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chtlytq irjkt, evtybt bpüzcyznmcz yf fyukbqcrjv zpsrt b, dj vyjubö ckexfzö, extn yf extåe d jnyjitybb fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf, yj ytrjnjhst jåobt jhbtynbhs ghbvtyb-
jxrjd, yfåhfyysö d htpekmnfnt ghjöj©ltybz jlyjuj bp ntcnjd, ghbvtyztvsö ghb ghb- ntkmyj r nhtåjdfybzv, ghtlüzdkztvsv r pyfyb± fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf, lf±ncz d ghbdj-
lbvjv yb©t hfpltkt jå jwtyrfö TOEFL. Ytrjnjhst dscibt extåyst pfdtltybz vj-
tvt (cv. yb©t). Djghjc j njv, rfr ghfdbkmyj cjcnfdkznm pfzdktybt c ghjcmåjq j ghb-
tvt d eybdthcbntn CIF, hfccvfnhbdftncz d Ukfdt 8 lfyyjq åhji±hs. uen eckjdyj ljgecrfnm fåbnehbtynjd r extåt, yj ghb ¤njv dsldbuftncz nhtåjdfybt j
njv, xnj jyb jåzpfys gjctofnm pfyznbz gj fyukbqcrjve zpsre d rjkktl©t ¤njuj pf-
Eljcnjdthtybz jå jrjyxfybb chtlytq irjks/ljrevtyns dtltybz lj njuj, rfr yfxyen ghjöj©ltybt ghjuhfvvs, lf±otq ghfdj yf gjkextybt
j htpekmnfnfö ¤rpfvtyjd cntgtyb. Rfr njkmrj ds ljcnbukb nhtåetvjuj ehjdyz dkfltybz fyukbqcrbv zpsrjv,
ds vj©tnt ghbcnegfnm r extåt. Jlyfrj bvtqnt d dble, xnj d ytrjnjhsö ckexfzö dfv
…jkmibycndj eybdthcbntnjd CIF j©blf±n jn byjcnhfyysö fåb- åeltn nhelyj gjkexbnm d dfitq cnhfyt cneltyxtcre± dbpe, tckb ds yt cevttnt ljrf-
nehbtynjd yfkbxbz e ybö eljcnjdthtybz jå jrjyxfybb chtlytq pfnm, xnj dfib pyfybz fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf ljcnfnjxys lkz njuj, xnjås ghbcnegbnm r
irjks bkb ljrevtynjd j htpekmnfnfö dsgecrysö ¤rpfvtyjd d extåt d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö.
chtlytq irjkt, rjnjhst gjpdjkbkb ås ¤nbv dsgecrybrfv irjk
exbnmcz d eybdthcbntnt d cdjtq cnhfyt. „nj jnyjcbncz ght©lt Ntcn gj fyukbqcrjve zpsre rfr byjcnhfyyjve (TOEFL)
dctuj r eybdthcbntnfv, rjyrehc ghb gjcnegktybb d rjnjhst
D yfcnjzott dhtvz d åjkmibycndt cnhfy vbhf TOEFL ghjdjlbncz yf rjvgm±ntht, f
yfbåjktt dtkbr b rjnjhst (gjvbvj dctuj ghjxtuj) cnf-
åevf©yfz dthcbz ¤njuj ntcnf cöjlbn yf ytn. Ghjdtltybt TOEFL ghtlkfuftncz dj vyj-
hf±ncz pfgjkexbnm fåbnehbtynjd c dscjrbvb jwtyrf-
vb. Jlyfrj gjvybnt j njv, xnj d eybdthcbntnfö b ubt lyb rf©ljuj vtczwf, yj kbim d juhfybxtyyjv xbckt wtynhjd, ghjdjlzobö ntcns
rjkktl©fö CIF ceotcndetn ibhjrbq lbfgfpjy yf rjvgm±ntht. Djpvj©yj, dfv ghbltncz ghtjljktnm pyfxbntkmyjt hfccnjzybt, xnjås
cnfylfhnjd, lf±obö ghfdj gjcnegfnm d ¤nb extå- ljåhfnmcz lj åkb©fqituj wtynhf, d rjnjhjv ghjdjlbncz lfyysq ntcn.
yst pfdtltybz, f nfr©t ghbybvftvjuj d ybö rjy-
Htubcnhfwbz lkz ghjöj©ltybz TOEFL. Lkz ghjöj©ltybz ¤njuj ntcnf nhtåetncz ht-
nbyutynf cneltynjd. Gjcrjkmre d cbcntvt jåhfpj-
dfybz CIF jxtym åjkmijt dybvfybt eltkztncz ubcnhfwbz, b yt hfccxbnsdfqnt yf nj, xnj ds ghbltnt d wtynh ghjdtltybz ntcnjd b d
njn ©t ltym gjkexbnt vtcnj lkz ghjöj©ltybz TOEFL. Ceotcnde±n hfpyst ght-
ibhjnt pyfybq, ytvfkjdf©ysv jåcnjzntkmcndjv
zdkztncz nj, xnjås dfit jåextybt d chtlytq irjkt ltkmyst chjrb htubcnhfwbb lkz ghjöj©ltybz egjvzyenjuj ntcnf. Cjukfcyj bycnher-
wbzv j gjhzlrt ghjdtltybz TOEFL htubcnhfwbz gj gjxnt ghjbpdjlbncz yt gjp©t, xtv
drk±xfkj d ctåz wtksq hzl ghtlvtnjd, nfrbö rfr fy-
ukbqcrbq zpsr, vfntvfnbrf, tcntcndtyyst yferb (ab- pf nhb ytltkb lj ©tkfntkmyjq lkz dfc lfns ghjdtltybz ntcnf, htubcnhfwbz gj afrce
pbrf, öbvbz, b/bkb åbjkjubz) uevfybnfhyst bkb jå- “ yt gjp©t, xtv pf ytltk± lj lfns ghjdtltybz ntcnf b htubcnhfwbz gj ntktajye “ yt
otcndtyyst yferb (bcnjhbz, utjuhfabz, ¤rjyjvbrf, gjp©t, xtv pf ldf lyz lj lfns ghjdtltybz ntcnf. Ghjcbv dfc ghbyznm r cdtltyb±, xnj
gjkbnbrf bkb fyfkjubxyst yferb) b byjcnhfyysq lkz htubcnhfwbb gj afrce bkb ntktajye nhtåetncz yfkbxbt rhtlbnyjq rfhnjxrb. Ds
zpsr. Yfrjytw, eybdthcbntns jåsxyj yt ghbybvf±n vj©tnt erfpfnm lyb, d rjnjhst ghtlgjxkb ås ghjqnb ¤njn ntcn, b jhufybpfwbb, jndtn-
byjcnhfyysö cneltynjd vjkj©t 17 ktn.

45 …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
44 TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF–
UKFDF 5 NHT…JDFYBZ, GHTLÜZDKZTVST R GJCNEGF‘OBV UKFDF 5 NHT…JDFYBZ, GHTLÜZDKZTVST R GJCNEGF‘OBV
D EYBDTHCBNTNS CIF D EYBDTHCBNTNS CIF


cndtyyst pf ghjdtltybt TOEFL, gjcnfhf±ncz eljdktndjhbnm dfie ghjcmåe. Jlyfrj d ghtldfhbntkmyst jwtyrb gthtdjlzncz d uhflebhjdfyye± jwtyre lkz rf©ljuj hfpltkf,
jghtltktyyst gthbjls ujlf bkb d ytrjnjhsö ujhjlfö wtynhs vjuen åsnm gthtuhe©t- rjnjhfz lkz rjvgm±nthyjq dthcbb ¤njuj ntcnf yföjlbncz d ghtltkfö jn 0 lj 30. Yf
ys. Gj¤njve bvttn cvsck pfhtubcnhbhjdfnmcz, gj rhfqytq vtht, pf ldf-nhb vtczwf lj jcyjdt ¤nbö jwtyjr gj rf©ljve hfpltke gjlcxbnsdftncz jåofz jwtyrf, yföjlzofzcz
d ghtltkfö jn 40 lj 300 lkz rjvgm±nthyjq dthcbb TOEFL. Rf©lsq rjkktl© htif-
©tkfntkmyjq lkz dfc lfns ghjdtltybz ntcnf. Lkz ntö cnhfy, d rjnjhsö ghjdtltybt
TOEFL lj cbö gjh ghtlkfuftncz yf åevf©yjq jcyjdt, ¤njn ntcn ghjdjlbncz d jght- tn lkz ctåz, rfrfz jwtyrf zdkztncz lkz ytuj ghbtvktvjq. Jåsxyj rjkktl©b cxbnf-
ltktyyst lfns, ecnfyjdktyyst d ghtltkfö ujlf, f rjytxyst chjrb htubcnhfwbb cjcnfd- ±n jåoe± jwtyre 250 bkb dsit jnkbxyjq, f jwtyre yb©t 97 yteljdktndjhbntkmyjq.
kz±n ghbåkbpbntkmyj itcnm ytltkm lj ¤nbö lfn. Lkz fåbnehbtynjd chtlybt jwtyrb rjktåk±ncz d ghtltkfö jn 173 lj 250.

