LINEBURG


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TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ
D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF–




…HJI‘HF

1
…FPJDJT
EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT
J…HFPJDFYBT
educat±on
USA
GHTLBCKJDBT
D S HF É T Y B T … K F U J L F H Y J C N B



Cthbz bp xtnshtö åhji±h gjl yfpdfybtv ¤Tckb ds öjnbnt exbnmcz d Cjtlbytyysö ¤…fpjdjt eybdthcbntncrjt jåhfpjdfybt≥ döjlbn d cthb± bp xtnshtö
Infnfö≥ dsgeotyf Jnltkjv byajhvfwbb b htcehcjd d jåkfcnb jåhfpjdfybz Ujcelfhcndty- ddjlysö åhji±h, bplfyysö Ujcelfhcndtyysv Ltgfhnfvtynjv CIF
yjuj ltgfhnfvtynf CIF. „ktrnhjyysq dfhbfyn ¤nbö bplfybq vj©yj yfqnb yf bynthytn- c wtkm± ghtljcnfdktybz jåütrnbdysö b ghfrnbxtcrbö rjycekmnfwbq
cnhfybwt http://educationusa.state.gov/. åeleobv byjcnhfyysv cneltynfv b extysv gj djghjcfv jåextybz
Ujcelfhcndtyysq ltgfhnfvtyn CIF dshf©ftn åkfujlfhyjcnm cktle±obv kbwfv bp
d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö. „ktrnhjyyst dthcbb dctö xtnshtö åhji±h
hfpysö cnhfy pf nj, xnj d rfxtcndt frnbdysö xktyjd Rjycekmnfnbdyjuj rjvbntnf ghjtrnf
jnrhsns lkz ljcnegf yf dtå-cfqnt gj flhtce: http://educationusa/state.gov,
¤Tckb ds öjnbnt exbnmcz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö≥ jyb eltkbkb tve dhtvz b cdjbvb
f gtxfnyst dthcbb gthdsö nhtö åhji±h vj©yj gjkexbnm d byajhvfwb-
¤rcgthnysvb pyfybzvb b ghfrnbxtcrbvb yfdsrfvb dytckb drkfl d tuj jceotcndktybt:
jyyj-jåhfpjdfntkmysö b rjycekmnfwbjyysö wtynhfö CIF, rjnjhst
ceotcnde±n dj vyjubö cnhfyfö vbhf. Xnjås yfqnb åkb©fqibq bp
ytrjvvthxtcrjq jhufybpfwbb ¤Fvthbr¤y
„dtkby Ktdbycjy “ Rjjhlbyfnjhe ghjtrnf,
Vbl-Bcn „lm±rtqiyk Cthdbcbp≥
cgtwbfkbcne gj jåextyb± vbccbb FVH CIF nfrbö wtynhjd, jåhfnbntcm d gjcjkmcndj bkb rjycekmcndj CIF,
yf Pfgflyjv åthtue htrb Bjhlfy b d ctrnjht Y¤ycb Ujyu, åsditve rjjhlbyfnjhe Rjycekm- kbåj jpyfrjvmntcm c gthtxytv ¤nbö wtynhjd yf cjjndtncnde±otv
Ufpf b rjycekmnfyne gj vt©leyfhjlyjve nfwbjyjq cke©ås gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz
bynthytn-cfqnt.
jåhfpjdfyb±, åsditve lbhtrnjhe Wtynhf Fvthbrfyj-byljytpbqcrjuj ajylf jåvtyf cne-
jåhfpjdfntkmyjq byajhvfwbb Fvthbrfyj- ltynfvb b extysvb (L©frfhnf, Byljytpbz)
bphfbkmcrjuj ajylf jåhfpjdfybz d Ntkm-
Egjvzyenst åhji±hs jödfnsdf±n cktle±obt jåkfcnb:
Cfylfhib Ueyfdfhltyf, åsditve rjycekmnfy-
Fdbdt (Bphfbkm)
ne gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz Fvthbrfyj-ihb-
Kebpt Rer “ gjvjoybre Rjjhlbyfnjhf ghjtr- kfyrbqcrjq rjvbccbb Aekåhfqnf (Rjkjvåj,
…fpjdjt eybdthcbntncrjt jåhfpjdfybt
nf/htlfrnjhe, rjjhlbyfnjhe gthdjq åhji±hs Ihb-Kfyrf)



