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“U.S. News & World Report” “ cfqn gjbcrf vtcnysö rjkktl©tq: dfituj gjbcrf. D ¤nbö wtynhfö jåsxyj bvttncz åbåkbjntrf c erfpfntkzvb, eybdthcb-
http://www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/college/communit/commsrch.htm ntncrbvb cghfdjxybrfvb, herjdjlcndfvb ddjlyjuj öfhfrnthf yfgjljåbt yfituj yf-
cnjzotuj herjdjlcndf, htrkfvysvb ghjcgtrnfvb, yfcnfdktybzvb b extåybrfvb,


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TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF



bvt±obvb cdjtq wtkm± gjvjxm dfv d gjlfxt pfzdktybz c ghjcmåjq j ghbyznbb dfc yf Dscnfdrb b lheubt vthjghbznbz rjkktl©tq pf heåt©jv
extåe d dscibt extåyst pfdtltybz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö. Vyjubt gjljåyst wtynhs
cjcnfdbkb herjdjlcndf, gjlujnjdbkb dbltjvfnthbfks b cjplfkb dtå-cfqns, cgtwbfkm- Tckb ds yt vj©tnt gjctnbnm Cjtlbytyyst Infns, rjkktl©b vjuen gjctnbnm dfc. D
yj ghtlyfpyfxtyyst lkz ntö, rnj bp dfitq cnhfys jåhfoftncz c ghjcmåjq j ghbtvt yf åkb©fqitv jåhfpjdfntkmyjv byajhvfwbjyyjv b rjycekmnfwbjyyjv wtynht vjuen
extåe d dscibt extåyst pfdtltybz CIF. Rhjvt njuj, dj vyjubö bp egjvzyensö hfccrfpfnm dfv j k±åsö ghtlcnjzobö dscnfdrfö, jhufybpetvsö fvthbrfycrbvb rjk-
wtynhjd bvt±ncz rjvgm±nthyst cbcntvs rjvgktrcyjuj gjbcrf rjkktl©tq c ntv, xnj- ktl©fvb, bkb j lheubö dblfö gjctotybq gjcktlybvb dfitq cnhfys, lf±obö dfv djp-
ås gjvjxm dfv dsåhfnm bp ybö kexibq lkz dfc rjkktl©. Cfvjt åjkmijt pyfxtybt d vj©yjcnm kbxyj dcnhtnbnmcz b gjåtctljdfnm c cjnhelybrfvb gjlhfpltktybq, jndtxf±-
¤nbö wtynhfö bvttn yfkbxbt d ybö öjhjij gjlujnjdktyysö cjnhelybrjd, rjnjhst vj- obö pf ghbtv fåbnehbtynjd d ¤nb extåyst pfdtltybz. Vyjubt bp gjljåysö vthjghbz-
uen jndtnbnm yf dfib djghjcs kbxyj bkb gj gjxnt, f nfr©t gj ntktajye b, d åjkm- nbq ghjdjlzncz dtcyjq bkb jctym± gthtl ntv, rfr ds cjåbhftntcm ghbcnegbnm r ext-
ibycndt ckexftd, gj ¤ktrnhjyyjq gjxnt. åt. Gj¤njve df©yj pfhfytt yfxfnm gjbcrb ecnhfbdf±otuj dfc extåyjuj pfdtltybz.

Dtå-cfqns b ¤ktrnhjyyfz gjxnf rjkktl©tq Gjctotybt cneltyxtcrbö ujhjlrjd

¤Cdzpsdfqntcm gj ¤ktrnhjyyjq gjxnt cj cneltynfvb ¤Gjctotybt extåyjuj pfdtltybz, rjnjhjt ds hfc-
bp dfitq cnhfys, rjnjhst exfncz d njv bkb byjv cvfnhbdftnt c njxrb phtybz dfitq djpvj©yjq extås
extåyjv pfdtltybb b hfccghfibdfqnt bö jå jgsnt d ytv, jxtym gjvjuftn “ åelm nj gjctotybt d ntxtybt
extås b ©bpyb≥. extåyjuj ujlf d gjhzlrt jåvtyf, gjtplrf dj dhtvz
rfybrek bkb exfcnbt d cgjhnbdyjv cjcnzpfybb≥.
“ Cneltyn bp Ufys, bpexf±obq ntjhb± dsxbckbntkmysö
cbcntv “ Cneltyn ntfnhfkmyjuj afrekmntnf bp Abykzylbb

Cjtlbytyyst Infns pfybvf±n gthdjt vtcnj d vbht gj bcgjkmpjdfyb± Dctvbhyjq Tckb dfv elfcncz dj dhtvz rfybrek gjctnbnm Cjtlbytyyst Infns lj njuj, rfr gj-
rjvgm±nthyjq ctnb. Gjxnb rf©lsq eybdthcbntn b rjkktl© CIF bvttn dtå-cfqn, cnegfnm d rjkktl©, ¤nj vjukj ås cnfnm ghtrhfcyjq djpvj©yjcnm± gjåsdfnm d cne-
ghtlkfuf±obq juhjvysq jåütv byajhvfwbb j tuj ghjuhfvvfö, lf±obö ghfdj yf gj- ltyxtcrbö ujhjlrfö ntö extåysö pfdtltybq, rjnjhst ds hfccvfnhbdftnt yf ghtlvtn
kextybt cntgtyb, ghjwtlehfö gjlfxb pfzdktybz yf extåe d ¤njv eybdthcbntnt/rjkkt- extås d ybö. Vyjubt extåyst pfdtltybz jhufybpe±n gjctotybz rjkktl©tq, ghbxtv
l©t, afrekmntnfö, bvt±oböcz d cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt ntöybxtcrbö chtlcndfö b jåj- ¤nbvb vthjghbznbzvb herjdjlzn cneltyns, rjnjhst exfncz d ¤nbö extåysö pfdtltyb-
heljdfybb b n.l. Dj vyjubö ckexfzö ds nfr©t yfqltnt yf ¤njv cfqnt rjgb± cghfdjx- zö; åjktt gjlhjåye± byajhvfwb± j gjljåysö gjctotybzö ds vj©tnt gjkexbnm d
ybrf rjkktl©f, rjnjhe± vj©tnt bpexfnm d ht©bvt jykfqy bkb pfuhepbnm, xnjås ghj- jabct ghbtvf fåbnehbtynjd yf rehcs, lf±obt ghfdj gjkextybz cntgtyb åfrfkfdhf.
xtcnm gjplytt. Yt pfåsdfqnt j njv, xnj yf vyjubö cfqnfö nfr©t ghbdjlzncz flhtcf Gjctnbnt extåyst b ©bkst gjvtotybz, cneltyxtcrbq wtynh b åbåkbjntre, xnjås ghj-
¤ktrnhjyyjq gjxns, lf±obt dfv djpvj©yjcnm jåhfnbnmcz r exfobvcz d yfcnjzott ybryenmcz leöjv cneltyxtcrjuj ujhjlrf. Fvthbrfyws ckfdzncz cdjbv lhe©tk±åbtv,
dhtvz cneltynfv, drk±xfz byjcnhfyysö cneltynjd, rjnjhst xfcnj jöjnyj jndtxf±n yf gj¤njve åtctleqnt cj cneltynfvb, xnjås dszcybnm lkz ctåz, rfrjdf ©t yf cfvjv lt-
djghjcs j gjlfxt pfzdktybz yf extåe d rjyrhtnyjv dscitv extåyjv pfdtltybb kt ©bpym d rjkktl©t. Ytrjnjhst xfcnyst jhufybpfwbb ghtlkfuf±n gjtplrb gj rjk-
Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd b ©bpyb d tuj cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt. Rfr njkmrj ds jnåthtnt ktl©fv CIF, bvt±obt cdjtq wtkm± gjvjxm åeleobv cneltynfv cfvbv gjcvjnhtnm,
lkz ctåz rjkktl©b b eybdthcbntns, rjnjhst ghtlcnfdkz±n lkz dfc bynthtc, ds vj- gjlöjlzn kb bv ¤nb extåyst pfdtltybz. Cghjcbnt e cjnhelybrjd dfituj byajhvfwb-
©tnt gj ¤ktrnhjyyjq gjxnt gjghjcbnm ghtgjlfdfntktq b cjnhelybrjd gjlhfpltktybz jyyjuj bkb rjycekmnfwbjyyjuj wtynhf, ytn kb e ybö åjktt gjlhjåyjq byajhvfwbb j
gj ghbtve fåbnehbtynjd jndtnbnm yf rjyrhtnyst djghjcs tot lj ghbyznbz jrjyxf- gjljåysö jhufybpfwbzö.
ntkmyjuj htitybz j njv, relf åeltnt gjlfdfnm pfzdktybt.
Rjycekmnfyns gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz b futyns gj yfåjhe cneltynjd
Gjbcrb rjkktl©tq dj Dctvbhyjq rjvgm±nthyjq ctnb
Dj vyjubö htubjyfö vbhf xfcnyst futyns bkb futyncndf ghjdjlzn hfåjne gj yfåjhe
Ytrjnjhst dtå-cfqns zdkz±ncz ytpfdbcbvsvb jn rjkktl©tq bkb eybdthcbntnjd b lf- byjcnhfyysö cneltynjd. Bvt±ncz nfr©t xfcnyst rjycekmnfyns gj djghjcfv jåhfpj-
±n dfv djpvj©yjcnm gjbcrf extåysö pfdtltybq gj ghtlvtne, rjnjhsq ds öjntkb ås dfybz, rjnjhst dpbvf±n gkfne pf jrfpfybt dfv gjvjob d ghjwtcct dsåjhf rjkktl©tq
bpexfnm, ghtlgjxbnftvjve dfvb utjuhfabxtcrjve hfqjye bkb gj hzle lheubö rjy- CIF b cjcnfdktybt dfibö pfzdktybq c ghjcmåjq j ghbtvt yf extåe. Xfcnj ¤nbvb rjy-
rhtnyj jåjpyfxtyysö dfvb rhbnthbtd. cekmnfynfvb gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz b xfcnysvb futynfvb zdkz±ncz dsgecrybrb
rjkktl©tq CIF bkb k±lb, gjcdznbdibt ctåz htrkfvbhjdfyb± dsujl b ghtbveotcnd


