, rjnjhjt yt vj- dfibö cgjcjåyjcnzö. Cfvjt df©yjt d dfitv cjxbytybb cjcnjbn d njv, xnjås åsnm cf-
uen lfnm ybrfrbt jnvtnrb, åfkks b jxrb, bp rjnjhsö cjcnjbn jcnfkmyfz xfcnm ghjwtc- vbv cjåjq b xtcnyj bpkfufnm cdjb vsckb. Rf©lsq ujl cjnhelybrfv jabcf gj ghbtve
cf gjlfxb pfzdktybz yf extåe. D jåotv, cjxbytybz gbiencz kbåj yf pflfyye±, kbåj yf fåbnehbtynjd ghböjlbncz xbnfnm cjnyb cjxbytybq, b jyb yfexbkbcm hfcgjpyfdfnm afkm-
djkmye± ntve. Rjkktl©b boen jghtltktyysö rfxtcnd d fåbnehbtynfö, rjnjhsö öjnt- ibdst cjxbytybz, yfgbcfyyst hjlbntkzvb. Cjxbytybt lftn dfv åkfujghbznye± djp-
kb ås ghbyznm r ctåt yf extåe, b cjjndtncndtyyj gjlåbhf±n ntvs cjxbytybz. vj©yjcnm jåüzcybnm ghtlcnfdbntkzv rjkktl©f, gjxtve chtlb vyj©tcndf fåbnehbty-
njd bv cktletn jnlfnm ghtlgjxntybt bvtyyj dfv b ghbyznm dfc d ¤nj extåyjt pfdtlt-
Rhjvt njuj, cjxbytybz, zdkz±obtcz xfcnm± ghjwtccf gjlfxb pfzdktybz, gjpdjkz±n ybt. Jnyjcbntcm r cjxbytyb± njkmrj nfr, b bcgjkmpeqnt tuj bvtyyj d ¤njv cvsckt.
cjnhelybrfv jabcf gj ghbtve fåbnehbtynjd jwtybnm dfit evtybt gbcmvtyyj bpkfufnm
cdjb vsckb, dfib frfltvbxtcrbt pyfybz, dfib jhufybpfwbjyyst yfdsrb, yfkbxbt e Htrjvtylfwbb
dfc wtkb ghb gjcnegktybb d dscitt extåyjt pfdtltybt CIF b jåjcyjdfyyjcnm dfit-
¤Rjhjnrbt hfccrfps ujhfplj kexit, xtv dthtybws
uj dsåjhf bvtyyj lfyyjq jåkfcnb pyfybq. Cjnhelybrb jabcf gj ghbtve fåbnehbtynjd
ghbkfufntkmysö b yfhtxbq≥.
boen yfkbxbz e gjcnegf±obö pyfxbntkmysö kbnthfnehysö cgjcjåyjcntq, f nfr©t ghj-
zdktybz bvb k±åjpyfntkmyjcnb, hfåjns evf b byntkktrnefkmyjq phtkjcnb. Yfgbibnt “ Gjvjoybr ltrfyf gj ghbtve yf extåe fåbnehbtynjd
cjxbytybt pfåkfujdhtvtyyj c ntv, xnjås e dfc åskf djpvj©yjcnm jnkj©bnm tuj yf Ctdthjrfhjkbycrjuj eybdthcbntnf d u. X¤gk-–bkk
ytltk±, f pfntv ghjxnbnt tuj cyjdf b gjcvjnhbnt, gj-ght©ytve kb jyj bvttn cvsck.
„nj åkfujndjhyj crf©tncz yf dfitv cjxbytybb b gjrf©tn cjnhelybrfv jabcf gj ghb- Dfv jåsxyj ghtlkfuftncz ghtlcnfdbnm gj rhfqytq vtht ldt htrjvtylfwbb. Jyb vjuen
tve fåbnehbtynjd, xnj ds öjhjij gbitnt, pfbynthtcjdfys d ghtlcnfdktybb ljcnjqyj- lfdfnmcz lbhtrnjhjv bkb pfdtle±obv extåyjq xfcnm± dfitq chtlytq irjks, dfibv
uj cjxbytybz b yt ©fkttnt dhtvtyb yf tuj nofntkmye± gjlujnjdre. irjkmysv rjycekmnfynjv, dfibv kbxysv yfcnfdybrjv (vkflibv ghtgjlfdfntktv)
bkb k±åsv bp öjhjij pyf±obö dfc exbntktq. Nt, rnj lf±n dfv htrjvtylfwb±, ljk©-
Ytcrjkmrj jåobö cjdtnjd: ys cevtnm yfgbcfnm j dfitq hfåjnt b jwtybnm dfib gjntywbfkmyst djpvj©yjcnb
öjhjij exbnmcz d rjkktl©t. Tckb ds e©t yfvtnbkb ctåt jcyjdyjq ghtlvtn cgtwbf-
Xnj ye©yj ltkfnm: kbpfwbb, gjghjcbnt dfituj exbntkz gj ¤njve ghtlvtne yfgbcfnm dfv htrjvtylfwb±.
Htrjvtylfwbb, ghtljcnfdkztvst fvthbrfycrbvb exbntkzvb, yjczn dtcmvf gjpbnbdysq
✏ Jndtxfnm yf pflfyysq djghjc öfhfrnth b vjuen åsnm lkbyytt b gjlhjåytt htrjvtylfwbq, rjnjhst gbiencz exbnt-
✏ Cjchtljnjxbnm dybvfybt yf rfrjv-kbåj rjyrhtnyjv ghjbcitcndbb bkb cjåsnbb, kzvb d lheubö cnhfyfö. Gkjöj yfgbcfyyst, cjlth©fobt jnhbwfntkmyst jnpsds b c
rjnjhjt pfgtxfnktkjcm d dfitq gfvznb; gjlhjåyjcnb bvt±n åjkmijt pyfxtybt

72 73
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 8 G HF D B K M Y J T J A J H V K T Y B T P F Z D K T Y B Z D D S C I B T UKFDF 8 G HF D B K M Y J T J A J H V K T Y B T P F Z D K T Y B Z D D S C I B T
EXT…YST PFDTLTYBZ CIF EXT…YST PFDTLTYBZ CIF