…±kktntyb htubcnhfwbb TOEFL vj©yj gjkexbnm kbåj d jhufybpfwbzö, jndtncndtyysö Cnfylfhnyst ntcns ghb ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd
pf ghjdtltybt ¤njuj ntcnf d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö, b d htubjyfkmyjv wtynht htubcnhf-
wbb yf ghjöj©ltybt TOEFL lkz dfitq cnhfys (cv. ljgjkybntkmye± byajhvfwb± yf D rfxtcndt xfcnb ghjwtccf gjlfxb pfzdktybz yf extåe d dscitv extåyjv pfdtltybb
dtå-cfqnt TOEFL: http://www.toefl.org bkb d å±kktntyt htubcnhfwbb yf ghjöj©ltybt CIF åjkmibycndj fvthbrfycrbö rjkktl©tq b eybdthcbntnjd nhtåe±n ghtlcnfdktybz
¤njuj ntcnf), kbåj d jåhfpjdfntkmysö byajhvfwbjyysö bkb rjycekmnfwbjyysö wtynhfö jwtyjr, gjkextyysö d htpekmnfnt ghjöj©ltybz cnfylfhnysö ntcnjd ghb ghbtvt fåbne-
CIF, rjnjhst vjuen gjnhtåjdfnm jn dfc jgkfne gjxnjdsö hfcöjljd. Rhjvt njuj, d hbtynjd. Jlyfrj ytrjnjhst rjkktl©b b eybdthcbntns yt nhtåe±n jn byjcnhfyysö
¤nbö wtynhfö ds yfqltnt vfnthbfks j gjlujnjdrt r TOEFL, rjnjhst ghtljcnfdkz±n- fåbnehbtynjd, ©tkf±obö gjcnegbnm d eybdthcbntn bkb rjkktl© CIF, ghjöj©ltybz
cz lkz cghfdrb bkb dj dhtvtyyjt gjkmpjdfybt, f nfr©t ghjlf±ncz dctv ©tkf±obv. ntcnjd ghb ghbtvt yf extåe, f hzl dscibö extåysö pfdtltybq djjåot yt pfghfibdf-
±n e fåbnehbtynjd jwtyjr, gjkextyysö d htpekmnfnt ghjöj©ltybz cnfylfhnysö ntc-
Jcdjåj©ltybt jn TOEFL. Tckb ds yt zdkztntcm uhf©lfybyjv CIF, f nfr©t, tckb njd ghb ghbtvt yf extåe. Lkz yföj©ltybz rjyrhtnysö nhtåjdfybq, ghtlüzdkztvsö r
yf ghjnz©tybb åjkmitq xfcnb chjrf ghtåsdfybz d chtlytq irjkt dfc jåexfkb fyukbq- ntcnfv ghb ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd, gjkmpeqntcm erfpfntkzvb eybdthcbntnjd, nfrbvb rfr
International Student Handbook of U.S. Colleges [Cghfdjxybr rjkktl©tq CIF lkz byj-
crjve zpsre, yt zdkz±otvecz lkz dfc hjlysv, d jnyjitybb dfc vj©tn åsnm jnvt-
ytyj nhtåjdfybt j ghjöj©ltybb TOEFL. D öjlt ghjwtccf jajhvktybz b gjlfxb ljre- cnhfyysö cneltynjd] (College Board, New York, NY) b Applying to Colleges and Universit-
ies in the United States: A Handbook for International Students [Gjlfxf pfzdktybz yf extåe
vtynjd yf extåe d CIF eltkbnt ljcnfnjxyj dhtvtyb njve, xnjås pfdzpfnm gthtgbc-
re c eybdthcbntnjv, d rjnjhsq ds cjåbhftntcm gjcnegfnm, b jrjyxfntkmyj dszcybnm d rjkktl©fö b eybdthcbntnfö Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd: cghfdjxybr lkz byjcnhfyysö cne-
ltynjd] (Peterson™s, Princeton, N. J.). Rhjvt njuj, ghjcbv dfc ghbyznm dj dybvfybt, xnj
lkz ctåz ¤njn djghjc. Fvthbrfycrbt eybdthcbntns, dthjznyj, yt cjukfczncz ghbyznm
ljrevtyn j htpekmnfnfö ¤rpfvtyf gj fyukbqcrjve zpsre d chtlytq irjkt d rfxtcndt vtcnyst rjkktl©b jåsxyj yt nhtåe±n jn fåbnehbtynjd ghjöj©ltybz cnfylfhnysö
ljrfpfntkmcndf dfituj evtybz bpüzcyznmcz yf fyukbqcrjv zpsrt. ntcnjd ghb ghbtvt yf extåe.

D xtv cjcnjbn TOEFL. D ¤njv ntcnt bcgsnetvjve d jcyjdyjv ghtlkfuf±ncz djghj- Cnfylfhnyst ntcns CIF ghb ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd yf extåe ghtlcnfdkz±n cjåjq d
cs, yf rf©lsq bp rjnjhsö lftncz ytcrjkmrj jndtnjd. Bp ybö ye©yj dsåhfnm ghfdbkm- jcyjdyjv ntcns yf dszdktybt ghbujlyjcnb bcgsnetvjuj r extåt d dscibö extåysö
ysq jndtn. Rhjvt njuj, bcgsnetvsq ljk©ty yfgbcfnm cjxbytybt. „njn ajhvfn jndt- pfdtltybzö Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd. D ghjwtcct ghjdtltybz ¤nbö ntcnjd bcgsnetvjve
njd yf djghjcs b yfgbcfybz cjxbytybz ghbvtyztncz lkz njuj, xnjås ghjdthbnm ehj- ghtlkfuf±ncz djghjcs, yf rf©lsq bp rjnjhsö lftncz ytcrjkmrj jndtnjd. Bp ybö ye©-
dtym gjybvfybz bcgsnetvsv ctdthjfvthbrfycrjuj fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf. TOEFL ltkbn- yj dsåhfnm ghfdbkmysq jndtn. Lfyyst ntcns bvt±n cdjtq wtkm± cjcnfdktybt jwtyrb
cz yf xtnsht cjcnfdyst xfcnb (hfpltkf): ckeifybt, hfpåjh cnhernehs ghtlkj©tybz b yfdsrjd fåbnehbtynf, ytjåöjlbvsö lkz gjkextybz åfpjdjuj eybdthcbntncrjuj jåhf-
egjnhtåktybt ckjd, xntybt b gbcmvj. Hfpltk gbcmvf nhtåetn jn bcgsnetvjuj yfgbcf- pjdfybz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö. Fvthbrfycrbt rjkktl©b b eybdthcbntns bcgjkmpe±n
ybz cjxbytybz, rfr e©t egjvbyfkjcm dsit. ntcns ghb ghbtvt yf extåe d rfxtcndt chtlcndf jwtyrb dctö fåbnehbtynjd, gjlfdibö
pfzdktybt yf extåe d dscibö extåysö pfdtltybzö CIF (bp Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd b
TOEFL ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq ntcn, rjnjhsq vj©yj ghjöjlbnm yf rjvgm±ntht, „nj lheubö cnhfy), gentv ghbvtytybz r ybv jlyjuj b njuj ©t cnfylfhnf. Ghjcbv dfc bvtnm
jpyfxftn, xnj d ghjwtcct ghjdtltybz ntcnf yt dct bcgsnetvst jndtxf±n yf jlyb b nt d dble, xnj eljcnjdthtybz jå jrjyxfybb chtlytq irjks b ljrevtyns j htpekmnfnfö
©t djghjcs. D pfdbcbvjcnb jn njuj, yfcrjkmrj ecgtiyj bcgsnetvsq jndtxftn yf rf©- dsgecrysö ¤rpfvtyjd d chtlytq irjkt yt zdkz±ncz ¤rdbdfktynjv ntcnjd ghb ghbtvt
lsq djghjc, rjvgm±nth jghtltkztn, ljk©ty kb cktle±obq djghjc åsnm nhelytt bkb yf extåe fåbnehbtynjd, f nfr©t xnj ghjöj©ltybt ntcnjd ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq kbim jl-
ktuxt. ye bp xfcntq ghjwtccf gjlfxb fåbnehbtynjv pfzdktybz yf extåe b dytctybz tuj d cgbc-
rb ©tkf±obö gjcnegbnm d eybdthcbntn bkb rjkktl© CIF “ cfvj gj ctåt yfkbxbt
Jwtyrb. Jåott xbckj djghjcjd, yf rjnjhst ds lftnt ghfdbkmysq jndtn, b dfif jwty- öjhjibö jwtyjr pf ghjöj©ltybt ntcnf yt ufhfynbhetn ghbtvf d nt dscibt extåyst
rf pf cjxbytybt jåhfpe±n ghtldfhbntkmyst jwtyrb gj rf©ljve hfpltke. Pfntv ¤nb pfdtltybz, rjnjhst ds dsåhfkb ctåt lkz extås d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö.