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TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF



cbcntvs jåhfpjdfybz Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd. Jlyfrj byjulf egjvzyenst gjvjoybrb yt njhst ds gjlftnt pfzdktybt, ghbpyfys ghfdbntkmcndjv dfitq cnhfys b k±åsvb cj-
zdkz±ncz ntvb, pf rjuj ctåz dslf±n. Gj¤njve jxtym df©yj ghjdthznm gjkyjvjxbz b jndtncnde±obvb ghjatccbjyfkmysvb jåütlbytybzvb, vbybcnthcndfvb bkb hfåjnjlf-
htpekmnfns ghjikjq ltzntkmyjcnb rjycekmnfynjd gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz bkb futy- ntkzvb d dfitq cnhfyt. Rhjvt njuj, gjujdjhbnt c dsgecrybrfvb, dthyedibvbcz d df-
njd gj yfåjhe cneltynjd ght©lt, xtv gjkmpjdfnmcz bö eckeufvb. ie cnhfye, lkz njuj, xnjås gjcvjnhtnm, ljåbkbcm kb jyb ecgtöf d ghbvtytybb cntgt-
ytq, ghbcdjtyysö bv gjljåysvb extåysvb pfdtltybzvb, d hfvrfö bpåhfyysö ¤nbvb
Tckb ds yfikb futynf gj yfåjhe cneltynjd bkb rjycekmnfynf, rjnjhsq gjvjuftn dfv, k±lmvb ghjatccbq. Tckb ds gjkfuftnt, xnj vjukb ås pföjntnm d gthbjl extås gtht-
öjhjij hfpåbhftncz d cdjtv ltkt b zdkztncz yflt©ysv xtkjdtrjv, nj jy/jyf vj©tn dtcnbcm bp jlyjuj rjkktl©f CIF d lheujq c wtkm± gjkextybz cntgtyb åfrfkfdhf bkb
ghbytcnb åjkmie± gjkmpe d jrfpfybb dfv gjvjob d dsåjht rjkktl©f b jajhvktybb ghjqnb d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö jåextybt d vfubcnhfneht gjckt gjkextybz lbgkjvf,
ljrevtynjd, ytjåöjlbvsö lkz extås d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö. Ntv yt vtytt, åelmnt dfv nfr©t cktletn ghjdthbnm, ghbpyf±n kb lheubt eybdthcbntns CIF pfxtns b cnt-
jcnjhj©ys b gjcnfhfqntcm jnscrfnm gjllf±obtcz ghjdthrt ghbpyfrb ecgtiyjq hfåj- gtyb, gjkextyyst d rjkktl©fö, d jlyjv bp rjnjhsö ds yfvthtdftntcm exbnmcz.
ns dfituj futynf bkb rjycekmnfynf. Lkz ¤njuj jåhfnbntcm r cneltynfv bp dfitq cnhf-
ys, bvtdibv ltkj c yfyznsv dfvb futynjv bkb rjycekmnfynjv, b gjghjcbnt bö hfc- Jåhfpjdfntkmyst byajhvfwbjyyst b rjycekmnfwbjyyst wtynhs CIF vjukb ås ghj-
crfpfnm dfv, yfcrjkmrj ¤aatrnbdyjq åskf tuj gjvjom. Pfghjcbnt gthtxtym bvty b rjycekmnbhjdfnm dfc jnyjcbntkmyj ghbpyfybz cntgtytq CIF d dfitq cnhfyt b cjjå-
flhtcjd cneltynjd, d yfcnjzott dhtvz jåexf±oböcz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö åkfujlf- obnm dfv, frrhtlbnjdfyj kb yflkt©fobv jåhfpjv nj bkb byjt extåyjt pfdtltybt
hz gjvjob egjvzyenjuj futynf bkb rjycekmnfynf. Yfgbibnt gbcmvj, yfghfdmnt cjjå- CIF. …jktt gjlhjåye± byajhvfwb± gj ¤njq ntvt vj©yj yfqnb d …hji±ht 3 yfcnjz-
otybt gj ¤ktrnhjyyjq gjxnt bkb gjpdjybnt gj ntktajye ytrjnjhsv bp ¤nbö cnelty- otq cthbb åhji±h b yf dtå-cfqnfö, gthtxtym rjnjhsö ghbdjlbncz d rjywt lfyyjq ukf-
njd c ntv, xnjås ytgjchtlcndtyyj jn ybö epyfnm, rfrjuj jyb vytybz j rjkktl©t, d ds.
rjnjhjv exfncz, b jå eckeufö, gjkextyysö jn dfituj futynf bkb rjycekmnfynf. Gj-
ljåyst ghtljcnjhj©yjcnb bvt±n jcjåtyyj åjkmijt pyfxtybt, tckb futyn bkb rjycekm- Jcyjdyjq ghtlvtn cgtwbfkbpfwbb
nfyn nhtåetn c dfc dscjre± gkfne pf cdjb eckeub. Yfrjytw, dctulf ghjdthzqnt gjke-
¤Jåzpfntkmyj öjhjij jpyfrjvmntcm c rjkktl©fvb, d
xtyyst cdtltybz, gjkmpezcm byajhvfwbtq bp ytghtldpznjuj bcnjxybrf (yfghbvth, nj-
rjnjhsö ds ltqcndbntkmyj pfbynthtcjdfys. D ytrj-
uj bkb byjuj jåhfpjdfntkmyjuj byajhvfwbjyyjuj bkb rjycekmnfwbjyyjuj wtynhf
njhsö cybcrfdibö ctåt ckfde rjkktl©fö tcnm jxtym
CIF) c ntv, xnjås eåtlbnmcz d pfrjyyjv öfhfrntht ghtlcnfdktyyjuj dfv rjkktl©f
öjhjibt afrekmntns, yj tcnm b gkjöbt≥.
b yfkbxbb e ytuj yflt©yjuj frrhtlbnfwbjyyjuj cnfnecf.
“ Cneltyn bp Abykzylbb, bpexf±obq gjkbnjkjub±
Frfltvbxtcrbt cjjåhf©tybz b bpjåhfpbntkmyst bcreccndf