1
b fdnjhe, cjnhelybxf±otve d lfyyjv ghjtrnt, • Rfr dsåhfnm ghjuhfvvs d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö, gjpdjkz±obt
Kbylt –byb, ghtpbltyne ¤Kbylty „lm±rtqiyk
lbhtrnjhe Wtynhf rjvgfybb ¤Rfgkfy Byrjh-
gjkexbnm cntgtym åfrfkfdhf b rfylblfnf d åfrfkfdhs (vkflituj
Cthdbcbp≥ (Dfibyunjy, Atlthfkmysq jrheu
gjhtqntl≥ (Kjyljy) b åsditve lbhtrnjhe
Rjkevåbz)
rjycekmnfwbjyyjq cke©ås gj djghjcfv jåhf- cgtwbfkbcnf)?
pjdfybz Fvthbrfyj-fyukbqcrjq rjvbccbb Kbt –fnnjy, gjvjoybre htlfrnjhf ©ehyfkf • Rfr gjlfdfnm pfzdktybt yf extåe d hfvrfö ¤nbö ghjuhfvv?
Aekåhfqnf (Kjyljy) ¤„ldfqpbyu Rejnthkb≥, bplfdftvjuj xfcnyjq
• Rfrjds djpvj©yjcnb gjkextybz d CIF ntöybxtcrjuj b
ytrjvvthxtcrjq jhufybpfwbtq ¤Fvthbr¤y
Lfqfyt Kjgtc “ rjjhlbyfnjhe dnjhjq åhji±-
Vbl-Bcn „lm±rtqiyk Cthdbcbp≥ ghjatccbjyfkmyj-ntöybxtcrjuj jåhfpjdfybz?
hs b fdnjhe, cjnhelybxf±otve d lfyyjv ghj-
trnt, lbhtrnjhe gjlhfpltktybz gj gjcnegkt- Ytycb Rtntre, htubjyfkmyjve rjjhlbyfnjhe-
yb± d vfubcnhfnehe b htubcnhfwbb fcgbhfynjd rjycekmnfyne gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz Ujce- Gjcktlbgkjvyjt jåhfpjdfybt, ghjatccbjyfkmyfz gjlujnjdrf b
Eybdthcbntnf Ntyytccb (Yjrcdbkk) lfhcndtyyjuj ltgfhnfvtynf CIF d Fahbrt


2 bccktljdfntkmcrfz ltzntkmyjcnm
Hjåthnt Gfjkf “ rjjhlbyfnjhe nhtnmtq åhj- Vthfqt Ktccth, åsditve htubjyfkmyjujve
• Rfr bpexbnm ghjuhfvvs jåextybz yf vfubcnhf, ljrnjhf yfer
i±hs b fdnjhe, cjnhelybxf±otve d lfyyjv rjjhlbyfnjhe-rjycekmnfyne gj djghjcfv jåhf-
ghjtrnt, rjycekmnfyne gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdf- pjdfybz Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ltgfhnfvtynf CIF b ghjuhfvvs jåextybz b ltzntkmyjcnb gjckt gjkextybz ljrnjhcrjq
ybz/vtytl©the cgtwbfkmysö ghjtrnjd d ‘FH d Vtrcbrt b cnhfyfö Rfhbåcrjuj åfcctqyf cntgtyb b gjlfnm dcnegbntkmyst ljrevtyns?
ghb utythfkmyjv rjycekmcndt CIF d Lehåfyt „vb Ktpåthu, cjnhelybwt Wtynhf htcehcjd • Rfrjdf ghjwtlehf cthnbabrfwbb b kbwtypbhjdfybz cgtwbfkbcnjd,
(‘FH) dscituj jåhfpjdfybz Yjdjq Fyukbb Gtlfujub-
©tkf±obö ghjljk©bnm jåextybt bkb ghfrnbre d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö?
Ufcnjye Kfrjvåe b Kjht Hfcrfeg “ rjjhlbyf- xtcrjuj rjkktl©f Vfccfxectncrjuj eybdthcb-
njhfv xtndthnjq åhji±hs b fdnjhfv, cjnhel- ntnf (…jcnjy)
ybxf±obv d lfyyjv ghjtrnt Vfhnbye L©. Vbkkthe, lbhtrnjhe Jabcf jrf- Rhfnrjchjxyjt jåhfpjdfybt, ghjuhfvvs jåextybz fyukbqcrjve zpsre,