46 47
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 5 NHT…JDFYBZ, GHTLÜZDKZTVST R GJCNEGF‘OBV UKFDF 5 NHT…JDFYBZ, GHTLÜZDKZTVST R GJCNEGF‘OBV
D EYBDTHCBNTNS CIF D EYBDTHCBNTNS CIF


Bvttncz nhb jcyjdysö ntcnf ghb ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd yf extåe: ybö ye©yj dsåhfnm ghfdbkmysq jndtn. Jlyfrj ghjljk©bntkmyjcnm ¤nbö jnåjhjxysö
ntcnjd gj jnltkmysv ghtlvtnfv cjcnfdkztn dctuj jlby xfc. C gjvjom± gjljåysö ntc-
✏ jnåjhjxysq ntcn (SAT I); njd jwtybdf±ncz pyfybz rjyrhtnysö extåysö lbcwbgkby d hfpkbxysö jåkfcnzö. Ghtl-
✏ jnåjhjxyst ntcns gj jnltkmysv ghtlvtnfv (SAT II); kfuftvsvb d hfvrfö SAT II ghtlvtnfvb d yfcnjzott dhtvz zdkz±ncz:
✏ ¤ntcn fvthbrfycrjuj rjkktl©f≥ (ACT).
✏ Fvthbrfycrfz bcnjhbz b jåotcndjdtltybt
✏ …bjkjubz
Ytrjnjhst eybdthcbntns vjuen bvtnm cdjb cjåcndtyyst dyenhtyybt ¤rpfvtys bkb lj-
✏ –bvbz
gjkybntkmyst ntcns, zdkz±obtcz jåzpfntkmysvb lkz fåbnehbtynjd. Lkz gjkextybz
✏ Rbnfqcrbq zpsr
åjktt gjlhjåyjq byajhvfwbb gj ¤njve djghjce cjcnfdmnt gthtxtym rjkktl©tq, d rj-
✏ Fyukbqcrbq zpsr (d rjyntrcnt dkfltybz ¤nbv zpsrjv, d jnkbxbt jn
njhst ds öjnbnt gjlfnm pfzdktybt, f pfntv gjkmpeqntcm jåobvb erfpfntkzvb rjkkt-
l©tq bkb cjåcndtyysvb cghfdjxybrfvb b dtå-cfqnfvb rjkktl©tq c wtkm± dszcytybz evtybz bpüzcyznmcz yf ytv)
✏ Ahfywepcrbq zpsr
rjyrhtnysö nhtåjdfybq d jnyjitybb ntcnjd, ghtlüzdkztvsö rf©lsv dscibv extå-
✏ Ytvtwrbq zpsr
ysv pfdtltybtv.
✏ Bnfkmzycrbq zpsr
✏ Zgjycrbq zpsr
Jnåjhjxysq ntcn (SAT)
✏ Rjhtqcrbq zpsr
✏ Kfnbycrbq zpsr
Rfr SAT I, nfr b SAT II ghjdjlzncz ytcrjkmrj hfp d ujle gj dctve vbhe d cfvsö hfp-
✏ Kbnthfnehf
ysö vtcnfö. Lkz ghjöj©ltybz ¤nbö ntcnjd nhtåetncz ghtldfhbntkmyfz htubcnhfwbz, b tt
✏ Vfntvfnbrf
ghtltkmyst chjrb jåsxyj cjcnfdkz±n itcnm ytltkm lj ghjdtltybz gjljåyjuj ¤rpfvtyf.
✏ Cjdhtvtyysq bdhbn
…jktt rjyrhtnyfz byajhvfwbz jnyjcbntkmyj lfn ghjdtltybz lfyysö ntcnjd, wtynhjd, d
✏ Abpbrf
rjnjhsö jyb ghjdjlzncz, gkfns, dpbvftvjq pf bö ghjdtltybt, b ghjwtleh htubcnhfwbb c
✏ Bcgfycrbq zpsr
wtkm± ghjöj©ltybz egjvzyensö ntcnjd ghbdjlbncz d å±kktntyt htubcnhfwbb SAT bkb
✏ Dctvbhyfz bcnjhbz
yf dtå-cfqnt jhufybpfwbq, jndtncndtyysö pf ghjdtltybt jnåjhjxysö ntcnjd SAT:
✏ Bcreccndj gbcmvf
http://www.collegeboard.org. Ds vj©tnt gjkexbnm ¤rptvgkzhs htubcnhfwbjyyjuj å±kkt-
ntyz d Cjdtnt rjkktl©tq d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö bkb d åkb©fqitv jåhfpjdfntkmyjv
byajhvfwbjyyjv bkb rjycekmnfwbjyyjv wtynht. C dfc vjuen gjnhtåjdfnm jgkfne gjx- Vyjubt rjkktl©b b eybdthcbntns CIF, jcjåtyyj nt, d rjnjhsö ghbvtyz±ncz åjktt
njdsö hfcöjljd pf ¤nb å±kktntyb. Rhjvt njuj, d wtynhfö CIF jåsxyj bvt±ncz nbgj- cnhjubt rjyrehcyst rhbnthbb ghbtvf, kbåj dsldbuf±n nhtåjdfybt, kbåj dyjczn htrj-
dst djghjcs b lheubt vfnthbfks j gjlujnjdrt r ntcnfv SAT, rjnjhst ghtljcnfdkz±n- vtylfwb± j ghtlcnfdktybb jwtyjr, gjkextyysö d htpekmnfnt ghjöj©ltybz jlyjuj bkb
ytcrjkmrbö ntcnjd SAT II, c wtkm± ghbtvf yf extåe/hfcghtltktybz gj uheggfv åjktt
cz lkz cghfdrb bkb dj dhtvtyyjt gjkmpjdfybt, f nfr©t ghjlf±ncz dctv ©tkf±obv.
ljcnjqysö fåbnehbtynjd. Jåzpfntkmyj dszcybnt nhtåjdfybz, ghtlüzdkztvst rf©lsv
Xnj ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq SAT I. D ¤njv ntcnt bcgsnetvjve d jcyjdyjv ghtlkfuf±ncz dscibv extåysv pfdtltybtv, ght©lt xtv pfgbcsdfnmcz yf ghjöj©ltybt k±åjuj ntc-
nf SAT II. D nj dhtvz rfr jlyb rjkktl©b rjyrhtnyj erfpsdf±n, rfrbt ntcns gj jn-
djghjcs, yf rf©lsq bp rjnjhsö lftncz ytcrjkmrj jndtnjd. Bp ybö ye©yj dsåhfnm
ghfdbkmysq jndtn. Nfrbv jåhfpjv jwtybdf±ncz yfdsrb ecnyjq htxb bcgsnetvjuj b ltkmysv ghtlvtnfv ds ljk©ys ghjqnb, lheubt ghtljcnfdkz±n dfv ghfdj dsåjhf ntc-
tuj evtybt bpkfufnm cdjb vsckb, f nfr©t cgjcjåyjcnm bcgsnetvjuj r vfntvfnbxtc- njd. D ¤njv ckexft htrjvtyletncz ghjöjlbnm ghjdthre gj ntv ghtlvtnfv, d rjnjhsö
rjve vsiktyb±. Lfyysq ntcn ltkbncz yf ctvm gjkexfcjdsö hfpltkjd: nhb bp ybö cdz- ds yfbåjktt cbkmys.
pfys c jwtyrjq yfdsrjd ecnyjq htxb b evtybtv bpkfufnm cdjb vsckb, nhb bvt±n cdj-
Jwtyrb. Rf©lsq bp hfpltkjd SAT I, ghtlyfpyfxtyysö lkz jwtyrb vfntvfnbxtcrbö
tq wtkm± ghjdthre vfntvfnbxtcrbö cgjcjåyjcntq, b jlby ljgjkybntkmysq hfpltk, yj-
czobq dshfdybdf±obq öfhfrnth, bvttn jnyjitybt kbåj r jwtyrt evtybz bpkfufnm cgjcjåyjcntq, f nfr©t yfdsrjd ecnyjq htxb b evtybz bpkfufnm cdjb vsckb, jwtybdf-
cdjb vsckb, kbåj r jwtyrt vfntvfnbxtcrbö cgjcjåyjcntq. „nf gjcktlyzz xfcnm ghb- tncz gj irfkt jn 200 lj 800. Gj¤njve cfvfz dscjrfz djpvj©yfz jåofz jwtyrf gj
ntcne SAT I vj©tn cjcnfdbnm 1 600. Jwtyrb gj hfpltkfv vfntvfnbxtcrbö cgjcjåyjc-
vtyztncz lkz njuj, xnjås jåtcgtxbnm d rf©ljv ujle ghjdtltybt lfyyjuj ntcnf jlyj-
uj b njuj ©t ehjdyz ckj©yjcnb, b yt dkbztn yf dfie jwtyre. ntq, f nfr©t yfdsrfv ecnyjq htxb b evtyb± bpkfufnm cdjb vsckb cjjåof±ncz d rjk-
ktl©b jnltkmyj. D åjkmibycndt erfpfntktq b cghfdjxybrjd rjkktl©tq ghbdjlzncz
D jnåjhjxysö ntcnfö gj jnltkmysv ghtlvtnfv (SAT II) bcgsnetvjve nfr©t d jcyjd- chtlybt uhflebhjdfyyst jwtyrb lkz rf©ljuj dscituj extåyjuj pfdtltybz c ntv, xnj-
yjv ghtlkfuf±ncz djghjcs, yf rf©lsq bp rjnjhsö lftncz ytcrjkmrj jndtnjd, b bp ås lfnm ytrjnjhjt ghtlcnfdktybt j njv, rfr jhbtynbhjdfnmcz d jnyjcbntkmyjq bpåb-