Frrhtlbnfwbz b ghbpyfybt cntgtytq Dfi jcyjdyjq ghtlvtn cgtwbfkbpfwbb ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq jåkfcnm jåextybz, d rjnj-
hjq ds cjåbhftntcm cgtwbfkbpbhjdfnmcz. Ghb gjcnegktybb d eybdthcbntn ytn ytjåöj-
Df©ysv gjrfpfntktv rfxtcndf k±åjuj rjkktl©f bkb eybdthcbntnf CIF zdkztncz lbvjcnb pfzdkznm j yfvtxtyyjv dfvb jcyjdyjv ghtlvtnt cgtwbfkbpfwbb. Jlyfrj tc-
tuj frrhtlbnfwbjyysq cnfnec. D jnkbxbt jn vyjubö lheubö cnhfy, d Cjtlbytyysö Inf- kb ds gjcnfdbkb ctåt wtkm gjkextybz cntgtyb d jghtltktyyjq jåkfcnb pyfybq, dfv yt-
nfö ytn wtynhfkmyjuj ghfdbntkmcndtyyjuj exht©ltybz, endth©lf±otuj extåyst pfdt- jåöjlbvj jghtltkbnm extåyst pfdtltybz, ghtlkfuf±obt jåextybt d ¤njq jåkfcnb.
ltybz. Dvtcnj ¤njuj CIF gjkfuf±ncz yf cbcntve ljåhjdjkmyjq frrhtlbnfwbb, ghjdj-
lbvjq ytghfdbntkmcndtyysvb frrhtlbnfwbjyysvb jhufyfvb lkz jåtcgtxtybz cjjndtn- Ghtgjlfdfybt ytrjnjhsö ghtlvtnjd dtltncz dj vyjubö eybdthcbntnfö. Nj jåcnjzntkm-
cndbz extåysö pfdtltybq ytjåöjlbvsv cnfylfhnfv. cndj, xnj ds pyftnt, d rfrjq lbcwbgkbyt cjåbhftntcm cgtwbfkbpbhjdfnmcz, vj©tn jrf-
pfnm dfv jghtltktyye± gjvjom d dsåjht extåyjuj pfdtltybz, yj lf©t d ¤njv ckexft
Ytcvjnhz yf nj, xnj dct rjkktl©b CIF ghblth©bdf±ncz ibhjrj ghbyznsö ajhv e dfc jcnfytncz lkbyysq gthtxtym extåysö pfdtltybq, bp rjnjhsö dfv ghtlcnjbn clt-
frrhtlbnfwbb, cktletn jnvtnbnm, xnj frrhtlbnfwbz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö ghtlcnfd- kfnm dsåjh. Tckb bvttncz djpvj©yjcnm rfrjq-nj rjyrhtnyjq cgtwbfkbpfwbb d njq bkb
kztn cjåjq ckj©ye± jåkfcnm; bvt±ncz hfpkbxyst dbls frrhtlbnfwbb b åjkmijt xbc- byjq bynthtce±otq dfc jåkfcnb (yfghbvth, tckb ds bynthtcetntcm bcnjhbtq ––-uj dt-
kj frrhtlbnfwbjyysö jhufyjd. Yt ceotcndetn b ghfdjdjuj nhtåjdfybz j njv, xnjås rf, utjuhfabtq, cdzpfyyjq c jöhfyjq jrhe©f±otq chtls, bkb ©bdjgbcm± d hfvrfö
extåyst pfdtltybz, rjnjhst ghtlkfuf±n ghjuhfvvs jåextybz, lf±obt ghfdj yf rehcf jåextybz, gjpdjkz±otuj gjkexbnm cntgtym d jåkfcnb bpjåhfpbntkmysö bcrec-
gjkextybt cntgtyb, åskb frrhtlbnjdfys bkb ghblth©bdfkbcm njq bkb byjq ajhvs fr- cnd), jghtltktybt extåysö pfdtltybq, ghtlkfuf±obö gjljåye± cgtwbfkbpfwb±, nfr©t
rhtlbnfwbb. D cdzpb c yfkbxbtv gjljåyjq ckj©yjcnb dfv cktletn pfåkfujdhtvtyyj gjvj©tn dfv cjcnfdbnm jrjyxfntkmysq gthtxtym cjjndtncnde±obö extåysö pfdtltybq.
nofntkmyj ghjdthbnm, åelen kb cntgtyb, ghbce©ltyyst extåysvb pfdtltybzvb, d rj- D åjkmibycndt erfpfntktq eybdthcbntnjd CIF lftncz gthtxtym afrekmntnjd gj yf-


32 33
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF



båjktt hfcghjcnhfytyysv ghtlvtnfv jcyjdyjq cgtwbfkbpfwbb. Rjvgm±nthyst cbcnt- Cnhernehf ghjuhfvv jåextybz, gjpdjkz±obö gjkexbnm extye± cntgtym
vs rjvgktrcyjuj gjbcrf, bvt±obtcz dj Dctvbhyjq rjvgm±nthyjq ctnb bkb d jåhf-
pjdfntkmysö byajhvfwbjyysö b rjycekmnfwbjyysö wtynhfö CIF, nfr©t vjuen gj- Dfv cktletn bpexbnm cghfdjxybr rf©ljuj extåyjuj pfdtltybz gj ghtlkfuftvsv bv
vjxm dfv cepbnm lbfgfpjy dsåjhf. Gjkmpeqntcm cghfdjxybrfvb b å±kktntyzvb rjk- rehcfv jåextybz b jgbcfybt ¤nbö rehcjd. Vyjubt byjcnhfyyst cneltyns dsåbhf±n
ktl©tq lkz njuj, xnjås ghjdthbnm, ghtlkfuf±n kb dfv nj, xnj dfc bynthtcetn, b elt- cbcntve CIF, gjcrjkmre jyf jåkflftn ljcnfnjxyjq ubårjcnm± lkz njuj, xnjås gj-
kztncz kb d ghjuhfvvfö jcyjdyjt dybvfybt njve, r xtve ds cnhtvbntcm. pdjkbnm ¤nbv cneltynfv dsåhfnm rehcs jåextybz, jndtxf±obt bö bynthtcfv. Jlyfrj
lkz extåysö ghjuhfvv, lf±obö ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb d ytrjnjhsö jåkfcnzö,
Xtve eltkztncz jcyjdyjt dybvfybt d extåyjq ghjuhfvvt rjnjhst jödfnsdf±n wtksö hzl lbcwbgkby, öfhfrnthyf jxtym ckj©yfz cnhernehf, b
eybdthcbntns ghtlgbcsdf±n, rfrbt bvtyyj rehcs cneltyn jåzpfy ghjqnb, f nfr©t rju-
Dfv cktletn ghjdthbnm, xtve eybdthcbntn eltkztn jcyjdyjt dybvfybt d cdjtq extåyjq lf jy ljk©ty ¤nj cltkfnm lkz njuj, xnjås gjkexbnm lbgkjv c erfpfybtv cgtwbfkb-
ghjuhfvvt. Ltkftncz kb d ¤njq ghjuhfvvt frwtyn yf ghjatccbjyfkmyjt jåhfpjdfybt bkb pfwbb d gjljåyjq jåkfcnb pyfybq. „njn dbl ghtlgbcsdftvjq hfåjns gj ghjöj©ltyb±
yf bpextybt uevfybnfhysö yfer? Ghtjåkflf±n kb d cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt cneltyns, tot rehcjd juhfybxbdftn ubårjcnm b, yfghbvth, yt hfphtiftn cthmtpyj pfybvf±obvcz
yt gjkexbdibt lbgkjvf, bkb fcgbhfyns? Vyjubt rjkktl©b uevfybnfhyjuj ghjabkz lt- cgjhnjv cneltynfv bvtnm vtymie± extåye± yfuhepre dj dhtvz cgjhnbdyjuj ctpjyf