3
Kfrjvå “ rjjhlbyfnjh ghjuhfvvs Ajylf pfybz eckeu byjcnhfyysv cneltynfv b extysv lbcnfywbjyyjt jåhfpjdfybt b frrhtlbnfwbz
Cjhjcf-Kfndbz d Rjycekmnfwbjyjv wtynht Ntvgkcrjuj eybdthcbntnf (Abkfltkmabz,
• Rfrbt djpvj©yjcnb ceotcnde±n d CIF lkz jåextybz d ntxtybt
gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz infn Gtycbkmdfybz)
gthbjlf lj jlyjuj ujlf?
Hfcrfeg “ åsdibq rjycekmnfyn gj djghjcfv Nthöb Vjkcf, bcgjkybntkmyjve lbhtrnjhe
jåhfpjdfybz Fvthbrfyj-fyukbqcrjq rjvbccbb Wtynhf Aekåhfqnf (–tkmcbyrb, Abykzylbz) • Rfr gjkexbnm cntgtym, lbgkjv bkb cthnbabrfn, ghjqlz ghjuhfvve
Aekåhfqnf (Kjyljy) Kjht H. Hfcrfeg, åsditve rjycekmnfyne gj lbcnfywbjyyjuj jåextybz pf ghtltkfvb CIF?
Ujcelfhcndtyysq ltgfhnfvtyn nfr©t dshf©f- djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz Fvthbrfyj-fyukbqcrjq • Rfrjdf cbcntvf frrhtlbnfwbb dscibö extåysö pfdtltybq CIF?
tn åkfujlfhyjcnm cktle±obv fdnjhfv, htlfr- rjvbccbb Aekåhfqnf
njhfv, xbnfntkzv b rjycekmnfynfv: Cjöfbh Cffl, lbhtrnjhe Wtynhf jåhfpjdfntkm-
Gjlujnjdrf r jnütple: ghfrnbxtcrfz byajhvfwbz j ©bpyb b extåt
R¤nkby „k¤v, htubjyfkmyjve rjjhlbyfnjhe- ysö htcehcjd xfcnyjq ytrjvvthxtcrjq jhufyb-



4
rjycekmnfyne gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz Ujce- pfwbb ¤Fvthbr¤y Vbl-Bcn „lm±r¤qiyk Cth- d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö
lfhcndtyyjuj ltgfhnfvtynf CIF d ‘©yjq dbcbp≥ (Rfbh, Tubgtn)
• Rfr kexit cgkfybhjdfnm gthttpl d CIF gjckt njuj, rfr dfc ghbyzkb
Fpbb L©tqkby Cfhhfcbyj, ±hbcne gj djghjcfv by-
d fvthbrfycrbq eybdthcbntn bkb rjkktl©?
„kkty …¤l©th, lbhtrnjhe gjlhfpltktybz gj ntkktrnefkmyjq cjåcndtyyjcnb b rjycekmnfyne
• Rfr jåhfofnmcz pf gjkextybtv dbps b gthttp©fnm d Cjtlbytyyst
jrfpfyb± eckeu byjcnhfyysv cneltynfv b gj ctnb Bynthytn (Dfibyunjy, Atlthfkmysq
extysv …byutvnjycrjuj jnltktybz Eybdthcb- jrheu Rjkevåbz) Infns b xtuj j©blfnm gj ghbåsnbb d eybdthcbntncrbq ujhjljr
ntnf infnf Ym±-Qjhr (u. Ym±-Qjhr) Ujcelfhcndtyysq ltgfhnfvtyn CIF dshf©ftn (rfvgec)?
L©ektfyy Ajkku¤nnth, htlfrnjhe ©ehyfkf jcjåe± ghbpyfntkmyjcnm Ltydthcrjve eybdth-
Lfyyfz åhji±hf hfpvtotyf yf dtå-cfqnt Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ltgfhnfvtynf
¤„ldfqpbyu Rejnthkb≥ b lbhtrnjhe gjlhfplt- cbntne (http://www.du.edu), xmz gjllth©rf gj-
CIF gj flhtce: http://educationusa.state.gov
ktybz gj jrfpfyb± rjycekmnfwbjyysö eckeu pdjkbkf jåtcgtxbnm abyfycbhjdfybt jåkj©rb
b eckeu gj ghbtve ¤rpfvtyjd/ntcnjd xfcnyjq b htrkfvysö bkk±cnhfwbq ¤njq cthbb geåkb-
rfwbq.