jgjplfybtv ghtlcnfdktyyst htrjvtylfwbb jnhf©f±n kbim dfit ytevtybt dsåbhfnm Ghtltkmyst chjrb ghbtvf pfzdktybq b cgjcjås bö ghtlcnfdktybz
cjcnfdbntktq htrjvtylfntkmysö gbctv, nfr xnj dsåbhfqnt bö nofntkmyj.
Rf©lsq eybdthcbntn ecnfyfdkbdftn ghtltkmysq chjr gjlfxb pfzdktybq yf extåe b
D ajhvfö htrjvtylfwbq vj©tn cjlth©fnmcz gthtxtym djghjcjd bkb pflfdfnmcz jlby jåsxyj ndthlj ghblth©bdftncz ghfdbkf yt ghbybvfnm gjljåyst pfzdktybz gjckt
jåobq djghjc. Gjcrjkmre d ghjwtcct ghbtvf yf extåe htrjvtylfwbzv ghblftncz jrjyxfybz egjvzyenjuj chjrf, jcjåtyyj tckb njn bkb byjq rjkktl© gjkmpetncz åjkm-
ljdjkmyj åjkmijq dtc, lth©bnt ntö, rnj lf±n dfv htrjvtylfwbb, d rehct ltkf jnyj- ijq gjgekzhyjcnm±. Ghtltkmyst chjrb jåsxyj jödfnsdf±n gthbjl c zydfhz gj vfhn,
cbntkmyj dfibö gkfyjd b dscibö extåysö pfdtltybq, d rjnjhsö ds öjntkb ås exbnm- öjnz vjuen åsnm b åjktt hfyybvb b ghböjlbnmcz yf yjzåhm, bkb åjktt gjplybvb b
cz. Htrjvtylfwbz vj©tn drk±xfnm d ctåz jnrfp jn dfituj ghfdf jpyfrjvbnmcz c ntv, ghböjlbnmcz yf b±ym. Jlyfrj tckb rjkktl© jåhfoftn dybvfybt fåbnehbtynjd yf nj,
xnj d ytq yfgbcfyj. Tckb ghtlkfuftncz ¤njn dfhbfyn, åjkmibycndj cjnhelybrjd jab- xnj ddjlbn ¤crjkmpzobq uhfabr≥ ghbtvf pfzdktybq, nt, rnj gjplyj gjlfk pfzdktybt,
cf gj ghbtve fåbnehbtynjd yf extåe ghtlgjxbnf±n, xnjås ds jnrfpfkbcm jn dsitegj- dct tot cjöhfyz±n ljcnfnjxyst ifycs yf gjcnegktybt d ¤nj extåyjt pfdtltybt. D lfy-
vzyenjuj ghfdf c ntv, xnjås lf±obt dfv htrjvtylfwb± xedcndjdfkb ctåz rjvajh- yjv ckexft eybdthcbntn åeltn ghbybvfnm bkb jndthufnm fåbnehbtynjd lj ntö gjh, gj-
nytt ghb cjcnfdktybb cdjbö jwtyjr. Ljk©yjcnyst kbwf gj ghbtve fåbnehbtynjd jåsx- rf yt yfåthtn rehc cneltynjd gthdjuj ujlf jåextybz. Ntv yt vtytt, kexit gjlfdfnm
yj åjkmit ljdthz±n htrjvtylfwbzv, d jnyjitybb rjnjhsö åskj pfltqcndjdfyj ghf- pfzdktybt rfr vj©yj hfymit.
dj jnrfpf jn jpyfrjvktybz fåbnehbtynjd c ntv, xnj j ybö yfgbcfkb fdnjhs htrjvty-
lfwbq, gjcrjkmre cxbnf±n gjljåyst htrjvtylfwbb åjktt xtcnysvb. Tckb htrjvtylf- Eybdthcbntns, d rjnjhsö bvttn vtcnj åjkmijq rjyrehc, ecnfyfdkbdf±n hfyybt ght-
wbb gjlkt©fn jnghfdrt ytgjchtlcndtyyj htrjvtyle±obvb dfc kbwfvb, bv jåsxyj d ltkmyst chjrb ghbtvf pfzdktybq. D ¤njv ckexft ds gjlftnt pfzdktybt hfyj, jåsxyj
gjhzlrt k±åtpyjcnb ghtljcnfdkz±ncz vfhrbhjdfyyst rjydthns c flhtcjv. Gjvbvj d yjzåht, b vj©tnt gjcnegfnm njkmrj d lfyyjt extåyjt pfdtltybt. Ghbybvfz dj dyb-
dctuj ghjxtuj, ghtljcnfdkzqnt ntv, rnj gbitn dfib htrjvtylfwbb, rfr vj©yj åjkm- vfybt dfie zhrj dshf©tyye± ghbdth©tyyjcnm ¤njve rjkktl©e, r dfitve pfzdktyb±
it dhtvtyb lkz bö yfgbcfybz. Yfgjvybnt bv, xnjås jyb gjlgbcsdfkb rkfgfy rjydth- vjuen jnytcnbcm ytcrjkmrj åkfujcrkjyytt, xtv r pfzdktybzv fåbnehbtynjd, gjcnegf±-
nf gthtl ntv, rfr gjcskfnm cdj± htwtypb± gj gjxnt. obv jåsxysv gentv. Tckb dfc ghbven yf extåe, jn dfc j©blf±n gjlndth©ltybz nj-
uj, xnj ds jghtltktyyj åeltnt exbnmcz d lfyyjv extåyjv pfdtltybb.
Cghfdrf j abyfycjdjv gjkj©tybb
Ds cfvb ljk©ys gjpfåjnbnmcz j njv, xnjås dct dfib ljrevtyns, ajhvs, cdzpfyyst
…jkmibycndj eybdthcbntnjd drk±xf±n d cdjb gfrtns ljrevtynjd, ytjåöjlbvsö lkz c ghjwtccjv gjlfxb pfzdktybz, cghfdjxyst vfnthbfks b jabwbfkmyst cjjåotybz j
gjlfxb pfzdktybz yf extåe d eybdthcbntnt bkb rjkktl©t Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd, dfibö jwtyrfö åkfujgjkexyj b djdhtvz gjcnegbkb d dsåhfyyst dfvb eybdthcbntns.
ajhve, rjnjhfz yfpsdftncz ¤Ltrkfhfwbz b cthnbabrfwbz abyfycjd≥ bkb ¤Faablt- Tckb e dfc jcnftncz vfkj dhtvtyb lj yfcnegktybz ghtltkmysö chjrjd ghbtvf pfzdkt-
dbn (gbcmvtyyjt gjrfpfybt gjl ghbczujq) j abyfycjdjq gjllth©rt≥. „njn ljrevtyn ybq, gjcskfqnt dfib pfzdktybz b cdzpfyyst c ybvb ljrevtyns pfrfpyjq gjxnjq bkb
gjlgbcsdftncz dfibvb hjlbntkzvb bkb kbwjv, ytceobv hfcöjls gj dfitve jåext- c yfhjxysv. Bvttn cvsck gjpdjybnm d rjkktl©b gj ntktajye bkb gjckfnm bv cjjå-
yb± d rjkktl©t, b ljk©ty åsnm pfdthty åfyrjv bkb ±hbcnjv. –hfybnt e ctåz rj- otybt gj ¤ktrnhjyyjq gjxnt, xnjås eåtlbnmcz d njv, xnj jyb gjkexbkb dfi gfrtn lj-
gb± ¤njq ajhvs, gjcrjkmre jyf gjyfljåbncz b dfv, rjulf ds åeltnt jåhfofnmcz pf revtynjd lkz gjlfxb pfzdktybz b xnj e ybö tcnm dct nhtåetvst jn dfc åevfub. –hf-
cneltyxtcrjq dbpjq. Jåsxyj dscibv extåysv pfdtltybzv ye©yj pyfnm, xnj e dfc jg- ybnt rjgbb dfituj pfzdktybz b cjgencnde±obö ljrevtynjd yf ckexfq gjnthb dfibö
kfxtys hfcöjls gj rhfqytq vtht yf gthdsq ujl jåextybz, ytcvjnhz yf nj, xnj vyj- vfnthbfkjd gjxnjq; tckb ¤nj ghjbpjqltn, ds vj©tnt d chjxyjv gjhzlrt dsckfnm tot
ubt eybdthcbntns b rjkktl©b nfr©t nhtåe±n, xnjås ds erfpfkb dfi bcnjxybr ljöj- jlby rjvgktrn byajhvfwbb.
lf yf dtcm gthbjl extås. Tckb ghb gjlfxt pfzdktybz d dscitt extåyjt pfdtltybt ds
pyftnt, xnj dfv gjyfljåbncz nf bkb byfz ajhvf abyfycjdjq gjvjob cj cnjhjys rjk- Ghbtv cneltynjd d cthtlbyt ujlf
ktl©f, erf©bnt, crjkmrj ds cjåbhftntcm gjghjcbnm e ytuj. Vyjubt eybdthcbntns
CIF ghb ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd yf extåe ¤pfrhsdf±n ukfpf≥ yf bö abyfycjdst ye©- Dj vyjubö eybdthcbntnfö ljgecrftncz ghbtv cneltynjd yf k±åst chjrb jåextybz, ec-
ls. „nj jpyfxftn, xnj dfit abyfycjdjt gjkj©tybt yt döjlbn d xbckj afrnjhjd, exb- nfyjdktyyst d ¤nbö extåysö pfdtltybzö, d ghtltkfö extåyjuj ujlf. D dscibö extå-
nsdf±oböcz ghb dsytctybb htitybz j njv, cnjbn kb ghbybvfnm dfc r ctåt yf extåe. ysö pfdtltybzö, rjnjhst hfåjnf±n gj ctvtcnhjdjve rfktylfh±, ghbtv cneltynjd d
Jlyfrj ghjcbv dfc bvtnm d dble, xnj gjljåysq eybdthcbntn dslfcn cjjndtncnde±ott cthtlbyt ujlf byjulf ghjbpdjlbncz d zydfht. Rjkktl©b, ghbvtyz±obt cbcntve xtn-
cdbltntkmcndj, lf±ott ghfdj yf gjkextybt cneltyxtcrjq dbps, njkmrj d njv ckexft, dthntq (nhbvtcnhjd), vjuen ghtlkfufnm ghbtv rfr d pbvybq chjr jåextybz (d zydfht),
tckb ds d cjcnjzybb ghtljcnfdbnm gjkyjt ljrevtynfkmyjt gjlndth©ltybt dfituj bc- nfr b d dtctyybq chjr jåextybz (d vfhnt). Rf©ljt dscitt extåyjt pfdtltybt bvttn
njxybrf (dfibö bcnjxybrjd) ljöjlf. cdjq rjyrhtnysq gthbjl ghbtvf. Ghtltkmyst chjrb ghbtvf cneltynjd jåsxyj cjcnfd-
kz±n itcnm-ltdznm vtczwtd lj pfxbcktybz yf extåe. Tckb ds gjlftnt pfzdktybt yf