48 49
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 5 NHT…JDFYBZ, GHTLÜZDKZTVST R GJCNEGF‘OBV UKFDF 5 NHT…JDFYBZ, GHTLÜZDKZTVST R GJCNEGF‘OBV
D EYBDTHCBNTNS CIF D EYBDTHCBNTNS CIF


✏ Ds ljk©ys åsnm yt vjkj©t 17 ktn.
hfntkmyjcnb. Jnåjhjxyst ntcns gj jnltkmysv ghtlvtnfv (SAT II) nfr©t jwtybdf±n-
✏ Vyjubt, yj yt dct, rjkktl©b nhtåe±n jn byjcnhfyysö fåbnehbtynjd, gjlfdibö
cz gj irfkt jn 200 lj 800.
pfzdktybt yf extåe d dscibö extåysö pfdtltybzö CIF, ghjöj©ltybz cnfylfhnyj-
¤Ntcn fvthbrfycrjuj rjkktl©f≥ (ACT) uj ntcnf ghb ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd, jåsxyj jnåjhjxyjuj ntcnf (SAT I) bkb ¤ntcnf
fvthbrfycrjuj rjkktl©f≥ (ACT).
✏ Rhjvt njuj, ytrjnjhst rjkktl©b vjuen gjnhtåjdfnm jn dfc ghjöj©ltybz jnåjhjx-
ACT ghbvtyztncz d hfvrfö Ghjuhfvvs ¤ntcnf fvthbrfycrjuj rjkktl©f≥ b ghjdjlbn-
ysö ntcnjd gj jnltkmysv ghtlvtnfv (SAT II). Ghbcnegfqnt r yfdtltyb± cghfdjr c
cz gj dctve vbhe lj gznb hfp d ujl d vtcnfö, jndtltyysö lkz ghjöj©ltybz ¤njuj ntc-
nf. D jnkbxbt jn SAT, njxyj yt ecnfyfdkbdftncz, crjkmrj hfp d ujl ljk©ty ghjdj- ntv, xnjås jghtltkbnm rjyrhtnyst nhtåjdfybz d jnyjitybb ghjöj©ltybz ntcnjd.
✏ Ntcns SAT ghjdjlzncz ytcrjkmrj hfp d rf©ljv extåyjv ujle, b vfnthbfks j
lbnmcz ACT, b xfcnjnf tuj ghjdtltybz rjktåktncz d pfdbcbvjcnb jn njuj bkb byjuj
wtynhf, ghtlkfuf±otuj cdjb eckeub ©tkf±obv ghjqnb ¤njn ntcn. D rfxtcndt byj- htubcnhfwbb yf ghjöj©ltybt ¤nbö ntcnjd vj©yj gjkexbnm d jhufybpfwbzö, jndtncn-
cnhfyyjuj cneltynf dfv vj©tn yt gjyfljåbnmcz ghjöj©ltybt FCN. Jlyfrj tckb dtyysö pf ghjdtltybt lfyysö ntcnjd, bkb d jåhfpjdfntkmysö byajhvfwbjyysö b
dscitt extåyjt pfdtltybt dsldbuftn nhtåjdfybt j ghjöj©ltybb lfyyjuj ntcnf, pfåkf- rjycekmnfwbjyysö wtynhfö CIF. Ds nfr©t vj©tnt pfhtubcnhbhjdfnmcz dj Dctvbh-
ujdhtvtyyj gjlevfqnt j njv, rjulf ds cjåbhftntcm ghjqnb tuj c ntv, xnjås yt ghj- yjq rjvgm±nthyjq ctnb yf ghjöj©ltybt ¤nbö ntcnjd.
gecnbnm lfne tuj ghjdtltybz d åkb©fqitv cjjndtncnde±otv wtynht. Lkz ghjöj©lt-
ybz ACT nhtåetncz ghtldfhbntkmyfz htubcnhfwbz, f tt ghtltkmyst chjrb cjcnfdkz±n Tckb fyukbqcrbq zpsr yt zdkztncz dfibv gthdsv zpsrjv, dfv nfr©t ytjåöjlbvj
ldt-nhb ytltkb lj ghjöj©ltybz ¤njq ghjdthrb. Gjcrjkmre htpekmnfns ghjöj©ltybz ghjqnb ntcn gj fyukbqcrjve zpsre rfr byjcnhfyyjve (TOEFL). D jghtltktyysö cke-
ACT yt nfr ibhjrj ghbybvf±ncz, rfr htpekmnfns SAT, gjcnfhfqntcm njxyj epyfnm, xfzö vj©tn åsnm ghbtvktvsv lheujq ntcn “ ntcn yf dkfltybt fyukbqcrbv zpsrjv.
ghbven kb eybdthcbntns, d rjnjhst ds gjlftnt pfzdktybt, jwtyrb, gjkextyyst pf ghj-
öj©ltybt ACT, dvtcnj jwtyjr, dscnfdktyysö pf ntcn SAT. …jktt rjyrhtnyfz byajh- Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns
vfwbz j lfnfö ghjdtltybz ACT b wtynhfö, d rjnjhsö ghjdjlbncz ¤njn ntcn, lftncz d
htubcnhfwbjyyjv å±kktntyt, rjnjhsq vj©yj gjkexbnm d jhufybpfwbzö, jndtncndtyysö Ntcn gj fyukbqcrjve zpsre rfr byjcnhfyyjve (TOEFL)
pf ghjdtltybt ACT, f nfr©t dj vyjubö byajhvfwbjyysö b rjycekmnfwbjyysö wtynhfö http://www.toefl.org
CIF. Ghjcbv dfc ghbyznm r cdtltyb±, xnj ¤nb wtynhs vjuen gjnhtåjdfnm c dfc jg-
kfne gjxnjdsö hfcöjljd. Jnåjhjxysq ntcn (SAT)
http://www.collegeboard.com
Xnj ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq ACT. D ¤ntcnt fvthbrfycrjuj rjkktl©f≥ bcgsnetvjve
pflf±ncz djghjcs, yf rf©lsq bp rjnjhsö lftncz ytcrjkmrj jndtnjd. Bp ybö ye©yj ¤Ntcn fvthbrfycrjuj rjkktl©f≥ (ACT)
dsåhfnm ghfdbkmysq jndtn. C gjvjom± ACT jwtybdf±ncz pyfybz fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf, http://www.act.org
yfdsrb xntybz b cgjcjåyjcnm r yfexyjve vsiktyb±.