kf±n egjh yf ghtgjlfdfybt b dpfbvjltqcndbt ghjatccjhcrj-ghtgjlfdfntkmcrjuj cjcnfdf bkb pfghtoftn cneltynfv bvtnm ldjqye± cgtwbfkbpfwb±, tckb jyb cnhtvzncz r ¤njve.
cj cneltynfvb, f yt yf ghjdtltybt yfexysö bccktljdfybq. Gj¤njve d nfrbö rjkktl©fö
yfåk±lftncz dtcmvf ybprjt jnyjitybt xbckf cneltynjd r xbcke ghtgjlfdfntktq. D ytrj- Df©yj njxyj dszcybnm nhtåjdfybz jnyjcbntkmyj k±åsö ghtlvtnjd cgtwbfkbpfwbb, rj-
njhsö cneltyxtcrbö ujhjlrfö, d rjnjhsö dj ukfde eukf cnfdzncz yfexyst bccktljdfybz, njhst ds öjntkb ås bpexfnm. Yfghbvth, tckb ds ghjzdkztnt ©tkfybt cgtwbfkbpbhj-
ghtjåkflf±n fcgbhfyns, yj gjvtotybz b jåjheljdfybt d gjljåysö eybdthcbntnfö pfxfc- dfnmcz d by©tythyjv ltkt, yj jlyjdhtvtyyj öjnbnt ghbjåhtcnb cjkblyst pyfybz d
ne± åsdf±n cfvsvb cjdhtvtyysvb, f bö ghtgjlfdfntkb ythtlrj gjkmpe±ncz vbhjdjq bp- åbpytct, jåzpfntkmyj rfr cktletn dszcybnt nhtåjdfybz, rjnjhst ghtlüzdkz±ncz r
dtcnyjcnm±. Jlyfrj d ytrjnjhsö bp ¤nbö cneltyxtcrbö ujhjlrjd cneltynfv gthdjuj b extåt, lf±otq ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb d jåkfcnb by©tythyjuj ltkf, “ yt ckbi-
dnjhjuj rehcjd vjuen ghtgjlfdfnm fcgbhfyns, f yt ghtgjlfdfntkb b ghjatccjhf. rjv kb bö vyjuj lkz ghjöj©ltybz ljgjkybntkmysö rehcjd gj bpextyb± ltkjdjq ltz-
ntkmyjcnb? F, vj©tn åsnm, tcnm ghjuhfvvf, cgtwbfkmyj ghtlyfpyfxtyyfz lkz ntö, rnj
Bpåbhfntkmysq gjlöjl öjxtn cjxtnfnm jåextybt by©tythyjve ltke c ghjöj©ltybtv rehcf gj lbcwbgkbyt,
bvt±otq jnyjitybt r ¤njve ghtlvtne?
Gjcrjkmre cbcntvf eybdthcbntnjd CIF zdkztncz cnjkm ibhjrjq, nhtåjdfybz, ghtlü-
zdkztvst r ghbtve yf extåe fåbnehbtynjd, jnkbxf±ncz åjkmibv hfpyjjåhfpbtv. D Bvttncz nfr©t ibhjrjt hfpyjjåhfpbt nhtåjdfybq, ghtlüzdkztvsö r ghjöj©ltyb±
xfcnyst eybdthcbntns b uevfybnfhyst rjkktl©b, ghbvtyz±obt pltcm ceueåj bpåbhf- rehcjd d uevfybnfhysö rjkktl©fö. Jlyb bp ¤nbö rjkktl©tq nhtåe±n jn cneltynjd
ntkmysq gjlöjl, vj©tn gjcnegfnm juhjvyjt rjkbxtcndj pfzdktybq jn fåbnehbtynjd, ghjöj©ltybz jghtltktyyjuj xbckf rehcjd jåextybz d rf©ljq bp åjkmibö uhegg ghtl-
yj ¤nb extåyst pfdtltybz ghbybvf±n yf extåe kbim ytåjkmijt xbckj cneltynjd, d nj vtnjd, d nj dhtvz rfr lheubt uevfybnfhyst rjkktl©b yt ghtlüzdkz±n gjljåysö nht-
dhtvz rfr lheubt rjkktl©b vjuen ghbybvfnm dctö fåbnehbtynjd, jndtxf±obö cnfy- åjdfybq, f kbim ¤yfcnjzntkmyj htrjvtyle±n≥ cneltynfv gjkexbnm hfpyjcnjhjyytt jå-
lfhnfv ghbtvf yf extåe rf©ljuj bp nfrbö rjkktl©tq. D åjkmibycndt erfpfntktq eyb- hfpjdfybt.
dthcbntnjd b cghfdjxybrjd rjkktl©tq lftncz xbckj fåbnehbtynjd, gjcnegfdibö d ¤nb
extåyst pfdtltybz, b xbckj ghbyznsö cneltynjd pf ghtlsleobq ujl, f nfr©t ghbdj- Ghbtv d eybdthcbntn bkb rjkktl© gj pfckeufv b cnfnec cneltynf, rjnjhsq
lbncz chtlyzz jwtyrf jnåjhjxyjuj ntcnf b chtlybq åfkk cneltynjd, ghbyznsö d ght- gthtdtkcz d lheujq eybdthcbntn bkb rjkktl© gj pfckeufv
lsleotv ujle. Jlyfrj d jwtyrfö bpåbhfntkmyjuj gjlöjlf, d rjnjhsö bcgjkmpetncz
¤njn dbl lfyysö, ghjckt©bdftncz ntyltywbz eltkznm jcyjdyjt dybvfybt jwtyrfv ntc- Cneltyns CIF ghbcnegf±n r gjkextyb± dscituj jåhfpjdfybz gjckt 12 ktn jåext-
njd ghb ghbtvt yf extåe, zdkz±obvcz kbim jlybv bp rjvgjytynjd ghjwtccf htub- ybz d yfxfkmyjq b chtlytq irjkfö. Ytrjnjhst eybdthcbntns CIF dscnfdkz±n fdfy-
cnhfwbb ©tkf±obö gjcnegbnm d eybdthcbntn. Gjvybnt, xnj cjnhelybrb gjlhfpltktybz cjdsq ¤rhtlbn≥ cneltynfv, ghbitlibv bp jåhfpjdfntkmysö cbcntv c 13 ujlfvb yf-
gj ghbtve yf extåe ghbybvf±n dj dybvfybt wtksq hzl afrnjhjd, drk±xfz cjxbyt- xfkmyjuj b chtlytuj jåhfpjdfybz, bkb cneltynfv, gjkexbdibv cntgtym åfrfkfdhf pf
ybz, ghbps/ghtvbb, jåotcndtyye± hfåjne, jgsn hfåjns yf ghjbpdjlcndt bkb d exht©- heåt©jv. Cneltyns, ghjitlibt rehc ghjatccbjyfkmyj-ntöybxtcrjuj b ntöybxtcrjuj
ltybb, öjååb b yfkbxbt jcjåsö cgjcjåyjcntq. Nfrbv jåhfpjv, d öjlt hfccvjnhtybz pf- jåextybz d ljgjkytybt r chtlytve jåhfpjdfyb± b gjkexbdibt cjjndtncnde±obt lbg-
zdktybq egjvzyenst cjnhelybrb gsnf±ncz jghtltkbnm dfib gjntywbfkmyst djpvj©- kjvs b fnntcnfns bkb ©t jåexfdibtcz d hfvrfö fyfkjubxysö ghjuhfvv, nfr©t vj-
yjcnb ljcnb©tybz ecgtöf d bö extåysö pfdtltybzö. uen ghtntyljdfnm yf dscnfdktybt bv jghtltktyyjuj ¤rhtlbnf≥ d cxtn ghjöj©ltybz
rehcjd, lf±obö ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb. D Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö gjljåysv cne-