74 75
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 8 G HF D B K M Y J T J A J H V K T Y B T P F Z D K T Y B Z D D S C I B T UKFDF 8 G HF D B K M Y J T J A J H V K T Y B T P F Z D K T Y B Z D D S C I B T
EXT…YST PFDTLTYBZ CIF EXT…YST PFDTLTYBZ CIF


Htp±vt
ghbtv d dscitt extåyjt pfdtltybt d zydfht, dfv cktletn ghjqnb ntcns ghb ghbtvt
fåbnehbtynjd gj rhfqytq vtht pf itcnm vtczwtd lj ¤njuj chjrf.
✏ Htibnt, d rfrbö rjkktl©fö ds pfbynthtcjdfys, b yfgbibnt gbcmvj bkb yfghfdmnt
Cjåtctljdfybz cjjåotybt gj ¤ktrnhjyyjq gjxnt lbhtrnjhe gjlhfpltktybz gj ghbtve byjcnhfyysö
fåbnehbtynjd c wtkm± gjkextybz byajhvfwbb b ajhv pfzdktybz/fyrtn.
✏ Rfr vj©yj crjhtt pfhtubcnhbheqntcm lkz ghjöj©ltybz cjjndtncnde±obö ntcnjd
Ytrjnjhst eybdthcbntns b rjkktl©b CIF bvt±n djpvj©yjcnm ghjdjlbnm pf ght-
ltkfvb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd cjåtctljdfybz c rfylblfnfvb yf gjcnegktybt d ¤nb extå- ghb ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd.
✏ Nofntkmyj ghjxbnfqnt dct vfnthbfks lkz gjlfxb pfzdktybz j ghbtvt yf extåe.
yst pfdtltybz. Cjåtctljdfybz ghjdjlzn åsdibt cneltyns eybdthcbntnf (dsgecrybrb),
✏ Ljujdjhbntcm c dfitq chtlytq irjkjq bkb rjkktl©tv j ghtljcnfdktybb rf©lj-
gjcnjzyyj ghj©bdf±obt d njq bkb byjq rjyrhtnyjq cnhfyt. Jncencndbt djpvj©yjcnb
ghjqnb cjåtctljdfybt yt cnfdbn byjcnhfyysö cneltynjd d ytdsujlyjt gjkj©tybt. Jl- ve eybdthcbntne frfltvbxtcrbö cghfdjr b htrjvtylfwbq. Yfghzve± dszcybnt d
yfrj tckb dfv ghtljcnfdkztncz ifyc ghjqnb cjåtctljdfybt d dfitq cnhfyt, yt jnrf- jnltkmysö jabcfö gj ghbtve yf extåe fåbnehbtynjd, bvt±ncz kb rfrbt-kbåj
psdfqntcm jn ytuj. Jyj ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq åkfujghbznye± djpvj©yjcnm gjghfrnbrj- nhelyjcnb c gjkextybtv hfpvyj©tyysö rjgbq jabwbfkmysö ljrevtynjd bp dfitq
dfnmcz d hfpdbnbb yfdsrjd jåotybz, åjkmit epyfnm j dscitv extåyjv pfdtltybb yt- cnhfys.
✏ Pfgjkybnt b djpdhfnbnt eybdthcbntnfv lj ecnfyjdktyysö bvb ghtltkmysö chjrjd
gjchtlcndtyyj jn tuj åsdibö cneltynjd b pflfnm k±åst bynthtce±obt dfc djghjcs.
dct vfnthbfks lkz gjlfxb pfzdktybz j ghbtvt yf extåe.
Jåofz ajhvf pfzdktybz/fyrtns
Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns
„nf cnfylfhnbpjdfyyfz ajhvf pfzdktybz/fyrtns bvttncz d yfkbxbb dj Dctvbhyjq rjv-
gm±nthyjq ctnb gj flhtce: http://www.commonapp.org b ghbvtyztncz åjktt xtv 130 rjk- Yf vyjubö cfqnfö gjbcrf rjkktl©tq nfr©t ghbdjlzncz gjktpyst cjdtns jnyjcbntkm-
ktl©fvb b eybdthcbntnfvb. „nb extåyst pfdtltybz ufhfynbhe±n, xnj d jlbyfrjdjq cnt- yj ecgtiyjq gjlfxb pfzdktybz b gjkextybz ljcnegf r ajhvfv pfzdktybz/fyrtns d ht-
gtyb hfccvfnhbdf±n lfyye± jåoe± ajhve pfzdktybz/fyrtns b cdjb cjåcndtyyst ajh- ©bvt jykfqy:
http://www.collegeboard.org
vs. Jlby ¤rptvgkzh ¤njq ajhvs vj©yj pfuhepbnm bp Dctvbhyjq rjvgm±nthyjq ctnb,
http://www.collegenet.com
f nfr©t gjkexbnm d dfitv jåhfpjdfntkmyjv byajhvfwbjyyjv bkb rjycekmnfwbjyyjv
http://www.collegeview.com
wtynht. Ds vj©tnt cltkfnm cnjkmrj rjgbq ¤njq ajhvs pfzdktybz/fyrtns, crjkmrj dfv
http://www.educationconnect.com
ye©yj, b hfpjckfnm tt d nt extåyst pfdtltybz-exfcnybrb, d rjnjhst gj©tkftnt. E©t
http://www.edupass.org
jnvtxfkjcm dsit, xnj, öjnz ¤nf jåofz ajhvf pfzdktybz/fyrtns b eghjoftn ghjwtcc
http://www.embark.com
gjlfxb pfzdktybz yf extåe, cnfylfhnyfz ajhvf yt gjpdjkzn dfv ghbcgjcjåbnm dfit pf-
http://www.petersons.com
zdktybt r rjyrhtnysv jcjåtyyjcnzv jnltkmysö rjkktl©tq. D rf©ljq ajhvt lftncz
http://www.review.com
gthtxtym rjkktl©tq b eybdthcbntnjd c bö flhtcfvb b byajhvfwbtq j ghbtvt yf extåe.

Dsåjh extåyjuj pfdtltybz Ntcns ghb ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd
Cv. Ukfde 5
Tckb ds gkfybhetnt yfxfnm pfyznbz d ctynzåht, dfv ye©yj gjkexbnm jndtn jn rjkkt-
l©tq, d rjnjhst ds gjlfkb pfzdktybt, r cthtlbyt fghtkz njuj ©t ujlf. Dscibt extå- Jwtyrf jabwbfkmysö cdtltybq
http://www.naces.org
yst pfdtltybz, ghtlkj©bdibt dfv gjcnegbnm r ybv yf extåe, vjuen gjghjcbnm dfc ds-
ckfnm ltgjpbn, tckb ds öjnbnt ghbyznm bö ghtlkj©tybt. Dthjznyj, jyb ddtlen juhf-
ybxtybt yf njn chjr, d ntxtybt rjnjhjuj åelen cjöhfyznm pf dfvb vtcnj. Tckb ds gj- Jåofz ajhvf pfzdktybz j ghbtvt/fyrtnf
http://www.commonapp.org
kexbnt åjkmit jlyjuj ghtlkj©tybz j ghbtvt yf extåe, yfgbibnt d rjkktl©b, jn
ghtlkj©tybz rjnjhsö ds jnrfpsdftntcm, c ntv, xnjås ¤nb extåyst pfdtltybz vjukb
cltkfnm ghtlkj©tybz j ghbtvt yf extåe ntv fåbnehbtynfv, rjnjhst dct tot ©len jn-
dtnf. Dfv nfr ©t htrjvtyletncz djpdhfnbnm ¤nbv extåysv pfdtltybzv ytbcgjkmpjdfy-
yst eljcnjdthtybz, lf±obt ghfdj yf gjkextybt cneltyxtcrjq dbps. Yf ¤njq cnflbb
rjkktl©b jåsxyj dscskf±n byajhvfwb± j ghtljcnfdktybb ©bkmz, vtlbwbycrjq
cnhföjdrt b rjycekmnbhjdfybb jnyjcbntkmyj jhbtynfwbb.