Jwtyrb. Gj rf©ljq jåkfcnb pyfybq, cjcnjzotq bp xtnshtö ghtlvtnjd, ds gjkexftnt
ghtldfhbntkmye± jwtyre, rjnjhfz ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq jåott xbckj ghfdbkmysö jndt-
njd. Pfntv ¤nf ghtldfhbntkmyfz jwtyrf gthtdjlbncz d uhflebhjdfyye± jwtyre, yföj-
lzoe±cz d ghtltkfö jn 1 lj 36. Gjckt ¤njuj gjlcxbnsdftncz jåofz jwtyrf gentv
ckj©tybz uhflebhjdfyysö jwtyjr b ltktybz gjkextyyjq cevvs yf xtnsht. Cfvfz ds-
cjrfz djpvj©yfz jåofz jwtyrf cjcnfdkztn 36, f cfvfz ybprfz “ 1. Xthtp ytcrjkmrj
ytltkm ¤nb jwtyrb gjgflf±n d eybdthcbntn.

Htp±vt

✏ Lkz njuj, xnjås gjlfnm pfzdktybt yf extåe d hfvrfö ghjuhfvvs, lf±otq ghfdj
yf gjkextybt cntgtyb åfrfkfdhf CIF, e dfc ljk©ys åsnm dslfyyst dfitq cnhf-
yjq eljcnjdthtybt jå jrjyxfybb chtlytq irjks bkb ljrevtyns j htpekmnfnfö ds-
gecrysö ¤rpfvtyjd d chtlytq irjkt.


50 51
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 6 A B Y F Y C B H J D F Y B T D F I T U J J … HF P J D F Y B Z UKFDF 6 A B Y F Y C B H J D F Y B T D F I T U J J … HF P J D F Y B Z



vthjghbznbq bkb jåcke©bdfybt d vtlbwbycrjv wtynht, dpbvf±ncz ljgjkybntkmyst
cåjhs. Byjcnhfyyst cneltyns jåzpfys rfr dyjcbnm gkfne pf jåextybt, nfr b dsgkf-
xbdfnm cåjhs pf lheubt ghtljcnfdkztvst eckeub. D ytrjnjhsö eybdthcbntnfö c byj-
cnhfyysö cneltynjd d jåzpfntkmyjv gjhzlrt dpbvf±ncz cnhföjdst cåjhs d cxtn cnhf-
ABYFYCBHJDFYBT öjdfybz jn åjktpytq b ytcxfcnysö ckexftd.

DFITUJ J…HFPJDFYBZ Ytcvjnhz yf yfkbxbt pyfxbntkmyjq hfpybws d hfpvthfö gkfns pf jåextybt b cåjhjd
pf lheubt ghtljcnfdkztvst eckeub d pfdbcbvjcnb jn njuj bkb byjuj dscituj extåyj-
Jåhfpjdfybt d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö vj©tn cnjbnm ljhj- uj pfdtltybz, yt ceotcndetn dpfbvjcdzpb vt©le ehjdytv gkfns pf jåextybt b hfpvt-
uj, yj ds, dthjznyj, e©t gjyzkb, xnj jyj zdkztncz jnkbx- hfvb cåjhjd, dsgkfxbdftvsö pf lheubt ghtljcnfdkztvst eckeub, c jlyjq cnjhjys, b
ysv rfgbnfkjdkj©tybtv. D ¤njq ukfdt gjlhjåyj hfpåbhf±n- rfxtcndjv extåyjuj pfdtltybz, c lheujq. Cevvs, dpbvftvst rfrbv-kbåj rjyrhtnysv
cz hfcöjls, cdzpfyyst c gjkextybtv jåhfpjdfybz, b cgjcjås rjkktl©tv, pfdbczn jn vyjubö afrnjhjd. Cfvsv pyfxbntkmysv bp ybö zdkztncz
gjrhsnbz dfibö hfcöjljd, drk±xfz ghtljcnfdktybt abyfy- djghjc j njv, j rfrjuj hjlf rjkktl©t bltn htxm. Gkfnf pf jåextybt b cåjhs pf lhe-
cjdjq gjvjob cj cnjhjys rjkktl©tq b gjcnegktybt abyfy- ubt ghtljcnfdkztvst eckeub d xfcnysö eybdthcbntnfö jåsxyj åsdftn dsit, xtv d
cjdsö chtlcnd bp lheubö bcnjxybrjd. eybdthcbntnfö infnf. Cfvfz ybprfz gkfnf pf jåextybt b lheubt ghtljcnfdkztvst ec-
keub dpbvftncz d vtcnysö, ntöybxtcrbö b ghjatccbjyfkmyj-ntöybxtcrbö rjkktl©fö.
Pfåkfujdhtvtyyjt gkfybhjdfybt Eybdthcbntns infnjd dpbvf±n cj cneltynjd, yt zdkz±oböcz gjcnjzyysvb ©bntkzvb
infnf, d rjnjhjv yföjlbncz eybdthcbntn, åjktt dscjre± gkfne pf jåextybt, xtv c
…jkmijt pyfxtybt bvttn jwtyrf b gkfybhjdfybt hfcöjljd yf gjcnjzyysö ©bntktq ¤njuj infnf. Gjxnb dj dctö ckexfzö byjcnhfyysv cneltynfv,
dfit jåhfpjdfybt b cgjcjåjd bö abyfycbhjdfybz tot lj nj- jåexf±obvcz d dscibö extåysö pfdtltybzö infnf, ghböjlbncz dyjcbnm åjktt dscj-
uj, rfr ds ghbcnegbnt r gjlujnjdrt b ghtlcnfdktyb± lj- re± gkfne pf jåextybt d hfvrfö dctö extåysö ghjuhfvv, gjcrjkmre ¤nb cneltyns yt
revtynjd yf extåe. Eybdthcbntns b rjkktl©b jåsxyj bvt±n ghfdf yf hfcwtyrb, ecnfyfdkbdftvst lkz gjcnjzyysö ©bntktq infnf. Yt ckt-
nhtåe±n cghfdre j abyfycjdjv gjkj©tybb fåbnehbtynf b letn nfr©t pfåsdfnm j njv, xnj yt dj dctö eybdthcbntnfö, dpbvf±obö cfve± ybpre±
ghtljcnfdktybz ufhfynbq d rfxtcndt xfcnb ghjwtlehs dyt- gkfne pf jåextybt b cfvst ybprbt cåjhs pf lheubt ghtljcnfdkztvst eckeub, bvt±n-
ctybz d cgbcrb ©tkf±obö gjcnegbnm d ¤nb extåyst pfdt- cz cfvst ybprbt hfcöjls yf ©bkmt; dfv cktletn nofntkmyj bpexbnm jåf ¤nbö afrnj-
ltybz. Rhjvt njuj, ght©lt xtv jåhfofnmcz pf gjkextybtv cneltyxtcrjq dbps, dfv hf c ntv, xnjås cjcnfdbnm åjktt njxye± jwtyre dfibö ujljdsö hfcöjljd.
ytjåöjlbvj ljrfpfnm, xnj ds d cjcnjzybb gjrhsnm dct hfcöjls yf dfit jåextybt. Tc-
kb ds ©tyfns/pfve©tv b/bkb bvttnt ltntq, dfv nfr©t ghbltncz pfhfytt ljrfpsdfnm, Gjcrjkmre hfpvths gkfns pf jåextybt b cåjhjd pf lheubt ghtljcnfdkztvst eckeub
xnj e dfc ljcnfnjxyj abyfycjdsö chtlcnd lkz njuj, xnjås cjlth©fnm ctåz b xktyjd cbkmyj jnkbxf±ncz lheu jn lheuf d pfdbcbvjcnb jn rjyrhtnyjuj dscituj extåyjuj
cdjtq ctvmb. pfdtltybz b gjdsif±ncz d chtlytv yf 5 ghjwtynjd d ujl, kexit dctuj gjcvjnhtnm
gjcktlybt lfyyst yf ¤njn cxtn d ntreobö cghfdjxybrfö rjkktl©tq, dj Dctvbhyjq
Gjlcxtn dfibö hfcöjljd rjvgm±nthyjq ctnb bkb d cghfdjxysö vfnthbfkfö, bvt±oböcz d jåhfpjdfntkmysö
byajhvfwbjyysö b rjycekmnfwbjyysö wtynhfö CIF. Jåzpfntkmyj gjkexbnt gjlndth-
Jcyjdysvb dblfvb hfcöjljd, cdzpfyysö c extåjq d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö, zdkz±ncz gkf- ©ltybt ntreobö hfcöjljd jn dsåhfyyjuj dfvb rjyrhtnyjuj dscituj extåyjuj pfdt-
nf pf jåextybt b lheubt ghtljcnfdkztvst eckeub gk±c hfcöjls yf ghj©bdfybt. Dj dctö ltybz d vjvtyn gjlfxb d ytuj pfzdktybz j ghbtvt yf extåe.
¤nbö pfnhfnfö yfåk±lftncz pyfxbntkmysq hfpåhjc, xnj lftn dfv jghtltktyysq rjynhjkm
yfl hfcöjlfvb, cdzpfyysvb c gjkextybtv jåhfpjdfybz. Dct rjkktl©b CIF geåkbre±n Hfcöjls yf ghj©bdfybt
byajhvfwb± j hfcöjlfö d bö extåyjv pfdtltybb b d hfqjyt, d rjnjhjv jyj yföjlbncz.
Ghb hfcxtnt dfibö hfcöjljd ghbvbnt dj dybvfybt ghbdjlbvst yb©t vjvtyns. Hfcöjls yf ghj©bdfybt åsdf±n cfvsvb hfpysvb b pfdbczn jn jåhfpf ©bpyb cnelty-
nf. Tckb ds ghbåskb d Cjtlbytyyst Infns c xktyfvb cdjtq ctvmb, ¤nj, hfpevttncz,
Gkfnf pf jåextybt b cåjhs pf lheubt ghtljcnfdkztvst eckeub edtkbxbn dfib t©tvtczxyst hfcöjls.