34 35
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF



ltynfv yt jåzpfntkmyj gjcnegfnm d extåyjt pfdtltybt c wtkm± ghjöj©ltybz gjkyjuj Ébkboysq djghjc
rehcf xtnshtöktnytuj jåextybz, b jyb vjuen gjcnegbnm d eybdthcbntn d rfxtcndt exf-
otujcz, bvt±otuj cnfnec cneltynf, rjnjhsq gthtdtkcz bp jlyjuj rjkktl©f bkb eyb- Gjcrjkmre dct rjkktl©b bvt±n hfpkbxysq ©bkboysq ajyl b ghjdjlzn hfpye± gj-
dthcbntnf d lheujq gj pfckeufv. Dfv cktletn cghjcbnm e cjnhelybrjd gjlhfpltktybz kbnbre d jåkfcnb ghtljcnfdktybz ©bkmz, dszcybnt, ghtljcnfdzn kb dfv ©bkmt yf dct
ghbtvf yf extåe j yfkbxbb ¤njq djpvj©yjcnb b ghjxbnfnm Ukfde 10 ¤Gthtöjl d eyb- xtnsht ujlf jåextybz, bkb ©t cneltyns ljk©ys cfvb yföjlbnm ctåt ©bkmt dyt cne-
dthcbntn CIF≥, ult ds yfqltnt åjktt gjlhjåye± byajhvfwb± gj ¤njve djghjce. ltyxtcrjuj ujhjlrf. Epyfqnt hfpybwe d wtyfö ghb jgkfnt ©bkmz d cneltyxtcrjv uj-
hjlrt b pf tuj ghtltkfvb. Gjbynthtceqntcm, rfrbt ghfdbkf ghj©bdfybz ecnfyfdkbdf-
Jnyjitybt xbckf cneltynjd r xbcke ghtgjlfdfntktq ±ncz d ©bksö gjvtotybzö cneltyxtcrjuj ujhjlrf; jn cneltynjd/cneltynjr, ghj©b-
df±obö d cneltyxtcrbö jåot©bnbzö, vjuen gjnhtåjdfnm ghtljcnfdktyye± bv rjvyf-
D rhegysö eybdthcbntnfö xbckj cneltynjd d rf©ljv rkfcct gthdjuj b dnjhjuj ujlf ne kbåj c lheubv cneltynjv/lheujq cneltynrjq, kbåj c ldevz bkb nhtvz cneltynf-
jåextybz d hfvrfö ghjuhfvv, lf±obö ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb (lbgkjvf) åfrfkfd- vb/cneltynrfvb. Jlyfrj ghj©bdfybt d cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt, gj rhfqytq vtht d gth-
hf, jåsxyj åsdftn åjkmibv, b ceotcndetn dthjznyjcnm njuj, xnj d ¤nbö rkfccfö ght- dsq ujl bkb gthdst ldf ujlf, vj©tn gjvjxm dfv ktuxt b åscnhtt djqnb d fvthbrfy-
gjlfdfnm dfv cnfyen yt ghjatccjhf, f fcgbhfyns. D rjkktl©t, d rjnjhjv yfcxbnsdf- cre± eybdthcbntncre± ©bpym. Rhjvt njuj, jyj vj©tn bpåfdbnm dfc jn ljgjkybntkm-
tncz vtymit fcgbhfynjd, dfibvb ghtgjlfdfntkzvb, dthjznyj, åelen ghjatccjhf, b c ysö hfcöjljd yf gjregre fdnjvjåbkz bkb jgkfne t©tlytdysö gjtpljr yf jåotcndty-
cfvjuj yfxfkf jåextybz jn dfc gjnhtåe±n åjkmitq jnlfxb d rkfcct. Yfkbxbt dscj- yjv nhfycgjhnt, f nfr©t gjpdjkbn dfv c¤rjyjvbnm dhtvz, ytjåöjlbvjt lkz gjtpljr
rjuj jnyjitybz xbckf cneltynjd r xbcke ghtgjlfdfntktq erfpsdftn yf nj, xnj dfi d cneltyxtcrbq ujhjljr b jåhfnyj. Jlyfrj r njve dhtvtyb, rjulf ds cnfytnt cnelty-
rkfcc åeltn vyjujxbcktyysv, b rf©ljve cneltyne d ytv åeltn eltkznmcz vtymit njv nhtnmtuj rehcf, e dfc vj©tn gjzdbnmcz ©tkfybt gthttöfnm bp cneltyxtcrjuj uj-
dybvfybz cj cnjhjys ghjatccjhcrj-ghtgjlfdfntkmcrjuj cjcnfdf, xtv d rkfcct c yt- hjlrf d cdj± cjåcndtyye± rdfhnbhe. Jåzpfntkmyj dszcybnt, rfr d eybdthcbntnt jn-
åjkmibv xbckjv cneltynjd. yjczncz r gjljåyjve ifue, f nfr©t epyfqnt, vj©yj kb yfqnb rdfhnbhe yf vtcnyjv
hsyrt b dj xnj ¤nj jåjqltncz.
Jåhfp ©bpyb
Vtcnjgjkj©tybt rjkktl©f
¤…elexb byjcnhfyysv cneltynjv, vyt ghböjlbkjcm
ghbybvfnm dj dybvfybt yt njkmrj frfltvbxtcrbt D rf©ljv htubjyt Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd vj©yj yfqnb cneltyxtcrbt ujhjlrb rfr d uj-
fcgtrns extåyjuj pfdtltybz, yj b jåcnjzntkmcndf, j hjlcrjq, nfr b d ctkmcrjq vtcnyjcnb. Cneltyxtcrbt ujhjlrb, yföjlzobtcz d xthnt
rjnjhsö d lheujq jåcnfyjdrt vs vjukb ås djjåot yt åjkmijuj ujhjlf, hfcgjkfuf±n ibhjrbv hfpyjjåhfpbtv pfrecjxysö, rfat, htcnjhf-
pflevsdfnmcz, nfrbt rfr vtcnjgjkj©tybt extåyjuj yjd, edtctkbntkmysö pfdtltybq, rekmnehysö jåütrnjd b vfufpbyjd. Extåyjt pfdtltybt,
pfdtltybz, rkbvfnbxtcrbt eckjdbz b n.l.≥. yföjlzottcz d ctkmcrjq vtcnyjcnb, vj©tn jpyfxfnm åjktt cgjrjqye± jåcnfyjdre, d
rjnjhjq ©bpym cneltynjd åjkmit ghbdzpfyf r rjkktl©e. Tot jlybv cjjåhf©tybtv
“ Cneltyn afrekmntnf vt©leyfhjlysö jnyjitybq
zdkz±ncz rkbvfnbxtcrbt eckjdbz. Jn ctdthj-djcnjxyjq xfcnb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd,
b cjwbjkjubb bp Ufys
ult zhrj dshf©tys dct xtnsht dhtvtyb ujlf, lj gecnsyb d Fhbpjyt b ceånhjgbxtc-
Hfcöjls rjuj rkbvfnf dj Akjhblt ds yfqltnt gjxnb åtcrjytxyjt hfpyjjåhfpbt ghbhjlysö jcj-
åtyyjcntq. Yt pfåsdfqnt b j ljcnegyjcnb vtcnysö ljcnjghbvtxfntkmyjcntq b eckeu,
Abyfycbhjdfybt dfituj jåhfpjdfybz zdkztncz jxtym df©ysv djghjcjv, nhtåe±obv hfc- rjnjhst vjukb ås ghbytcnb dfv gjkmpe d ghjwtcct dfitq extås. Nfr, yfghbvth, tc-
cvjnhtybz, b dfv cktletn ghjxtcnm Ukfde 6 lfyyjq åhji±hs. D ¤njq ukfdt ghbdjlzncz kb ds htibkb bpåhfnm ghtlvtnjv cdjtq cgtwbfkbpfwbb bcnjhb± bcreccndf, dszcybnt,
gjlhjåyst ljgjkybntkmyst cdtltybz j gjlcxtnt hfcöjljd b djpvj©yjcnb gjkextybz ab- ghtlkfuftn kb bynthtce±ott dfc extåyjt pfdtltybt ghjuhfvvs, cdzpsdf±obt cnelty-
yfycjdjq gjvjob. Dfv cktletn pyfnm, xnj ds htfkmyj vj©tnt gjpdjkbnm ctåt, bcöjlz bp njd c vtcnysvb veptzvb b öelj©tcndtyysvb ufkthtzvb.
bvt±oböcz e dfc chtlcnd. Nofntkmyj bpexbnt cnhernehe ltyt©ysö dpyjcjd b cåjhjd,
ghbdjlbve± d åjkmibycndt eybdthcbntncrbö cghfdjxybrjd, b drk±xbnt d cdjb gjlcxtns Hfpvths dscibö extåysö pfdtltybq b rjynbyutyn cneltynjd
hfcöjls yf ©bkmt, gbnfybt, gkfne pf jåextybt, hfcöjls yf ghjtpl b ghjxbt hfcöjls pf
gthbjl gjkysö xtnshtö ktn. Dfv nfr©t cktletn ghbyznm dj dybvfybt nj jåcnjzntkmcn- Rjkbxtcndj exfoböcz d cneltyxtcrbö ujhjlrfö CIF vj©tn cjcnfdkznm jn 200 lj
dj, xnj hfcöjls yf jgkfne jåextybz vjuen dshfcnb, gjcrjkmre vyjubt eybdthcbntns b 60 000 cneltynjd. Ytrjnjhst eybdthcbntns yfgjvbyf±n ytåjkmibt ujhjlf cj cdjbvb
rjkktl©b t©tujlyj gjdsif±n gkfne pf jåextybt. Rhjvt njuj, jpyfrjvmntcm c gkfyfvb gjxnfvb, åfrfktqysvb kfdrfvb b njhujdsvb wtynhfvb. Ceotcnde±n rjkktl©b, hfc-
jgkfns eckeu, ghtlkfuftvsvb hfpkbxysvb extåysvb pfdtltybzvb.