76 77
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 9 G H J W T C C G J L FX B P F Z D K T Y B Z : HF C G B C F Y B T UKFDF 9 G H J W T C C G J L FX B P F Z D K T Y B Z : HF C G B C F Y B T
B RJYNHJKMYSQ CGBCJR B RJYNHJKMYSQ CGBCJR


Fduecn

✏ Cdz©bntcm c eybdthcbntnfvb c wtkm± gjkextybz jn ybö ajhv gjlfxb pfzdktybz/
fyrtns, ajhv jåhfotybz pf abyfycjdjq gjvjom± b cghfdjxybrjd
✏ Gjkexbnt ajhvs htubcnhfwbb yf ghjöj©ltybt ntcnjd TOEFL b SAT I b SAT II, tc-
kb jyb zdkz±ncz jåzpfntkmysvb.

GHJWTCC GJLFXB Ctynzåhm “ ltrfåhm

PFZDKTYBZ: HFCGBCFYBT B ✏ Pfghjcbnt d dfitq chtlytq irjkt jabwbfkmye± frfltvbxtcre± cghfdre.
RJYNHJKMYSQ CGBCJR ✏ Pfghjcbnt e dfibö exbntktq htrjvtylfntkmyst gbcmvf.
✏ Ghtlcnfdmnt pfgjkytyyst ajhvs gjlfxb pfzdktybz/fyrtns (lkz ghbtvf yf extåe,
f nfr©t lkz gjkextybz abyfycjdjq gjvjob).
✏ Gthtghjdthmnt, dsckfys kb frfltvbxtcrbt cghfdrb b lheubt cghfdjxyst ljrevty-
Yb©t ghbdjlbncz htrjvtyletvjt hfcgbcfybt gjlfxb pfzdktybz d eybdthcbntns Cjt-
lbytyysö Infnjd. Byjulf bvttncz djpvj©yjcnm åjktt åscnhjuj pfdthitybz ¤njuj ns/vfnthbfks
✏ Ghjqlbnt ytjåöjlbvst ntcns ghb ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd.
ghjwtccf, yj ghb ¤njv d dfitv hfcgjhz©tybb vj©tn jrfpfnmcz ujhfplj åjktt juhfyb-
xtyysq dsåjh dscibö extåysö pfdtltybq. Pfåkfujdhtvtyyjt gkfybhjdfybt lftn dfv
Zydfhm “ fghtkm
ljcnfnjxyj dhtvtyb lkz ghfdbkmyjuj jajhvktybz pfzdktybz d rjkktl©b, rjnjhst ds
lkz ctåz dsåhfkb.
✏ Ytjåöjlbvj cjåk±cnb ghtltkmyst chjrb gjlfxb pfzdktybz; ghbvbnt r cdtltyb±,
PF 12“18 VTCZWTD LJ YFXFKF extåyjuj ujlf, d rjnjhjv ds yflttntcm gjcnegbnm xnj ¤nb chjrb jnyjczncz r jåsxyjve (htuekzhyjve) ghbtve “ ghtltkmyst chjrb
d eybdthcbntn bkb rjkktl©, ghbcnegfqnt r hfccvjnhtyb±, dszcytyb± b dsgjkytyb± hfyytuj ghbtvf yfcnegzn hfymit.
cktle±otuj:
Fghtkm-b±ym
✏ Gj rfrbv ghbxbyfv ds öjnbnt exbnmcz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö?
✏ Extåf d rfrbö eybdthcbntnfö jndtxftn dfibv pfghjcfv? ✏ Gjcnegktybt gbctv c edtljvktybtv j ghbtvt yf extåe bkb jnrfpt d ytv. Htibnt,
✏ Gjyfljåbncz kb dfv abyfycjdfz gjvjom? d rfrjv eybdthcbntnt åeltnt exbnmcz, edtljvmnt jabc gj ghbtve yf extåe j df-
✏ Dszcybnt ghtltkmyst chjrb gjlfxb pfzdktybz b jåhfotybz pf itv htitybb, pfgjkybnt b djpdhfnbnt k±åst ajhvs, nhtåetvst jn dfc cjnhelyb-
abyfycjdjq gjvjom±. „nj åeltn bvtnm pyfxtybt, rjulf ds yf- rfvb ¤njuj jabcf.
✏ Yfghfdmnt gbcmvf d eybdthcbntns, jn extås d rjnjhsö ds jnrfpsdftntcm, b dshf-
xytnt ghjöjlbnm cnfylfhnyst ntcns, zdkz±obtcz jåzpfntkmys-
vb ghb ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd, gjcrjkmre htpekmnfns ¤nbö ntcnjd pbnt cj©fktybt gj ¤njve gjdjle.
✏ Ghbdtlbnt d gjhzljr abyfycs: jhufybpeqnt gthtdjl ltyt©ysö chtlcnd d jlby bp
ljk©ys åsnm ghbckfys d jabcs gj ghbtve yf extåe yt gj-
plytt yfcnegktybz egjvzyensö chjrjd. Ntcns cktletn ghjöj- åfyrjd CIF; gjpfåjnmntcm j njv, xnjås e dfc åskb ltyt©yst chtlcndf yf gtht-
lbnm lj ghtlcnfdktybz eybdthcbntne ajhv gjlfxb pfzdkt- tpl d Cjtlbytyyst Infns b hfcöjls gj ghbåsnbb d ¤ne cnhfye.
✏ Jrjyxfntkmyj ehtuekbheqnt c dfibv eybdthcbntnjv djghjcs, cdzpfyyst c ghtlj-
ybz/fyrtns.
✏ Pfhtubcnhbheqntcm lkz ghjöj©ltybz cnfylfhnysö cnfdktybtv ©bkmz b vtlbwbycrjq cnhföjdrb.
ntcnjd, tckb jyb zdkz±ncz jåzpfntkmysvb ghb gj-
B±ym-fduecn
cnegktybb d eybdthcbntns, d rjnjhst ds gjlfkb pf-
zdktybt.
✏ Yfxybnt juhfybxbdfnm dfi dsåjh eybdthcbnt- ✏ Gj gjkextybb dfitq ajhvs È-20 jåhfnbntcm pf dbpjq d åkb©fqitt gjcjkmcndj bkb
njd b rjkktl©tq lj 10“20 extåysö pfdtltybq. rjycekmcndj CIF. Gjcnfhfqntcm cltkfnm ¤nj pfåkfujdhtvtyyj c ntv, xnjås bvtnm
PF 12 VTCZWTD LJ GHBTVF d eybdthcb- ljcnfnjxyj dhtvtyb lj lfns dfituj jnütplf (cv. Ukfde 11 ¤Jåhfotybt pf cnelty-
ntn/rjkktl© ghjltkfqnt cktle±ott (hfpåbd- xtcrjq dbpjq≥ d lfyyjq åhji±ht).
rf gj vtczwfv yjcbn ghbåkbpbntkmysq öf-
hfrnth b jcyjdsdftncz yf jctyytv ghbtvt):

78 79
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 10 GTHT–JL D EYBDTHCBNTN CIF
UKFDF 9 G H J W T C C G J L FX B P F Z D K T Y B Z : HF C G B C F Y B T
B RJYNHJKMYSQ CGBCJR


✏ Ghbcnegfqnt r vthjghbznbzv gj jajhvktyb± dfitq gjtplrb.
✏ Cdz©bntcm c jabcjv gj hfåjnt c byjcnhfyysvb cneltynfvb dfituj eybdthcbntnf b
cjjåobnt cjnhelybrfv ¤njuj gjlhfpltktybz ltnfkb dfituj ghbåsnbz d CIF, f
GTHT–JL D
nfr©t gjlndthlbnt, d rfrjv dblt jhbtynfwbb, ghjdjlbvjq ¤nbv eybdthcbntnjv lkz
EYBDTHCBNTN CIF
dyjdm ghbåsdibö cneltynjd, ds åeltnt exfcndjdfnm.