Gkfnf pf jåextybt ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq jgkfne ghtgjlfdfybz, f pf lheubt ghtljcnfd- Cfvst åjkmibt hfcöjls yf ghj©bdfybt åsdf±n d åjkmibö ujhjlfö, d Rfkbajhybb b
kztvst eckeub, yfghbvth, pf gjkmpjdfybt åbåkbjntrjq, ghjdtltybt cneltyxtcrbö yf ±uj-djcnjrt cnhfys. „nb hfcöjls vjuen åsnm pyfxbntkmyj vtymit yf ±ut, Chtlytv


52 53
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 6 A B Y F Y C B H J D F Y B T D F I T U J J … HF P J D F Y B Z UKFDF 6 A B Y F Y C B H J D F Y B T D F I T U J J … HF P J D F Y B Z



✏ cjcnfdktybz jwtyrb kbxysö abyfycjdsö chtlcnd;
Pfgflt b d hzlt lheubö hfqjyjd. –jhjibv bcnjxybrjv byajhvfwbb j ntreobö hfcöjlfö
✏ jghtltktybz abyfycjdjq gjvjob, yf rjnjhe± ds bvttnt ghfdj;
yf ghj©bdfybt zdkz±ncz cghfdjxybrb eybdthcbntnjd b dtå-cfqns. D hfpltkt jåobö hfc-
✏ cjrhfotybz hfcöjljd yf jåhfpjdfybt.
öjljd yf ghj©bdfybt, rjnjhst ghbdjlzncz d ¤nbö bcnjxybrfö, ds jåsxyj yfqltnt ghb-
åkbpbntkmye± hfpåbdre hfcöjljd gj jnltkmysv cnfnmzv, nfrbv rfr hfcöjls yf ©bkmt,
gbnfybt, rybub, vtlbwbycre± cnhföjdre b kbxyst ye©ls. D dfitv jåhfpjdfntkmyjv b Cjcnfdktybt jwtyrb kbxysö abyfycjdsö chtlcnd
rjycekmnfwbjyyjv wtynht nfr©t vj©tn bvtnmcz d yfkbxbb byajhvfwbz j gjcktlybö
t©tvtczxysö hfcöjlfö yf ghj©bdfybt d ujhjlt bkb d dscitv extåyjv pfdtltybb. Gjujdjhbnt c hjlbntkzvb b lheubvb ctvtqysvb cgjycjhfvb lkz njuj, xnjås dszc-
ybnm, crjkmrj ltytu jyb vjuen t©tujlyj dsltkznm yf dfit jåextybt. Gjcnfhfqntcm
Dfib jcyjdyst hfcöjls yf ghj©bdfybt, åtpeckjdyj, åelen drk±xfnm d ctåz hfcöjls gjkexbnm rfr vj©yj åjkmit abyfycjdsö chtlcnd bp ctvtqysö bcnjxybrjd, gjcrjkm-
yf gbnfybt b ©bkmt, yj yt pfåelmnt ghtlecvjnhtnm cktle±obt hfcöjls: re åjkmibycndj ghbce©lftvsö cnbgtylbq, tckb nfrjdst bvt±ncz, gjrhsdf±n kbim
xfcnm jåobö hfcöjljd yf jåextybt b ghj©bdfybt b vjuen yt ghtljcnfdkznmcz byj-
Rybub b extåyst gjcjåbz. Rjkktl©b cjcnfdkz±n jwtyre hfcöjljd yf rybub b extå- cnhfyysv cneltynfv.
yst gjcjåbz yf extåysq ujl. Cneltyns, jåexf±obtcz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö, ljk©ys
gjregfnm extåybrb, f rybub vjuen cnjbnm dtcmvf ljhjuj. D cneltyxtcrbö ujhjlrfö Jghtltktybt bcnjxybrjd abyfycjdjq gjvjob
åjkmibycndf dscibö extåysö pfdtltybq bvt±ncz ryb©yst vfufpbys. Vyjubt bp ¤nbö
¤Nhtpdj gjlöjlbnt r njve, crjkmrj ltytu dfv ye©yj
vfufpbyjd lf±n dfv djpvj©yjcnm gjregfnm gjlth©fyyst rybub gj cyb©tyysv
b crjkmrj bö e dfc yf cfvjv ltkt≥.
wtyfv bkb ghjlfdfnm yfpfl cdjb rybub d rjywt ctvtcnhf pf xfcnm bö gthdjyfxfkmyjq
wtys. Tckb ds gkfybhetnt exbnmcz d jåkfcnb, nhtåe±otq yfkbxbz cgtwbfkmyjq kbnt- “ Cneltyn afrekmntnf vt©leyfhjlysö jnyjitybq
hfnehs, yfghbvth, by©tythyjve ltke, bcreccnde bkb fhöbntrneht, dfib hfcöjls, b cjwbjkjubb bp Ufys
celz gj dctve, åelen dsit chtlybö.
Dctulf bvttncz åjkmijt xbckj rfylblfnjd yf dct ghtlyfpyfxtyyst lkz byjcnhfyysö
Nhfycgjhn. Hfcöjls, ghbdjlbvst åjkmibycndjv eybdthcbntnjd, yt drk±xf±n d ctåz cneltynjd dbls cnbgtylbq b abyfycjdjq gjvjob, b lkz bö gjkextybz ye©yj åsnm
jgkfne ghjtplf d dfie cnhfye bp Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd b jåhfnyj. Eåtlbntcm d njv, jnkbxybrjv. Dfv xfcnj ghbltncz cnfkrbdfnmcz c ntv, xnj gjyznbz ¤cnbgtylbz≥ b ¤ab-
xnj d dfi ujljdjq å±l©tn döjlzn hfcöjls yf gjtplre yf hjlbye b djpdhfotybt yfycjdfz gjvjom≥ zdkz±ncz dpfbvjpfvtyztvsvb. Jlyfrj d ntöybxtcrjv gkfyt cnb-
d rjkktl©. Tckb ds gkfybhetnt ©bnm dyt cneltyxtcrjuj ujhjlrf b cjdthifnm t©tl- gtylbz ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq abyfycjdst chtlcndf, ghbce©lftvst pf jghtltktyyst
ytdyst gjtplrb bp ljvf d cneltyxtcrbq ujhjljr b jåhfnyj, dfv cktletn ghbåfdbnm r pfckeub, drk±xfz ecgtöb d extåt, dslf±obtcz ljcnb©tybz d cgjhnt bkb bcgjkyb-
dfibv hfcöjlfv hfcöjls yf ¤nb gjtplrb. Rjkktl©b, hfcgjkj©tyyst d ghbujhjlyjq ntkmcrjv bcreccndt, bkb ©t, djpvj©yj, d jåotcndtyyjq hfåjnt bkb herjdjlzotq hj-
pjyt, jåsxyj ghbdjlzn jwtyre ¤nbö hfcöjljd d cjcnfdt hfcöjljd yf ghj©bdfybt. kb d hfpkbxysö jåkfcnzö. Abyfycjdfz gjvjom zdkztncz ¤jcyjdfyyjq yf ytjåöjlbvjc-
nb≥ ljnfwbtq, gjkexftvjq cneltynjv d cbke tuj ye©lftvjcnb d abyfycjdsö chtlcn-
Ghjxbt kbxyst hfcöjls. Kbxyst hfcöjls drk±xf±n d ctåz nfrbt cnfnmb rfr hfcöj- dfö, rjnjhfz gjlndth©lftncz cdtltybzvb j tuj ctvtqyjv ljöjlt b yfkbxbtv e ytuj
ls yf njdfhs gthdjq ytjåöjlbvjcnb, jlt©le b eckeub. Ghtlüzdkztncz nhtåjdfybt bysö abyfycjdsö chtlcnd, f nfr©t cdzpfyf c ltqcndbtv lheubö afrnjhjd. Yb©t ghb-
j cnhföjdfybb yf ckexfq åjktpyb. Tckb e dfc tcnm b©lbdtyws “ cegheuf b/bkb ltnb “ djlzncz jcyjdyst dbls abyfycjdjq gjvjob, bvt±otqcz d yfkbxbb lkz byjcnhfyysö
bkb tckb e dfc bvt±ncz jcjåst gjnhtåyjcnb d vtlbwbycrbö eckeufö, gjyfljåbncz cneltynjd, rjnjhst öjnzn exbnmcz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö:
yfkbxbt pyfxbntkmysö chtlcnd lkz gjrhsnbz dfibö hfcöjljd yf ghj©bdfybt.
Abyfycjdst chtlcndf, ghtljcnfdkztvst dfitq cnhfyjq. Bpexbnt bvt±obtcz d df-
Abyfycbhjdfybt dfituj jåhfpjdfybz itq cnhfyt djpvj©yjcnb gjkextybz abyfycbhjdfybz bp nfrbö bcnjxybrjd, rfr ghfdb-
ntkmcndj, rjhgjhfwbb bkb ajyls. Ytcvjnhz yf nj, xnj ¤nb bcnjxybrb vj©yj yfqnb yt
Dfv df©yj yfxfnm dfit abyfycjdjt gkfybhjdfybt gj rhfqytq vtht pf 12 vtczwtd lj dj dctö cnhfyfö, ds dct ©t vjukb ås cjrhfnbnm cdjb hfcöjls yf gjkextybt jåhfpj-
njuj, rfr ds yfvthtdftntcm ghbcnegbnm r jåextyb± d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö. Abyfycb- dfybz gjchtlcndjv gjkextybz cnbgtylbb jn jhufybpfwbq cdjtq cnhfys.
hjdfybt jåextybz d rjkktl©t cjcnjbn bp:
Abyfycbhjdfybt, ghtljcnfdkztvjt rjkktl©fvb. Jhufybpeqnt dcnhtxe c rehfnj-
✏ cjcnfdktybz bvt±obö ±hblbxtcre± cbke ljrevtynjd b vfnthbfkjd, cdzpfyysö hjv/rjycekmnfynjv gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz lkz njuj, xnjås dszcybnm, rfr vj©yj
c gjlfxtq pfzdktybz yf extåe d dscibö extåysö pfdtltybzö d CIF; yfqnb abyfycjde± gjvjom, ghtljcnfdkztve± byjcnhfyysv cneltynfv. Nofntkmyst
pfåkfujdhtvtyyst gjbcrb ghb yfkbxbb htfkmysö j©blfybq bvt±n åjktt dscjre± cnt-