36 37
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF



gjkj©tyyst d åjkmibö uecnjyfctktyysö ujhjlcrbö hfqjyfö, yj c jxtym vfksv rjkb- d jåotybb, rekmnehyjq ©bpyb b hfpdktxtybzö njuj bkb byjuj cneltyxtcrjuj ujhjlrf.
xtcnd cneltynjd. D pfdbcbvjcnb jn dfituj kbxyjuj jåhfpf ©bpyb dfv vj©tn yhf- Tckb ds yt öjnbnt cnfnm xfcnm± ©bpyb, jcyjdsdf±otqcz yf egjvzyenjq uhtxtcrjq
dbnmcz cfvjcnjzntkmyjcnm, rjnjhe± ds jåhtnftnt åkfujlfhz njve, xnj zdkztntcm xfc- cbcntvt, extåf d eybdthcbntnt, d rjnjhjv ¤nf cbcntvf bvttn ghtjåkflf±ott dkbzybt,
nm± juhjvyjuj rjkbxtcndf cneltynjd d dfitv cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt, bkb dfv vj©tn vj©tn gjcnfdbnm dfc d pfnhelybntkmyjt gjkj©tybt, gjcrjkmre ds åeltnt gjldthufnm-
åjkmit ghbqnbcm gj leit ghjzdkztvjt kbxyj r dfv dybvfybt, xnj djpvj©yj njkmrj cz cbkmyjve lfdktyb±, gjlnfkrbdf±otve dfc r exfcnb± d ytq. Ghb ¤njv dsåjh df-
d eckjdbzö vfktymrjuj rjkktl©f. Ds yt ljk©ys ltkfnm ghtlgjkj©tybq jnyjcbntkm- hbfynjd jåotybz, rekmnehyjq ©bpyb b hfpdktxtybq pf ghtltkfvb lfyyjq cbcntvs vj-
yj jåotybz, rekmnehyjq ©bpyb b hfpdktxtybq bkb ljcnegf r ghjatccjhfv yf jcyjdt ©tn åsnm juhfybxtyysv.
hfpvthjd njuj bkb byjuj extåyjuj pfdtltybz. Jghtltkbnt, yfkbxbt rfrbö åkfujghbzn-
ysö djpvj©yjcntq bvttn lkz dfc åjkmitt pyfxtybt, b dybvfntkmyj xbnfqnt cghfdjx- Byjcnhfyyst cneltyns
ybrb rjkktl©tq b eybdthcbntnjd, cnfhzcm yfqnb lkz ctåz ¤nb djpvj©yjcnb.
Xbckj byjcnhfyysö cneltynjd, ghbyznsö yf extåe d njn bkb byjq rjkktl© CIF, cj-
Jrhe©f±ofz jåcnfyjdrf d rjkktl©t cnfdkztn jn vtytt 10 lj åjktt 3 000, b, hfpevttncz, d åjkmibycndt rjkktl©tq jyj
rjktåktncz ult-nj vt©le ¤nbvb ldevz gjrfpfntkzvb. D cghfdjxybrfö rjkktl©tq xfc-
Jåotybt, rekmnehyfz ©bpym b hfpdktxtybz nj ghbdjlbncz njxysq gthtxtym xbckf byjcnhfyysö cneltynjd, ghbyznsö yf extåe, yf-
hzle c lheubvb lfyysvb gj rf©ljve dscitve extåyjve pfdtltyb±. D jåhfpjdfntkm-
…jkmibycndj rjkktl©tq CIF gjvbvj extåysö ghjuhfvv ghtlkfuf±n cneltynfv ib- ysö byajhvfwbjyysö b rjycekmnfwbjyysö wtynhfö CIF jåsxyj bvttncz ibhjrjt
hjrjt hfpyjjåhfpbt cjwbfkmysö, rekmnehysö b cgjhnbdysö vthjghbznbq. Vfcinfås hfpyjjåhfpbt cghfdjxysö bplfybq, d rjnjhsö ds vj©tnt yfqnb byajhvfwb± gjljåyj-
dybvfybz, eltkztvjuj rf©ljve bp gjljåysö vthjghbznbq, jghtltkz±n jrhe©f±oe± uj öfhfrnthf.
jåcnfyjdre d dfitv cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt d gkfyt jåotybz, rekmnehyjq ©bpyb b hfp-
dktxtybq. Dfv nfr©t cktletn jåhfofnm dybvfybt yf nj, ©bdtn kb åjkmibycndj cne- Ghb hfccvjnhtybb ¤nbö lfyysö gjlevfqnt j njv, xnj dfv ye©yj. D cneltyxtcrbö uj-
ltynjd d cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt bkb pf tuj ghtltkfvb. D rjkktl©fö, yfpsdftvsö hjlrfö, d rjnjhsö vfkj byjcnhfyysö cneltynjd, dfc vjuen cxbnfnm dtcmvf ytjåsx-
extåysvb pfdtltybzvb ghbujhjlyjq pjys, åjkmibycndj cneltynjd ©bden dyt cnelty- ysv xtkjdtrjv, c rjnjhsv bynthtcyj gjpyfrjvbnmcz. Jlyfrj ds vj©tnt jåyfhe©bnm,
xtcrbö ujhjlrjd b t©tlytdyj ghbtp©f±n d rjkktl© yf pfyznbz, f pfntv djpdhfof- xnj ¤nb extåyst pfdtltybz ghtljcnfdkz±n byjcnhfyysv cneltynfv vtymit eckeu. D
±ncz jåhfnyj. Gjntywbfkmyst cneltyns jxtym bynthtce±ncz ntv, rfrfz fnvjcathf wf- cneltyxtcrbö ujhjlrfö c åjkmibv rjynbyutynjv byjcnhfyysö cneltynjd vjuen åsnm
hbn d cneltyxtcrbö ujhjlrfö d ceååjne b djcrhtctymt “ jcnftncz kb åjkmibycndj cne- uheggs, cgtwbfkmyj cjplfyyst lkz hfåjns c byjcnhfyysvb cneltynfvb, yj vj©tn cke-
ltynjd d extåyjv pfdtltybb bkb gjrblftn tuj lkz cjdthitybz rfrbö-kbåj gjtpljr bkb xbnmcz b nfr, xnj dfv ghbltncz ghbkj©bnm ljgjkybntkmyst ecbkbz r njve, xnjås xf-
djpdhfotybz ljvjq c ntv, xnjås yfdtofnm ctvm± b rf©lsq hfp ghjdjlbnm c ytq ds- ot dcnhtxfnmcz b yfkflbnm jåotybt cj cneltynfvb CIF, f nfr©t cj cneltynfvb bp
öjlyst lyb? Dct ¤nb afrnjhs jrfpsdf±n djpltqcndbt yf jåotybt, rekmnehye± ©bpym lheubö cnhfy.
b hfpdktxtybz d cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt.
Jcjåst eckjdbz jåextybz
Cneltyxtcrbt åhfncndf b ©tycrbt cneltyxtcrbt jåotcndf
Dct rjkktl©b CIF ghbybvf±n yf extåe cneltynjd ytpfdbcbvj jn bö yfwbjyfkmyjc-
Eybrfkmyjq öfhfrnthyjq xthnjq ©bpyb d cneltyxtcrbö ujhjlrfö zdkztncz uhtxtcrfz nb, wdtnf rj©b bkb eåt©ltybq. Jlyfrj cjplfybt vyjubö eybdthcbntnjd bkb rjkkt-
cbcntvf, ghtlkfuf±ofz cneltynfv djpvj©yjcnm dcnegbnm d cneltyxtcrjt åhfncndj, f l©tq jåeckjdkbdfkjcm dsgjkytybtv rfrbö-kbåj jghtltktyysö eckjdbq jåextybz, yf-
cneltynrfv cnfnm xktyfvb ©tycrjuj cneltyxtcrjuj jåotcndf. (Nthvby ¤uhtxtcrfz≥ ghbvth, endth©ltybtv d cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt jghtltktyyjq htkbubjpyjq fnvjcat-
egjnhtåkztncz gjnjve, xnj yfpdfybz cneltyxtcrbö åhfncnd b ©tycrbö cneltyxtcrbö hs, ghbtvjv yf extåe kbim k±ltq jlyjuj gjkf bkb yfkbxbtv rjynbyutynf cneltynjd,
jåotcnd cjcnjzn bp ldeö bkb nhtö uhtxtcrbö åerd). Dj vyjubö cneltyxtcrbö ujhjlrfö d rjnjhjv åjkmibycndj cjcnfdkz±n ghtlcnfdbntkb njq bkb byjq ¤nybxtcrjq uheggs.
CIF cneltyxtcrbt åhfncndf (xfcnyst cneltyxtcrbt rkeås lkz ±yjitq) b ©tycrbt Dybvfntkmyj xbnfqnt d cghfdjxybrt rf©ljuj rjyrhtnyjuj rjkktl©f hfpltk, d rjnj-
cneltyxtcrbt jåotcndf vjuen åsnm chtljnjxbtv jåotybz, rekmnehyjq ©bpyb b hfp- hjv ajhvekbhetncz jcjåst eckjdbz jåextybz, b htifqnt, cjdgflf±n kb dfib wtkb c
dktxtybq cneltynjd. Jlyfrj gjvbvj dtxthbyjr b ghjxbö edtctkbntkmysö vthjghbz- wtkzvb cneltyxtcrjuj ujhjlrf. Bp 3 600 rjkktl©tq b eybdthcbntnjd CIF d 600 bkb
nbq cneltyxtcrbt åhfncndf b ©tycrbt cneltyxtcrbt jåotcndf xfcnj dscnegf±n cgjy- 700 jåextybt cdzpfyj c ghbyflkt©yjcnm± r jghtltktyyjq wthrdb bkb rjyrhtnysv dt-
cjhfvb åkfujndjhbntkmysö vthjghbznbq. Cneltynfv, zdkz±obvcz ghbdth©tywfvb hjbcgjdtlfybtv. Gjvbvj ¤nbö rjkktl©tq b eybdthcbntnjd yfcxbnsdftncz ghbåkbpb-
bkb ghjnbdybrfvb ¤njq uhtxtcrjq cbcntvs, ytjåöjlbvj dszcybnm, pfybvf±n kb cne- ntkmyj 70 åbåktqcrbö rjkktl©tq, ghbdth©tyysö jrfpfyb± cneltynfv gjvjob d cj-
ltyxtcrbt åhfncndf b ©tycrbt cneltyxtcrbt jhufybpfwbb ujcgjlcnde±ott gjkj©tybt tlbytybb dthjbcgjdtlfybz c ghbjåhtntybtv pyfybq b gjlujnjdrt ¤nbö cneltynjd r ©bp-


38 39
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF



yb d cjjndtncndbb c bö dthjq, rjnjhjq jyb ljk©ys yterjcybntkmyj cktljdfnm dj dctö åsv ytljdthbtv jnyjcbntcm r rkfccbabrfwbzv, rjnjhst yt lf±n jåüzcytybz rhbnt-
fcgtrnfö åsnbz. Celz gj bvt±obvcz gthtxyzv rjkktl©tq, 13 bp ybö ghbybvf±n yf hbzv, yf rjnjhsö gjcnhjtyf cfvf rkfccbabrfwbz. …jktt cjkblyst rkfccbabrfwbb vj-
extåe njkmrj ve©xby b jrjkj 60 rjkktl©tq “ njkmrj ©tyoby. Rhjvt njuj, bvttn- uen gjcke©bnm dfv bcöjlyjq njxrjq lkz ghbyznbz cdjtuj htitybz; jlyfrj ¤kexibv≥
cz hzl rjkktl©tq, ghbybvf±obö yf extåe ghtbveotcndtyyj fahj-fvthbrfywtd bkb rjkktl©tv zdkztncz njn, rjnjhsq gjlöjlbn dfv yf jcyjdt afrnjhjd, fyfkjubxysö
bcgfyjzpsxysö fvthbrfywtd. ntv, rjnjhst ghbdjlzncz d lfyyjq ukfdt.