Gjlujnjdrf r jnütple
Jlyf bp ghbdktrfntkmysö öfhfrnthysö jcjåtyyjcntq
Rfr njkmrj ds epyftnt j njv, xnj dfv ghtlcnjbn exbnmcz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö, e cbcntvs dscituj jåhfpjdfybz CIF cjcnjbn d njv,
dfc, dthjznyj, gjzdbncz vyjuj djghjcjd gj dbpfv, ©bkm±, vtlbwbycrjq cnhföjdrt, xnj ds vj©tnt gthtqnb bp jlyjuj rjkktl©f d lheujq d
åfyrjdcrbv eckeufv, extåt b lheujq byajhvfwbb, ytjåöjlbvjq dfv d cdzpb c ghtl- cthtlbyt chjrf ghjöj©ltybz extåyjq ghjuhfvvs, lf±-
cnjzobv jnütpljv. Cv. ljgjkybntkmyst cdtltybz gj ¤njq ntvt d ukfdfö 11 b 12 lfy- otq ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb. Ubårjcnm cbcntvs
yjq åhji±hs. Rhjvt njuj, byajhvfwb± gj dsitegjvzyensv djghjcfv vj©yj yfq- ¤rhtlbnjd≥ (pfxtnjd) d eybdthcbntnfö CIF gjpdjkz-
nb d …hji±ht 4 yfcnjzotq cthbb. „nf åhji±hf gjl yfpdfybtv ¤Gjlujnjdrf r jnütp- tn ¤rhtlbnfv≥, dscnfdktyysv d jlyjv extåyjv pfdt-
le: ghfrnbxtcrfz byajhvfwbz j ©bpyb b extåt d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö≥ ljcnegyf dj ltybb, åsnm pfcxbnfyysvb d lheujv ghb cjåk±ltybb
Dctvbhyjq rjvgm±nthyjq ctnb: http://educationusa.state.gov/. jghtltktyysö rhbnthbtd. Rf©lsq ujl d ctynzåht cds-
it vbkkbjyf cneltynjd gthtöjlzn d njn bkb byjq yj-
dsq rjkktl©. 1Rhjvt njuj, gthtöjl cneltynjd d
…jkmibycndj jåhfpjdfntkmysö byajhvfwbjyysö b rjycekmnfwbjyysö wtynhjd CIF
jhufybpetn ktnybt rehcs gj jhbtynfwbb, hfccxbnfyyst yf åeleobö cneltynjd, d crj- lheujq rjkktl© bvttn vtcnj b d cthtlbyt extåyj-
hjv dhtvtyb jnåsdf±obö d Cjtlbytyyst Infns, f nfr©t ghjdjlbn pfyznbz gj jhb- uj ujlf “ d yfxfkt dtctyytuj ctvtcnhf. Vyjubt bp
tynfwbb lkz gjljåysö cneltynjd d cthtlbyt ujlf. Cdz©bntcm c åkb©fqibv wtynhjv, nfrbö cneltynjd gthtöjlzn bp vtcnysö rjkktl©tq
epyfqnt, rjulf d ytv ghjdjlzncz pfyznbz b rjycekmnfwbb gj jhbtynfwbb, b gjghjcbnt d rjkktl©b c xtnshtöktnybv chjrjv jåextybz c
jcnfdbnm lkz dfc vtcnj yf jlyjv bp ¤nbö gjkmpe±oböcz åjkmijq gjgekzhyjcnm± vt- ntv, xnjås pfdthibnm ghjöj©ltybt ghjuhfvv,
hjghbznbq. lf±obö ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb åfrfkfdhf
(ljgjkybntkmye± byajhvfwb± j vtcnysö rjkkt-
l©fö cv. d Ukfdt 3). Bvt±ncz nfr©t cneltyns,
yfxbyf±obt exbnmcz d dscitv extåyjv pfdtlt-
ybb c xtnshtöktnybv chjrjv jåextybz, yj pf-
ntv gj kbxysv, frfltvbxtcrbv bkb abyfycjdsv ghbxbyfv ghbybvf±obt htitybt gt-
htdtcnbcm d lheujq rjkktl© c xtnshtöktnybv chjrjv jåextybz. Ytåjkmijt xbckj
cneltynjd gthtöjlbn bp dscituj extåyjuj pfdtltybz pf ghtltkfvb Cjtlbytyysö Inf-
njd d dscitt extåyjt pfdtltybt d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö. Cjlth©fofzcz d ¤njq ukfdt
byajhvfwbz ghbdjlbncz lkz njuj, xnjås ds vjukb kexit gjyznm cdzpfyyst c dsit-
egjvzyensv zdktybtv ghjåktvs b gjvjxm cltkfnm ghjwtcc dfituj gthtöjlf bp jlyj-
uj dscituj extåyjuj pfdtltybz d lheujt djpvj©yj åjktt ukflrbv.

…jkmibycndj rjkktl©tq ghtlgjxbnftn, xnjås cneltyns ghjexbkbcm jlby ujl ght©lt,
xtv gthtöjlbnm d lheujq rjkktl©, yj ¤nj nhtåjdfybt ghtlüzdkztncz yt dctvb dscib-
vb extåysvb pfdtltybzvb. Rhjvt njuj, åjkmibycndj eybdthcbntnjd ghtlüzdkztn cne-
ltynfv nhtåjdfybt j ghtåsdfybb d eybdthcbntnt, d rjnjhsq jyb gjcnegbkb, gj rhfq-
ytq vtht, d ntxtybt ldeö ktn lj dsgecrf. „nj jpyfxftn, xnj ds ljk©ys ghjexbnmcz
d ¤njv rjkktl©t yt vtytt ldeö ktn lkz njuj, xnjås jrjyxbnm dscitt extåyjt pfdt-
ltybt b gjkexbnm ghbce©lftve± bv cntgtym Gthtöjl gjckt nhtö ktn extås cnfyjdbn-
cz åjktt nhelysv, yj d hfpysö rjkktl©fö ceotcnde±n hfpkbxyst eckjdbz gjljåyj-


80 81
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 10 GTHT–JL D EYBDTHCBNTN CIF UKFDF 10 GTHT–JL D EYBDTHCBNTN CIF