54 55
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 6 A B Y F Y C B H J D F Y B T D F I T U J J … HF P J D F Y B Z UKFDF 6 A B Y F Y C B H J D F Y B T D F I T U J J … HF P J D F Y B Z



gtym dthjznyjcnb ljcnb©tybz ecgtöf d gjkextybb bcrjvjq gjvjob. Yf cfvjv ltkt, D Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö kbim ujhcnrf åjufnsö rjkktl©tq bvttn djpvj©yjcnm eljd-
vtytt gjkjdbys dscibö extåysö pfdtltybq, ghtlkfuf±obö extåyst ghjuhfvvs, lf±- ktndjhznm abyfycjdst gjnhtåyjcnb dctö ghbybvftvsö bvb yf extåe cneltynjd. (Ghj-
obt ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb åfrfkfdhf, vjuen ghtljcnfdkznm abyfycjde± gjvjom cbv dfc ghbyznm r cdtltyb±, xnj rjyrehtywbz ghb gjcnegktybb d ¤nb extåyst pfdtlt-
cneltynfv, yt zdkz±obvcz uhf©lfyfvb bkb gjcnjzyysvb ©bntkzvb Cjtlbytyysö ybz jxtym dscjrf). Abyfycjdst gjnhtåyjcnb ghtlcnfdkz±n cjåjq hfpybwe vt©le ntv,
Infnjd. Gjvybnt j njv, xnj abyfycjdfz gjvjom cneltynfv CIF ghtljcnfdkztncz xnj ds b dfif ctvmz vj©tnt ctåt gjpdjkbnm d abyfycjdjv jnyjitybb, b jhbtynbhj-
jnltkmyj jn abyfycjdjq gjvjob byjcnhfyysv cneltynfv. Jåzpfntkmyj crf©bnt cj- djxyjq cnjbvjcnm± extås d rjkktl©t. Gthdst gjlcxbnsdf±ncz yf jcyjdt gjlhjåyjq
nhelybrfv jabcf, jndtncndtyyjuj pf ghbtv fåbnehbtynjd, uhf©lfybyjv rfrjq cnhfys byajhvfwbb j abyfycjdjv gjkj©tybb dfibö hjlbntktq, drk±xfz gjlndth©lf±obt
ds zdkztntcm, b pfghjcbnt e ybö byajhvfwb± j abyfycjdjq gjvjob, bvt±otqcz d yf- ljrfpfntkmcndf d dblt dsgbcjr bp åfyrjdcrjuj cxtnf, gbctv hfåjnjlfntktq b bysö
kbxbb lkz cneltynjd, yt zdkz±oböcz uhf©lfyfvb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd. D ckexft jabwbfkmysö ljrevtynjd b cdtltybq. Lheubt eybdthcbntns, ghtljcnfdkz±obt åjktt
ghtljcnfdktybz gjljåyjq abyfycjdjq gjvjob jyf jåsxyj cjcnjbn bp hzlf hfpkbxysö juhfybxtyyst gj cdjbv cevvfv rfntujhbb abyfycjdjq gjvjob yf jcyjdt dfibö ab-
dbljd abyfycjdjuj cjltqcndbz, drk±xfz uhfyns b cnbgtylbb, f byjulf b dslfxe ccel yfycjdsö gjnhtåyjcntq, nfr©t pfghjczn gjljåyst gjlndth©lf±obt ljrfpfntkmcndf.
bkb ecnhjqcndj yf hfåjne yf ytgjkysq hfåjxbq ltym d hfvrfö cjjndtncnde±obö ghj-
uhfvv. Ghtljcnfdkztvfz rjkktl©fvb abyfycjdfz gjvjom hfcghtltkztncz d yfxfkt extåyj-
uj ujlf b htlrj dsltkztncz cneltynfv, gjcnegbdibv d rjkktl© d cthtlbyt extåyjuj
Ds jåyfhe©bnt, xnj abyfycjdfz gjvjom jxtym htlrj ghtljcnfdkztncz d rjkktl©fö ujlf (d zydfht bkb d rfrjt-kbåj byjt dhtvz). Gthdjrehcybrfv ghtljcnfdkztncz åjkm-
infnf (bkb veybwbgfkmysö rjkktl©fö) b rjkktl©fö, ghtlkfuf±obö rehcs ghjatc- ifz gjvjom, xtv cneltynfv, gthtdtlibvcz bp lheubö dscibö extåysö pfdtltybq.
cbjyfkmyjuj jåextybz d nfrbö jåkfcnzö, rfr by©tythyjt ltkj, eghfdktybt njhujdj- Cneltynfv, rjnjhst e©t öjhjij pfhtrjvtyljdfkb ctåz d rjkktl©t, ktuxt gjkexbnm
ghjvsiktyyjq ltzntkmyjcnm± b vtlbwbycrbt ghjatccbb. …jktt dtcjve± abyfycjde± abyfycjde± gjvjom jn ¤njuj rjkktl©f, xtv njkmrj xnj gjcnegbdibv cneltynfv.
gjvjom vj©yj gjkexbnm jn xfcnysö uevfybnfhysö rjkktl©tq, ghtlkfuf±obö rehcs
jåextybz ghtlvtnfv, jnyjczobvcz r uevfybnfhysv b tcntcndtyysv yferfv. Cnbgtylbb lkz cneltynjd, exfcnde±obö d cgjhnbdyjq ©bpyb cdjtuj extåyjuj pfdt-
ltybz. Ytrjnjhst rjkktl©b CIF ghtljcnfdkz±n cneltynfv, ghjzdbdibv dslf±-
D ghjwtcct dfibö gjbcrjd cjcnfdmnt nfåkbwe c gthtxytv rjkktl©tq, d rjnjhsö dfv obtcz cgjcjåyjcnb d cgjhnt, åkfujghbznye± djpvj©yjcnm buhfnm pf rjvfyle rjkkt-
öjntkjcm ås exbnmcz. Pfgbibnt ujljdst hfcöjls (d cjjndtncndbb c dsiterfpfyyjq l©f, d rjnjhjv jyb exfncz, d rfxtcndt chtlcndf jgkfns cdjtuj jåhfpjdfybz. …jktt
hfpåbdrjq), f pfntv dytcbnt d dfib pfgbcb chtlybt hfpvths ghtljcnfdkztvjq abyfy- gjlhjåye± byajhvfwb± jå ¤njv cv. d Ukfdt 7, drk±xfz byajhvfwb± j njv, rfr jå-
cjdjq gjvjob b xbckj hfpkbxysö rfntujhbq abyfycjdjq gjvjob, ghtljcnfdkztvjq hfofnmcz pf gjkextybtv cnbgtylbb lkz cneltynjd, exfcnde±obö d cgjhnbdyjq ©bpyb
rf©lsv bp rjkktl©tq. Gjljåye± byajhvfwb± vj©yj gjkexbnm bp htcehcjd dfituj cdjtuj extåyjuj pfdtltybz.
byajhvfwbjyyjuj bkb rjycekmnfwbjyyjuj wtynhf. Cjcnfdktyyfz nfåkbwf gjpdjkbn dfv