Vthjghbznbz, ghjdjlzobtcz dyt extåyjq ghjuhfvvs Ghtljcnfdktybt eckeu cneltynfv

Eybdthcbntns CIF ghtlkfuf±n cneltynfv vyjuj åkfujghbznysö djpvj©yjcntq lkz Eybdthcbntns CIF ghtlkfuf±n cneltynfv cfvst hfpyst eckeub, nfrbt rfr ghtljcnfd-
ghbjåhtntybz hfpkbxysö yfdsrjd gjchtlcndjv vthjghbznbq, ghjdjlzoböcz dyt extå- ktybt rehfnjhjd/rjycekmnfynjd, ghjuhfvv jhbtynfwbb d cneltyxtcrbö ujhjlrfö, rjy-
yjq ghjuhfvvs, nfrbö rfr exfcnbt d cgjhnbdysö cjcnzpfybzö d cjcnfdt rjvfyl, frf- cekmnfwbjyysö eckeu, eckeu gj jrfpfyb± ±hblbxtcrjq gjvjob, jabcjd gj jåtcgtxt-
ltvbxtcrbö rkeåfö, eybdthcbntncrbö ufptnfö, cfvjltzntkmysö ntfnhfkmysö gjcnfyjd- yb± ©bkmtv, vty±, ufhfynbhe±obö hfpyjjåhfpyjt gbnfybt, wtynhjd plhfdjjöhfytybz,
rfö b lheubö gjktpysö ghjuhfvvfö. Tckb ds edktrftntcm xtv-nj jghtltktyysv, eåt- ghtgjlfdfntkmcrjq b yfcnfdybxtcrjq gjvjob, ghjuhfvv gj bpextyb± fyukbqcrjuj rfr
lbntcm d njv, xnj d cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt tcnm cneltyxtcrjt jåotcndj, cgjcjåyjt ght- dnjhjuj zpsrf, kfåjhfnjhbq lkz jåhtntybz yfdsrjd gbcmvf b dsgjkytybz gbcmvtyysö
ljcnfdbnm dfv djpvj©yjcnm htfkbpjdfnm dfib edktxtybz. Jlyfrj yt pfåsdfqnt j njv, hfåjn, rjycekmnfwbq gj djghjce åeleotuj nheljecnhjqcndf b n.l. Gjntywbfkmyst cne-
xnj, tckb nfrjuj jåotcndf ytn, ds dctulf vj©tnt cjplfnm tuj cfvb. Rhjvt njuj, ghj- ltyns vjuen chfdybnm ghtljcnfdkztvst d hfpkbxysö eybdthcbntnfö gjvtotybz, jåj-
cvjnh gthtxyz hfpkbxysö cneltyxtcrbö jhufybpfwbq gjpdjkbn dfv gjkexbnm ghtlcnfd- heljdfybt b chtlcndf c ntv, xnjås yfqnb eckeub, jndtxf±obt bö rjyrhtnysv gjnhtå-
ktybt jå bynthtcfö b pfåjnfö cneltynjd b nfrbv jåhfpjv åjkmit epyfnm j cneltyxtc- yjcnzv.
rjq ©bpyb d hfpkbxysö rjkktl©fö.
Ghjuhfvvs bynthyfnehs bkb jåextybz d lheubö cnhfyfö
Ghjxbt cjjåhf©tybz
Vyjubt eybdthcbntns CIF drk±xf±n d cdjb extåyst gkfys ghjuhfvvs bynthyfne-
Pf ghtltkfvb Kbub gk±of hs (jghtltktybz yf hfåjne yf ljåhjdjkmysö yfxfkfö bkb jgkfxbdftve± hfåjne) bkb
jåextybz d lheubö cnhfyfö (¤jåextybz pf heåt©jv≥), rjnjhst vjuen dfc pfbynthtcj-
Ytcvjnhz yf nj, xnj gthdjyfxfkmyj Kbuf gk±of åskf cjplfyf d rfxtcndt cgjhnbdyjq dfnm.
kbub ytcrjkmrbö rjkktl©tq Djcnjxyjuj gjåtht©mz, ¤njn nthvby cnfk fccjwbbhjdfnm-
cz c ¤rcrk±pbdysv, ¤kbnysv jåhfpjdfybtv. Jlyfrj d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö bvt±ncz Cneltyns c juhfybxtyysvb abpbxtcrbvb djpvj©yjcnzvb
cjnyb öjhjibö extåysö pfdtltybq. Yt ghtytåhtufqnt rfrbv-kbåj eybdthcbntnjv bkb
rjkktl©tv njkmrj gj njq ghbxbyt, xnj ds bkb dfif ctvmz ybrjulf j ytv hfymit yt Tckb e dfc tcnm jcjåst gjnhtåyjcnb, eåtlbntcm d njv, xnj dsåbhftvsq dfvb eybdth-
cksifkb; dfv cktletn, ght©lt dctuj, pfåjnbnmcz j cdjbö cjåcndtyysö ye©lfö. Yt ju- cbntn cvj©tn bö eljdktndjhbnm. Jndtlbnt rfr vj©yj åjkmit dhtvtyb yf gthtgbcre
hfybxbdfqnt cdjq dsåjh rjkktl©fvb, döjlzobvb d Kbue gk±of. Nofntkmyj bpexbnt c rjkktufvb. Bvttn cvsck yfxfnm yfdtltybt cghfdjr, gj rhfqytq vtht, pf ldf ujlf
dct djpvj©yst dfhbfyns dsåjhf, ghtcktlez ghb ¤njv wtkm eåtlbnmcz d njv, xnj ds lj njuj, rfr ds gkfybhetnt jnghfdbnmcz d Cjtlbytyyst Infns. Rjulf ds gbcmvtyyj
lftnt ctåt kexibt ifycs yfqnb extåyst pfdtltybz, jndtxf±obt dfibv gjnhtåyjcnzv jåhfoftntcm d eybdthcbntns pf ghtljcnfdktybtv byajhvfwbb, rhfnrj jgbcsdfqnt öf-
b bynthtcfv. hfrnth dfibö juhfybxtyysö abpbxtcrbö djpvj©yjcntq b pfghfibdfqnt byajhvfwb±
j gjvjob, ghtljcnfdkztvjq extåysv pfdtltybtv nfrbv cneltynfv, rfr ds. Ds nfr-
Rkfccbabrfwbz eybdthcbntnjd b rjkktl©tq gj bö pyfxbvjcnb ©t vj©tnt pföjntnm cdzpfnmcz c jabcjv d cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt, rjnjhsq pfybvftn-
cz jåcke©bdfybtv jcjåsö gjnhtåyjcntq cneltynjd c juhfybxtyysvb abpbxtcrbvb djp-
Yt ceotcndetn jabwbfkmyjuj cgbcrf kexibö 10, 20, 50 bkb lf©t 100 eybdthcbntnjd vj©yjcnzvb, c ntv, xnjås åjkmit epyfnm jå eckeufö, ghtljcnfdkztvsö dsåhfyysv
Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd. Ghfdbntkmcndj CIF yt ghjdjlbn rkfccbabrfwbb eybdthcbntnjd dfvb eybdthcbntnjv. „njn jabc vj©tn åsnm jnltkmysv gjlhfpltktybtv b yjcbnm yf-
gj bö pyfxbvjcnb. Rkfccbabrfwbb eybdthcbntnjd, rjnjhst vjuen gjgfcnmcz dfv yf psdfybt Jabc ghtljcnfdktybz eckeu cneltynfv, jåkflf±obv juhfybxtyysvb abpb-
ukfpf, jåsxyj cjcnfdkz±ncz ©ehyfkbcnfvb b, gj dctq dthjznyjcnb, yjczn ceåütrnbd- xtcrbvb djpvj©yjcnzvb, bkb Jabc ghtljcnfdktybz eckeu, cdzpfyysö c yfkbxbtv ju-
ysq öfhfrnth. Gjljåyst rkfccbabrfwbb, rfr ghfdbkj, jcyjdsdf±ncz yf ibhjrjv rhe- hfybxtyysö abpbxtcrbö djpvj©yjcntq, bkb ©t jy vj©tn döjlbnm d gjlhfpltktybt,
ut rhbnthbtd, rjnjhst yt jåzpfntkmyj drk±xf±n d ctåz d rfxtcndt jlyjuj bp jcyjd- jndtncndtyyjt pf jåott jåcke©bdfybt cneltynjd d cneltyxtcrjv ujhjlrt.
ysö afrnjhjd frfltvbxtcrbt cnfylfhns bkb jåoe± htgenfwb± eybdthcbntnf. C jcj-