uj gthtöjlf. D jåotv, åjkmibycndj cneltynjd, gthtöjlzobö d lheujt dscitt extå- Gthtöjl bp jlyjuj dscituj extåyjuj pfdtltybz CIF d lheujt
yjt pfdtltybt, zdkz±ncz dnjhjrehcybrfvb bkb nhtnmtrehcybrfvb, rjulf ghbcnegf±n
r extåt d yjdjv rjkktl©t. Gjcrjkmre dj vyjubö rjkktl©fö CIF nhtåjdfybz, ghtlüzdkztvst r jåotve jåhf-
pjdfyb±, yjczn cöj©bq öfhfrnth, cneltyns, gthtdjlzobtcz bp jlyjuj dscituj extå-
Pfxtn ¤rhtlbnjd≥ yjuj pfdtltybz CIF d lheujt, gj dctq dthjznyjcnb, jåyfhe©fn, xnj ghjqltyyst bvb
rehcs kturj ghbpyf±ncz b pfcxbnsdf±ncz d yjdjv dscitv extåyjv pfdtltybb.
Ghb dsåjht rjkktl©tq, d rjnjhst ds cjåbhftntcm gthtdtcnbcm, gjcvjnhbnt, crjkmrj
rehcjd, ghjqltyysö dfvb d ysytiytv extåyjv pfdtltybb, åeltn pfxntyj d yjdjv Ckj©ytt åsdftn ljåbnmcz njuj, xnjås dfv pfxkb rehcs, ghjqltyyst d rfxtcndt jåz-
extåyjv pfdtltybb. Cbcntvf ghbpyfybz hfåjns, dsgjkytyyjq dfvb d gthdjyfxfkmyjv pfntkmysö rehcjd gj jlyjve bp rjyrhtnysö ghtlvtnjd dfitq cgtwbfkbpfwbb, jcjåty-
extåyjv pfdtltybb, yfpsdftncz pfxtnjv ¤rhtlbnjd≥. Gjkbnbrf b gjhzljr pfxtnf ¤rht- yj tckb ds ghbkfuftnt ecbkbz r njve, xnjås dfv pfcxbnfkb ghjöj©ltybt rehcjd gj
lbnjd≥ jnkbxf±ncz ibhjrbv hfpyjjåhfpbtv d pfdbcbvjcnb jn extåyjuj pfdtltybz. jlyjve bp ghtlvtnjd dfitq cgtwbfkbpfwbb, rjnjhsq yt ghtgjlftncz d dfitv yjdjv
Rjkktl©b jghtltkz±n, rfrbt rehcs jyb ghbpyf±n yf jcyjdt dfibö frfltvbxtcrbö rjkktl©t (yfghbvth, tckb ds cnfhftntcm gjkexbnm pfxtn rehcjd gj ghtlghbybvfntkmc-
cghfdjr b lheubö cdtltybq j dfitv gthdjyfxfkmyjv extåyjv pfdtltybb, ghjuhfvvfö rjq ltzntkmyjcnb d extåyjv pfdtltybb, rjnjhjt yt ghtlkfuftn cdjbv cneltynfv reh-
rehcjd ktrwbq b n.l. Ghb ¤njv e dfc vjuen gjnhtåjdfnm ghtljcnfdktybz egjvzyensö cjd gj ghtlghbybvfntkmcnde). Byjulf rehcs, ghjqltyyst gj jcyjdyjve ghtlvtne cgt-
cghfdjr b cdtltybq. Ytcvjnhz yf nj, xnj jåsxyj extåyst pfdtltybz vjuen ghtljcnf- wbfkbpfwbb, vjuen yt jndtxfnm nhtåjdfybzv, ghtlüzdkztvsv r ¤njve ghtlvtne d
dbnm dfie ghbvthye± jwtyre d vjvtyn yfghfdktybz dfv edtljvktybz j ghbtvt yf extåyjv pfdtltybb, d rjnjhjt ds gthtikb. Dfit yjdjt extåyjt pfdtltybt vj©tn lf-
extåe, xfcnj ghböjlbncz ©lfnm njuj vjvtynf, rjulf ds cfvb zdbntcm d rjkktl© b ©t yfcnfbdfnm yf njv, xnjås ds dsgjkyzkb dct nhtåjdfybz, ghtlüzdkztvst d ¤njv
dcnhtnbntcm c ltrfyjv lkz gjkextybz jabwbfkmyjq jrjyxfntkmyjq jwtyrb dfituj cnf- rjkktl©t r ghjöj©ltyb± rehcf gj jcyjdyjve ghtlvtne cgtwbfkbpfwbb. Rehcs, yt
necf gthtöjlf. ghbpyfdftvst d rfxtcndt ¤rhtlbnf≥, dscnfdkztvjuj gj jcyjdyjve ghtlvtne cgtwbfkb-
pfwbb, bkb d rfxtcndt rehcjd, jndtxf±obö nhtåjdfybzv, ghtlüzdkztvsv r jåotve
Cneltyns vjuen jåyfhe©bnm, xnj d ghjwtcct gthtöjlf ¤nthz±ncz≥ ytrjnjhst bp reh- jåhfpjdfyb±, vjuen åsnm pfxntys d rfxtcndt ¤rhtlbnf≥ pf ghjöj©ltybt rehcjd gj
cjd, ghjqltyysö bvb d bö gthdjyfxfkmysö extåysö pfdtltybzö. „nbv cneltynfv nht- extåysv lbcwbgkbyfv, drk±xftvsv cneltynjv d cdjq bylbdblefkmysq extåysq gkfy.
åetncz ljgjkybntkmyjt dhtvz lkz jrjyxfybz dscituj extåyjuj pfdtltybz b gjke- Jlyfrj tckb lf©t b ¤nj ytdjpvj©yj, nj ghb gthtöjlt d yjdjt extåyjt pfdtltybt kb-
xtybz lbgkjvf, bkb ©t bv ghböjlbncz pfybvfnmcz d ktnytt dhtvz b dsgjkyznm åj- åj djjåot yt åeltn pfcxbnfyj ghjöj©ltybt rehcjd, j rjnjhsö bltn htxm, kbåj d ¤njv
kmibq jåütv hfåjns, tckb jyb öjnzn pfrjyxbnm dscitt extåyjt pfdtltybt djdhtvz. yjdjv rjkktl©t dfv vjuen pfzdbnm, xnj d ytv pfxnen egjvzyenst rehcs, yj xnj ds-
Rhjvt njuj, d åjkmibycndt rjkktl©tq bvttncz vfrcbvfkmyjt xbckj ¤rhtlbnjd≥, cnfdktyysq pf ybö ¤rhtlbn≥ ytkmpz åeltn pfxtcnm rfr eljdktndjhz±obq nhtåjdfybz,
rjnjhjt vj©tn åsnm pfxntyj ghb gthtöjlt bp ghtlsleotuj dscituj extåyjuj pfdt- ghtlüzdkztvst r gjkextyb± lbgkjvf b cntgtyb. Ghb jåce©ltybb c rjkktl©tv dj-
ltybz. Yfghzve± cdzpsdfqntcm c dscibvb extåysvb pfdtltybzvb bkb gjkmpeqntcm ghjcf j njv, crjkmrj dscnfdktyysö ¤rhtlbnjd≥ dfv pfcxbnf±n ghb gthtöjlt, åjkm-
cghfdjxysvb vfnthbfkfvb, bvt±obvbcz d dfitv jåhfpjdfntkmyjv byajhvfwbjy- ijt pyfxtybt åeltn bvtnm ghjdthrf b gjybvfybt hfpkbxbz vt©le jåotq ghbtvktvjc-
yjv bkb rjycekmnfwbjyyjv wtynht, lkz gjkextybz ljgjkybntkmyjq byajhvfwbb gj nm± ¤rhtlbnf≥ d wtkzö gthtöjlf d yjdjt extåyjt pfdtltybt b ghbtvktvjcnm± ¤rhtlb-
rjyrhtnysv djghjcfv gjkbnbrb gthtöjlf bp jlyjuj dscituj extåyjuj pfdtltybz d njd≥ c njxrb phtybz bö cjjndtncndbz nhtåjdfybzv, ghtlüzdkztvsv r gjkextyb± lbg-
lheujt. kjvf b ghbce©ltyb± cntgtyb gj jghtltktyyjq lbcwbgkbyt. D gthdjv ckexft ytjåöj-
lbvj lfkmytqitt dszcytybt jåcnjzntkmcnd, b hzl ¤rhtlbnjd≥ vj©tn åsnm gjnthzy
Cneltynfv ghtlüzdkz±ncz nhtåjdfybz j ghjöj©ltybb nhtö jcyjdysö dbljd rehcjd ghb gthtöjlt bp jlyjuj dscituj extåyjuj pfdtltybz d lheujt. D gjcktlytv ckexft ds
lkz njuj, xnjås gjkexbnm cntgtym CIF: nhtåjdfybt j ghjöj©ltybb rehcjd gj jåot- vj©tnt åsnm ndthlj edthtys d njv, rfrbt bvtyyj rehcs b ¤rhtlbns≥ bp dfituj ys-
jåhfpjdfntkmysv ghtlvtnfv, nhtåjdfybt j ghjöj©ltybb rehcjd gj jcyjdyjve ghtl- ytiytuj extåyjuj pfdtltybz åelen pfxntys rfr cjjndtncnde±obt nhtåjdfybzv, ghtlü-
vtne cgtwbfkbpfwbb b nhtåjdfybt j ghjöj©ltybb rehcjd gj extåysv lbcwbgkbyfv, zdkztvsv r rehcfv gj rfrjve-kbåj jcyjdyjve ghtlvtne cgtwbfkbpfwbb (yfghbvth,
drk±xftvsv cneltynjv d cdjq bylbdblefkmysq extåysq gkfy (cv. ljgjkybntkmye± vfntvfnbrt bkb bcnjhbb) d extåyjv pfdtltybb, d rjnjhjt ds gthtöjlbnt.
byajhvfwb± j hfpkbxysö dblfö rehcjd d Ukfdt 2). Rehcs, ghjöj©ltybt rjnjhsö
D Cghfdjxybrt rjkktl©f gj gthtöjle cneltynjd2 bp jlyjuj dscituj extåyjuj pfdt-
pfcxbnsdftncz ghb gthtöjlt bp gthdjyfxfkmyjuj d yjdjt dscitt extåyjt pfdtltybt,
ljk©ys gjlgflfnm gjl jlye bp ¤nbö nhtö rfntujhbq lkz njuj, xnjås blnb d ltybz d lheujt ghtlkfuf±ncz cjdtns jnyjcbntkmyj gentq vfrcbvbpfwbb cneltynfvb
pfxtn nhtåjdfybq, ytjåöjlbvsö lkz gjkextybz cntgtyb. D cktle±obö hfpltkfö jåüzc- pfcxbnsdftvsö ¤rhtlbnjd≥ ghb gthtöjlt bp jlyjuj dscituj extåyjuj pfdtltybz d
yztncz, rfr ¤njn ghjwtcc jceotcndkztncz yf ghfrnbrt. lheujt. D xbckj ¤nbö cjdtnjd döjlzn cktle±obt:



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TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 10 GTHT–JL D EYBDTHCBNTN CIF UKFDF 10 GTHT–JL D EYBDTHCBNTN CIF



✏ Ghjöjlbnt k±åst jåzpfntkmyst jåotjåhfpjdfntkmyst rehcs d ntxtybt gthdsö yjv pfdtltybb, yt döjlzotv d cbcntve dscituj jåhfpjdfybz CIF. Pfvtcnbntkm lb-
ldeö ktn jåextybz. htrnjhf jabcf gj ghbtve yf extåe byjcnhfyysö cneltynjd Eybdthcbntnf infnf Fqj-
✏ Dsgjkyzqnt k±åst ghtldfhbntkmyst eckjdbz, jnyjczobtcz r dfitve jcyjdyjve df G¤n Gfhrth3 jghtltkztn nhb afrnjhf, jåsxyj hfccvfnhbdftvsö d nfrbö ckexfzö
ghtlvtne cgtwbfkbpfwbb, d cdjtv gthdjyfxfkmyjv dscitv extåyjv pfdtltybb, gj- eybdthcbntnfvb CIF:
crjkmre dsgjkytybt ¤nbö eckjdbq gjvj©tn dfv d pfxtnt ¤rhtlbnjd≥ ghb gthtöjlt
✏ Ghbpyftncz kb dfi eybdthcbntn bkb rjkktl© vbybcnthcndjv jåhfpjdfybz d dfitq
d lheujq rjkktl©, jcjåtyyj tckb bvttn vtcnj åjkmijq rjyrehc yf ghjöj©ltybt
dfituj jcyjdyjuj ghtlvtnf cgtwbfkbpfwbb. „nb ghtldfhbntkmyst eckjdbz ghtlcnfd- cnhfyt? Rjkktl©b CIF hfccxbnsdf±n yf gthtöjl cneltynjd bp dscibö extåysö
kz±n cjåjq gjlujnjdbntkmyst rehcs, nhtåjdfybt j ghjöj©ltybb rjnjhsö dfv pfdtltybq, ghbpyfdftvsö vbybcnthcndjv jåhfpjdfybz; jlyfrj tckb dfi rjkktl©
ghtlüzdkztncz ght©lt, xtv ds vj©tnt ghbcnegbnm r bpextyb± cfvjuj jcyjdyjuj åsk fnntcnjdfy rfrbv-kbåj bysv dtljvcndjv, jy dct ©t vj©tn jrfpfnmcz ghbtv-
ghtlvtnf dfitq cgtwbfkbpfwbb. ktvsv. Pltcm ghbybvf±ncz hfpyst htitybz, b bö öfhfrnth pfdbcbn jn rjyrhtnyj-
✏ Gkfybheqnt ghjöj©ltybt åjkmibycndf rehcjd, jåzpfntkmysö lkz bpextybz dfituj uj rjkktl©f. Rjkktl©b CIF xfcnj bcöjlzn bp njuj, rfrjt htitybt ghbyzkb ås
jcyjdyjuj ghtlvtnf cgtwbfkbpfwbb, gjckt njuj, rfr ds gthtöjlbnt d lheujt dscitt ghbvtybntkmyj r fyfkjubxyjve rjkktl©e, yföjlzotvecz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö.
✏ Yfcrjkmrj cöjlys ceotcndj bkb öfhfrnth ghjqltyysö dfvb rehcjd c ceotcndjv b
extåyjt pfdtltybt, gjcrjkmre d ytv nhelytt ljåbnmcz pfxtnf ¤nbö rehcjd, tckb ds
ghjöjlbkb bö d cdjtv gthdjyfxfkmyjv dscitv extåyjv pfdtltybb. öfhfrnthjv rehcjd, ghtlkfuftvsö dscibv extåysv pfdtltybtv, d rjnjhjt ds gt-
✏ Tckb ds exbntcm d vtcnyjv rjkktl©t, cjcnfdkzqnt cdjq uhfabr ghjöj©ltybz reh- htöjlbnt? Dscibt extåyst pfdtltybz CIF jåsxyj jwtybdf±n cöjlcndj, xthgfz by-
cjd d ntcyjv rjynfrnt c dfibv rehfnjhjv b bpexfqnt rehcs, ghjöj©ltybt rjnj- ajhvfwb± bp ghjcgtrnjd, extåysö gkfyjd b cghfdjxybrjd. Tckb dfit dscitt
hsö pfcxbnsdftncz ghb gthtöjlt d lheujt dscitt extåyjt pfdtltybt (cv. ljgjkyb- extåyjt pfdtltybt vfkj bpdtcnyj d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö, rjkktl© vj©tn ghjbp-
ntkmye± byajhvfwb± j vtcnysö rjkktl©fö d Ukfdt 3). dtcnb åjktt ltnfkmye± jwtyre dfituj gjkj©tybz, rjulf ds ghbåeltnt d CIF, b
✏ Ds vj©tnt gjghjcbnm rjkktl© gthtcvjnhtnm htitybt j pfxtnt ¤rhtlbnjd≥ d eckj- njkmrj gjckt ¤njuj cnfytn ghbybvfnm htitybt j njv, pfcxbnsdfnm kb rehcs, gj-
dbzö gthtöjlf bp jlyjuj dscituj extåyjuj pfdtltybz d lheujt. Byjulf nf bkb byfz pdjkz±obt dfv gthtdtcnbcm yf extåe d Cjtlbytyyst Infns, b d ckexft ghbyznbz
frfltvbxtcrfz cghfdrf bkb rfrjt-kbåj jgbcfybt rehcf yt lf±n byajhvfwbb, ljcnf- dfc r ctåt yf extåe åeltn levfnm, d rfrjq ajhvt pfcxbnfnm dfv rehcs, ghjqlty-
njxyjq lkz njuj, xnjås rjkktl© vju pfxtcnm ghjöj©ltybt rehcf gjchtlcndjv ds- yst d dfitq cnhfyt.
✏ Yfcrjkmrj ghbvtybvs ghjqltyyst dfvb rehcs r extåysv ghjuhfvvfv, lf±obv
cnfdktybz cjjndtncnde±otuj ¤rhtlbnf≥; ghtljcnfdktybt ljgjkybntkmyjq byajhvf-
wbb vjukj ås gjpdjkbnm egjvzyenjve rjkktl©e ghbyznm htitybt d dfie gjkmpe. ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb, b d gthde± jxthtlm rehcs, ghjqltyyst dfvb gj ghtl-
vtne, rjnjhsq ds öjnbnt dsåhfnm d rfxtcndt jcyjdyjuj ghtlvtnf dfitq cgtwbfkb-
Gthtöjl d eybdthcbntn CIF bp extåyjuj pfdtltybz, yt döjlzotuj d cbcntve pfwbb? Gjkextybt jndtnf yf ¤njn djghjc xfcnj nhtåetn jwtyrb egjvzyensö rehcjd
jåhfpjdfybz Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd rfr cj cnjhjys jabcf gj ghbtve yf extåe byjcnhfyysö cneltynjd, nfr b afrekm-
ntnf, yf rjnjhsq ds öjnbnt gjcnegbnm. Jyb åelen dszcyznm, dj-gthdsö, vjuen kb
Rf©lsq ujl cneltyns bp lheubö cnhfy gthtdjlzncz yf extåe d eybdthcbntns Cjtlb- ghjqltyyst dfvb rehcs åsnm pfxntys d rfxtcndt rehcjd, lf±obö dfv ghfdj gtht-
ytyysö Infnjd c wtkm± ghjöj©ltybz extåysö ghjuhfvv, lf±obö ghfdj yf gjkext- dtcnbcm yf extåe d CIF, b, dj-dnjhsö, jndtxf±n kb ¤nb rehcs nhtåjdfybzv, ghtlü-
ybt cntgtyb CIF, ecgtiyj pfrfyxbdf±n jåextybt d hfvrfö ¤nbö ghjuhfvv, b bv ghb- zdkztvsv r rjyrhtnyjq lbcwbgkbyt, zdkz±otqcz ghtlvtnjv jcyjdyjq cgtwbfkb-
ce©lftncz cjjndtncnde±ofz cntgtym. Jlyfrj cnhernehf cntgtytq d lheubö cnhfyfö pfwbb. D lfyyjv ckexft gjljåyjt htitybt nfr©t yt vj©tn åsnm ghbyznj lj dfit-
jxtym htlrj åsdftn cjdvtcnbvjq cj cnhernehjq cntgtytq CIF, xnj eckj©yztn ghj- uj ghbåsnbz d Cjtlbytyyst Infns, b hfpkbxyst rjkktl©b vjuen gj-hfpyjve ht-
wtcc gthtöjlf d dscibt extåyst pfdtltybz CIF. Nfr, yfghbvth, tckb d dfitq cnhf- ifnm ¤njn djghjc. Pfxtn ghjqltyysö rehcjd d cxtn njuj bkb byjuj rjyrhtnyjuj
yt lkz gjkextybz cntgtyb ds bpexftnt njkmrj jlby ghtlvtn, ghjqltyyst dfvb ghb ghtlvtnf jcyjdyjq cgtwbfkbpfwbb zdkztncz rhfqyt nhelysv ltkjv d jnyjitybb nf-
¤njv rehcs d rjyntrcnt ghtlüzdkztvsö d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö nhtåjdfybq r jåot- rbö ghjuhfvv, rfr by©tythyjt ltkj, fhöbntrnehf bkb ©ehyfkbcnbrf, d rjnjhsö
ve jåhfpjdfyb± jrf©encz ytcjdvtcnbvsvb c bpextybtv hfpkbxysö ghtlvtnjd cne- ghtlüzdkztvst r rehcfv nhtåjdfybz jnkbxf±ncz nofntkmyj ghjlevfyyjq cnherne-
ltynjv CIF d hfvrfö ghjuhfvvs, lf±otq ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb åfrfkfdhf bkb hjq b xfcnj lbrne±ncz cthnbabrfwbjyysv jhufyjv gj rf©ljq bp ¤nbö ghjatccbq.
rfylblfnf d åfrfkfdhs, Rhjvt njuj, dbls dscibö extåysö pfdtltybq d lheubö cnhf-
yfö jnkbxf±ncz jn dbljd dscibö extåysö pfdtltybq d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö, ghbxtv Rhjvt njuj, lkz jåtcgtxtybz vfrcbvfkmyj djpvj©yjq ukflrjcnb gthtöjlf d eybdth-
vt©le ¤nbvb extåysvb pfdtltybzvb ceotcnde±n b lheubt hfpkbxbz. cbntn CIF bp extåyjuj pfdtltybz, yt döjlzotuj d cbcntve jåhfpjdfybz Cjtlbytyysö
Infnjd, dfv htrjvtyletncz:
Dscitve extåyjve pfdtltyb±, d rjnjhjt ds gthtöjlbnt, ytjåöjlbvj hfccvfnhbdfnm
hzl afrnjhjd ghb dscnfdktybb ¤rhtlbnf≥ pf rehcs, ghjqltyyst dfvb d dscitv extå-