åscnhj hfpjåhfnmcz d njv, ult bvt±ncz kexibt ifycs yf gjkextybt abyfycjdjq Ghtljcnfdktybt abyfycjdjq gjvjob byjcnhfyysv cneltynfv cj cnjhjys ajyljd,
gjvjob, f nfr©t gjvj©tn bcrk±xbnm bp gthtxyz rjkktl©b, d rjnjhsö ds, lf©t jhufybpfwbq b fvthbrfycrjuj ghfdbntkmcndf. Byjcnhfyyst cneltyns nfr©t pflf±n
gjcnegbd nelf, yt cvj©tnt gjrhsnm hfcöjls yf jåextybt b ghj©bdfybt. djghjcs j abyfycjdjq gjvjob, gjcnegf±otq jn ajyljd, jhufybpfwbq b fvthbrfycrj-
uj ghfdbntkmcndf. Bp ¤nbö bcnjxybrjd ghtljcnfdkztncz kbim jxtym ytåjkmifz gj-
Byjcnhfyyst cneltyns xfcnj cghfibdf±n rjycekmnfynjd j djpvj©yjcnb gjkextybz vjom, b jyf jåsxyj ghtlyfpyfxftncz lkz fcgbhfynjd gjcktlybö ktn jåextybz. B d
gjkysö cnbgtylbq, rjnjhst gjrhsdf±n dct hfcöjls yf jåhfpjdfybt, pf bcrk±xtybtv ¤njv ckexft dfi rjycekmnfyn gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz vj©tn gjlcrfpfnm dfv, ceot-
cnjbvjcnb fdbfåbktnjd. Jåott xbckj gjkysö cnbgtylbq, t©tujlyj ghbce©lftvsö cnde±n kb cgtwbfkmyst chtlcndf lkz jrfpfybz gjvjob cneltynfv bp dfitq cnhfys.
byjcnhfyysv cneltynfv, ghbyznsv yf extåe d rjkktl© d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö, cj-
cnfdkztn 1 000, ghbxtv tt ghtljcnfdkz±n kbim 100 rjkktl©tq. Lkz njuj, xnjås gj- Ccels. D juhfybxtyysö ckexfzö ds vj©tnt gjkexfnm ccels yf abyfycbhjdfybt xfcnb
kexbnm gjkye± cnbgtylb±, ds ljk©ys åsnm jlybv bp kexibö cneltynjd d dfitq dfibö hfcöjljd yf jåhfpjdfybt. E dfituj rjycekmnfynf gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz vj©tn
cnhfyt, bvt±obö jwtyre “A” (jnkbxyj) gjxnb gj dctv ghtlvtnfv, dscjrbt jwtyrb åsnm byajhvfwbz j ghjuhfvvt ghtljcnfdktybz ccel, yf exfcnbt d rjnjhjq ds vj©tnt
(åjkmijt xbckj yfåhfyysö åfkkjd/jxrjd) pf SAT b TOEFL b dslf±obtcz ecgtöb dj bvtnm ghfdj. Ghb ¤njv e dfc jåsxyj ljk©ty åsnm xtkjdtr, zdkz±obqcz uhf©lfybyjv
dctv jcnfkmyjv, drk±xfz kblthcndj d hfpkbxysö yfxbyfybzö b vthjghbznbzö, f nfr- CIF, rjnjhsq cjukfiftncz gjlgbcsdfnm dvtcnt c dfvb ljrevtyns j gjkextybb gj-
©t jåotcndtyye± hfåjne. Yf rf©le± bp ¤nbö cnbgtylbq ghtntyle±n 20 kexibö cne- ljåysö ccel b nfrbv jåhfpjv cnfyjdbncz ufhfynjv k±åsö ccel, dpznsö dfvb d hfvrfö
ltynjd cj dctuj vbhf. Gj¤njve ds ljk©ys dsltkznmcz lf©t bp xbckf dslf±oböcz ghjuhfvv CIF gj ghtljcnfdktyb± ccel. Rhjvt njuj, d åjkmibycndt ckexftd ds e©t
cneltynjd. ljk©ys åsnm cneltynjv eybdthcbntnf CIF lkz njuj, xnjås jåhfnbnmcz pf gjkextybtv
ccels. Ght©lt xtv åhfnm ccele, eåtlbntcm d njv, xnj ds pyftnt, rfr åeltnt gjufifnm


56 57
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 6 A B Y F Y C B H J D F Y B T D F I T U J J … HF P J D F Y B Z UKFDF 6 A B Y F Y C B H J D F Y B T D F I T U J J … HF P J D F Y B Z



tt, f nfr©t jwtybnt, rfr gjkextybt ccels gjdkbztn yf dfib gkfys ghjöj©ltybz rehcf Kexibt dfhbfyns. Bobnt rjkktl©b, ghtlkfuf±obt jåhfpjdfybt dscituj rfxtcndf
vfubcnhfnehs bkb lheujuj lfkmytqituj jåextybz b djpdhfotybz d cdj± cnhfye. ghb vbybvfkmysö hfcöjlfö c dfitq cnjhjys.

Ecnhjqcndj yf hfåjne. ltqcnde±obt bvvbuhfwbjyyst ghfdbkf hfphtif±n byjcnhfy- Ecrjhtyyst ghjuhfvvs. Ghjöj©ltybt pf nhb ujlf gjkyjq xtnshtöktnytq ghjuhfv-
ysv cneltynfv hfåjnfnm njkmrj ytgjkysq hfåjxbq ltym “ lj 20 xfcjd d ytltk± “ b vs jåextybz, lf±otq ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb åfrfkfdhf, gjpdjkztn c¤rjyjvbnm
njkmrj d cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt d ntxtybt gthdjuj ujlf jåextybz. Hfåjnfz gj 10“15 xf- nsczxb ljkkfhjd. Cneltyns vjuen ecrjhbnm ghjöj©ltybt cdjbö ghjuhfvv gentv:
cjd d ytltk±, ds vjukb ås pfhfåjnfnm ljcnfnjxyj lkz njuj, xnjås jgkfxbdfnm vtk-
✏ gjkextybz ¤rhtlbnf≥, lf±otuj ghfdj gthtöjlf bp jlyjuj dscituj extåyjuj pfdt-
rbt hfcöjls, nfrbt rfr hfcöjls yf rybub b jlt©le b kbxyst hfcöjls, yj dfif hfåj-
nf d cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt yt gjpdjkbn dfv gjrhsnm dfib jcyjdyst hfcöjls, nfrbt ltybz d lheujt bkb ghfdj ghbtvf d eybdthcbntn bkb rjkktl© gj pfckeufv yf
rfr gkfnf pf jåextybt bkb ©bkmt b gbnfybt. Rhjvt njuj, ¤njn ljöjl yt vj©tn bcgjkm- jcyjdfybb ghjöj©ltybz d hjlyjq cnhfyt rehcjd jåextybz yf ehjdyt rjkktl©f

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