40 41
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF UKFDF 4 DS…JH KEXITUJ LKZ DFC RJKKTLÉF



Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns
Jlyb rjkktl©b ghtlkfuf±n cneltynfv c juhfybxtyysvb abpbxtcrbvb djpvj©yjcnz-
vb rjvgktrcyst ghjuhfvvs, d nj dhtvz rfr lheubt ghtljcnfdkz±n gjljåysv cnelty-
nfv hzl cgtwbfkmysö eckeu. Dfv b dfitq ctvmt cktletn ghjcvjnhtnm ghtlkfuftvst Erfpfntkm jåhfpjdfntkmysö byajhvfwbjyysö b rjycekmnfwbjyysö wtynhjd
eckeub b cjgjcnfdbnm bö c dfibvb gjnhtåyjcnzvb. Dszcybnt, rfrbt eckeub ghtljcnfd- CIF dj dctv vbht
http://exchanges.state.gov/education/educationusa/centers.htm
kz±ncz fdnjvfnbxtcrb b åtcgkfnyj, f j rfrbö eckeufö ytjåöjlbvj ljujdjhbdfnmcz
pfhfytt b jgkfxbdfnm bö. Rjulf ds åeltnt gjlfdfnm pfzdktybt yf extåe d dscibö
extåysö pfdtltybzö CIF, dfv ytjåöjlbvj åeltn ghtlcnfdbnm ljrevtyns, eljcnjdt- Ccskrb yf ljvfiybt cnhfybws rjkktl©tq
http://www.mit.edu: 8001/people/cdemello/univ.html
hz±obt yfkbxbt e dfc juhfybxtyysö abpbxtcrbö djpvj©yjcntq. Dfv htrjvtyletncz
http://www.siu.no/inst.nsf/searchform2
gjctnbnm cneltyxtcrbq ujhjljr. Gj djpvj©yjcnb gjcnfhfqntcm ecnfyjdbnm rjynfrn c
jlybv bp cneltynjd d rjkktl©t, e rjnjhjuj nfrbt ©t juhfybxtyyst abpbxtcrbt djp-
vj©yjcnb, rfr b e dfc, xnjås kexit epyfnm j njv, xnj dfc ©ltn, jn xtkjdtrf, kbx- Cfqns gjbcrf rjkktl©tq
yj pyfrjvjuj c gjkj©tybtv ltk. Cneltyns c juhfybxtyysvb abpbxtcrbvb djpvj©- Vyjubt bp ¤nbö cfqnjd nfr©t drk±xf±n d ctåz jåoe± byajhvfwb±
yjcnzvb vjuen ghb yfkbxbb yflkt©fobö ljrevtynjd pfghfibdfnm jcjåjt jåjheljdf- j dsåjht extåysö pfdtltybq:
http://www.collegeboard.org
ybt bkb ghjlktybt chjrf yf ghjöj©ltybt jnåjhjxyjuj ntcnf b ¤ntcnf fvthbrfycrjuj
http://www.collegenet.com
rjkktl©f≥ ghb gjcnegktybb d dscitt extåyjt pfdtltybt, f nfr©t dj dhtvz clfxb ¤r-
http://www.collegeview.com
pfvtyjd gj jnltkmysv ghtlvtnfv d ntxtybt extåyjuj ujlf.
http://www.educationconnect.com
http://www.embark.com
Htp±vt
http://www.nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cool
✏ Lkz njuj, xnjås juhfybxbnm dfi cgbcjr eybdthcbntnjd, cjcnfdmnt gthtxtym afrnj- http://www.petersons.com
http://www.review.com
hjd, bvt±obö lkz dfc åjkmijt pyfxtybt, nfrbö rfr frfltvbxtcrbt cjjåhf©tybz,
vtcnjgjkj©tybt b hfcöjls. Bobnt extåyst pfdtltybz, jndtxf±obt nhtåjdfybzv,
rjnjhst ds njxyj jghtltkbkb lkz ctåz Byajhvfwbz jå frrhtlbnfwbb
✏ Ghjcvjnhbnt erfpfntkb eybdthcbntnjd; gjkmpeqntcm rjvgm±nthysvb ghjuhfvvfvb http://www.chea.org
gjbcrf bkb ghjuhfvvfvb gjbcrf, bvt±obvbcz dj Dctvbhyjq rjvgm±nthyjq ctnb,
lkz njuj, xnjås ktuxt åskj juhfybxbnm gthtxtym eybdthcbntnjd b rjkktl©tq. Gj- Rkfccbabrfwbz dscibö extåysö pfdtltybq
http://www.library.uiuc.edu/edx/rankings.htm
ljåyst ghjuhfvvs jåsxyj bvt±ncz d jåhfpjdfntkmysö byajhvfwbjyysö b rjy-
cekmnfwbjyysö wtynhfö CIF.
✏ Dszcybnt yfkbxbt k±åsö åkfujghbznysö djpvj©yjcntq lkz dcnhtxb c ghtlcnfdb- Byajhvfwbz lkz cneltynjd c juhfybxtyysvb abpbxtcrbvb djpvj©yjcnzvb
http://www.miusa.org
ntkzvb rjkktl©tq CIF b gjcnfhfqntcm gjkexbnm e ybö jndtns yf dfib djghjcs,
bkb ©t gjkmpeqntcm ¤ktrnhjyyjq gjxnjq lkz gthtgbcrb c cjnhelybrfvb b cnelty-
nfvb rjkktl©tq.
✏ D Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö yt ceotcndetn jabwbfkmyjq rkfccbabrfwbb eybdthcbntnjd
gj bö pyfxbvjcnb, gj¤njve nofntkmyj bpexfqnt rhbnthbb cjcnfdktybz k±åjq bp
rkfccbabrfwbq eybdthcbntnjd, gjgfditqcz dfv yf ukfpf.




42 43
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 5 NHT…JDFYBZ, GHTLÜZDKZTVST R GJCNEGF‘OBV UKFDF 5 NHT…JDFYBZ, GHTLÜZDKZTVST R GJCNEGF‘OBV
D EYBDTHCBNTNS CIF D EYBDTHCBNTNS CIF


Pyfybt fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf

Jlybv bp jcyjdysö nhtåjdfybq ecgtiyjuj jåextybz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö zdkztncz
NHT…JDFYBZ, evtybt bpüzcyznmcz yf fyukbqcrjv zpsrt. Tckb fyukbqcrbq zpsr yt zdkztncz lkz dfc
GHTLÜZDKZTVST hjlysv, eybdthcbntns b rjkktl©b CIF gjnhtåe±n jn dfc ghjöj©ltybz ghjdthrb yf
ehjdtym pyfybz fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf ght©lt, xtv ghbybvfnm dfc yf extåe d hfvrfö ghj-
R GJCNEGF‘OBV D uhfvvs, lf±otq ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb. Gjxnb dct extåyst pfdtltybz nhtåe±n,
EYBDTHCBNTNS CIF xnjås ¤njq ghjdthrjq åsk ntcn gj fyukbqcrjve zpsre rfr byjcnhfyyjve (TOEFL).
Ytrjnjhst eybdthcbntns b rjkktl©b vjuen pfxbnsdfnm rjkbxtcndj jxrjd, yfåhfyyjt
ghb clfxt lheubö ¤rpfvtyjd, bkb ghbvtyznm cdjb cjåcndtyyst ntcns. Lkz gjkextybz
Lkz njuj, xnjås bvtnm ghfdj gjcnegbnm d eybdthcbntn CIF, ds ljk©ys jndtxfnm ljgjkybntkmyjq byajhvfwbb cdthmntcm cj cghfdjxybrjv rf©ljuj rjkktl©f bkb cdz-
jghtltktyysv vbybvfkmysv nhtåjdfybzv, ghtlüzdkztvsv r gjcnegf±obv d eybdth- ©bntcm c jabcjv ghbtvf d rjkktl© b jåcelbnt c cjnhelybrfvb ¤njuj gjlhfpltktybz
cbntns Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd. D xbckj ¤nbö nhtåjdfybq döjlzn yfkbxbt eljcnjdthtybz cdj± cbnefwb±. Fyfkjubxyj vyjubv lheubv jåkfcnzv d cbcntvt jåhfpjdfybz CIF,
jå jrjyxfybb chtlytq irjks bkb ljrevtynjd j htpekmnfnfö dsgecrysö ¤rpfvtyjd d rf©ljt dscitt extåyjt pfdtltybt ecnfyfdkbdftn cdjq cjåcndtyysq cnfylfhn ghbtvf

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