84 85
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 10 GTHT–JL D EYBDTHCBNTN CIF UKFDF 10 GTHT–JL D EYBDTHCBNTN CIF



✏ Gjpfåjnbnmcz j njv, xnjås dct jnyjczobtcz r jåhfpjdfyb± htubcnhfwbjyyst pfgb- ✏ Gjxtve ds öjnbnt gthtqnb d ¤nj extåyjt pfdtltybt? Dfc gjghjczn yfgbcfnm pfzd-
cb yjcbkb jabwbfkmysq öfhfrnth, b yf ybö bvtkcz/bvtkfcm gjlkbyysq/gjlkbyyfz ktybt kbxyjuj öfhfrnthf, d rjnjhjv ds d jåobö xthnfö bpkj©bkb ås ghbxbys df-
infvg/gtxfnm dslfdituj bö extåyjuj pfdtltybz. ituj ©tkfybz gthtqnb d lheujq rjkktl©. „nj, dthjznyj, cjcnfdkztn bcrhtyy±±, f
✏ Ghtljcnfdbnm jgbcfybz rehcjd yf fyukbqcrjv zpsrt lkz dctö rehcjd, ghjqltyysö gjnjve b cfve± df©ye± xfcnm dfituj pfzdktybz. Ghjcbv dfc ghbyznm r cdtltyb±,
d ljgjkytybt r chtlytve jåhfpjdfyb±. Rhjvt njuj, ¤nb jgbcfybz ljk©ys drk±- xnj dfit bpkj©tybt ghbxby yfvtxtyyjuj gthtöjlf yt ljk©yj ghtlcnfdkznm cjåjq
xfnm d ctåz: ©fkjåe yf nj, rfr dfv gkjöj d dfitv ysytiytv extåyjv pfdtltybb, b jåüzcytybt
” rhfnrbt bpkj©tybz bkb jåobt jgbcfybz jcyjdysö ntv, bpexfdiböcz d hfvrfö ghbxby dfituj ytljdjkmcndf ghtåsdfybtv d ytv. Dvtcnj ¤njuj d pfzdktybb kbxyj-
rf©ljuj rehcf. (Tckb ytn jåotuj jgbcfybz ¤nbö ntv, yfgbibnt bö rhfnrjt bp- uj öfhfrnthf dfv cktletn ghbdtcnb dtcrbt ghbxbys njuj, gjxtve yjdjt dscitt
kj©tybt cfvb b pfdthmnt tuj d extåyjv pfdtltybb d rfxtcndt dthyjuj jgbcfybz); extåyjt pfdtltybt kexit jndtxftn dfibv gjnhtåyjcnzv d gjkextybb jåhfpjdfybz.
✏ Rfrbt rehcs jåextybz ds e©t ghjikb bkb ghjöjlbnt d yfcnjzott dhtvz? Rfrbv
” nhtåetvjt xbckj xfcjd bkb lheubö pfxtnysö tlbybw, jndjlbdiböcz d ytltk± yf
ktrwbb bkb kfåjhfnjhyst hfåjns d hfvrfö rf©ljuj rehcf; lj cbö gjh åsk dfi jgsn ghtåsdfybz d dfitv rjkktl©t? J©blftncz, xnj cnelty-
” ghjljk©bntkmyjcnm ctvtcnhf bkb extåyjuj ujlf b, tckb ¤nj yt erfpsdftncz d ns, gjlf±obt pfzdktybt j gthtöjlt, öjhjij exfncz d cdjtv ysytiytv extåyjv pf-
lheubö ljrevtynfö, erf©bnt ujl, d rjnjhjv ds ghjikb lfyysq rehc. dtltybb b ljrfpfkb, xnj yt phz gjkexf±n dscitt jåhfpjdfybt.
✏ Gjlujnjdbnm cgbcjr extåybrjd, bcgjkmpjdfdiböcz d rf©ljv rehct, gjcrjkmre ¤nj
gjvj©tn ghb dsytctybb k±åsö (ghbybvf±oböcz gjckt dfituj ghbåsnbz d cnelty- Gjvbvj dsitcrfpfyyjuj, dfv nfr©t ytjåöjlbvj åeltn ghtljcnfdbnm yjdjve rjkkt-
xtcrbq ujhjljr) htitybq j njv, cktletn kb pfcxbnsdfnm ghjöj©ltybt ntö bkb bysö l©e nt ©t ljrevtyns, rjnjhst clf±n yjdbxrb, gjcnegf±obt yf gthdsq rehc dscit-
rjyrhtnysö rehcjd. uj extåyjuj pfdtltybz, drk±xfz htrjvtylfwbb, frfltvbxtcrbt cghfdrb b jwtyrb, gj-
✏ Ghtljcnfdbnm byajhvfwb± jå jåotv xbckt rehcjd, ¤rhtlbnjd≥ bkb lheubö pfxtn- kextyyst pf ghjöj©ltybt ntcnjd ghb ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd. Rhjvt njuj, dfv ghtlcnj-
ysö tlbybw, nhtåjdfdiböcz lkz ghjöj©ltybz lf±otq ghfdj yf gjkextybt lbgkj- bn yfgbcfnm dcnegbntkmyjt cjxbytybt. Cjdtns gj gjdjle njuj, rfr ghfdbkmyj gjlfdfnm
vf bkb cntgtyb ghjuhfvvs, rjnjhfz zdkztncz jcyjdjq dfituj gthtöjlf d lheujt pfzdktybt d rjkktl©, cv. d Ukfdt 8 lfyyjq åhji±hs.
dscitt extåyjt pfdtltybt CIF.

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