2 3
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
Cjtlbytyyst Infns Fvthbrb
CJLTHÉFYBT CJLTHÉFYBT



Ddtltybt Ukfdf 4
Pfxtv exbnmcz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb? 10 Dsåjh kexituj lkz dfc rjkktl©f 29
Jåhfpjdfntkmyst byajhvfwbjyyst b rjycekmnfwbjyyst wtynhs CIF Bcnjxybrb byajhvfwbb, gjvjuf±obt cltkfnm dsåjh
Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns Jåhfpjdfntkmyst byajhvfwbjyyst b rjycekmnfwbjyyst
wtynhs CIF
Ukfdf 1 …fpjdjt eybdthcbntncrjt jåhfpjdfybt d CIF 13 Dtå-cfqns b ¤ktrnhjyyfz gjxnf rjkktl©tq
Rjkktl©b, eybdthcbntns b bycnbnens: Gjbcrb rjkktl©tq dj Dctvbhyjq rjvgm±nthyjq ctnb
xtv jyb jnkbxf±ncz lheu jn lheuf Dscnfdrb b lheubt vthjghbznbz rjkktl©tq pf heåt©jv
Cntgtyb åfrfkfdhf b rfylblfnf d åfrfkfdhs Gjctotybt cneltyxtcrbö ujhjlrjd
Abkjcjacrfz rjywtgwbz uevfybnfhysö yfer Rjycekmnfyns gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz b futyns gj yfåjhe
Ghjatccbjyfkmyjt jåhfpjdfybt cneltynjd
Eybdthcbntns infnjd Frfltvbxtcrbt cjjåhf©tybz
Xfcnyst eybdthcbntns Frrhtlbnfwbz b ghbpyfybt cntgtytq
Vtcnyst (¤jåobyyst≥) rjkktl©b Jcyjdyjq ghtlvtn cgtwbfkbpfwbb
Ntöybxtcrbt b ghjatccbjyfkmyj-ntöybxtcrbt rjkktl©b Xtve eltkztncz jcyjdyjt dybvfybt d extåyjq ghjuhfvvt
Lbcnfywbjyyjt jåhfpjdfybt Bpåbhfntkmysq gjlöjl
Jåextybt d rjkktl©t CIF åtp gjkextybz cntgtyb Cnhernehf ghjuhfvv jåextybz, gjpdjkz±obö gjkexbnm extye±
Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns cntgtym
Ghbtv d eybdthcbntn bkb rjkktl© gj pfckeufv b cnfnec cneltynf,
Ukfdf 2 Cntgtym åfrfkfdhf CIF 18 rjnjhsq gthtdtkcz d lheujq eybdthcbntn bkb rjkktl© gj pfckeufv
Extåysq rfktylfhm Jnyjitybt xbckf cneltynjd r xbcke ghtgjlfdfntktq
Cbcntvf ¤rhtlbnjd≥ (pfxtnjd) Jåhfp ©bpyb
Rehcs lkz gjkextybz cntgtyb Hfcöjls
Jwtyrb Ébkboysq djghjc
Xnj nfrjt chtlybq åfkk? Vtcnjgjkj©tybt rjkktl©f
Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns Hfpvths dscibö extåysö pfdtltybq b rjynbyutyn cneltynjd
Jrhe©f±ofz jåcnfyjdrf d rjkktl©t
Ukfdf 3 Vtcnyst (¤jåobyyst≥) rjkktl©b 22 Jåotybt, rekmnehyfz ©bpym b hfpdktxtybz
Ghjuhfvvs jåextybz Cneltyxtcrbt åhfncndf b ©tycrbt cneltyxtcrbt jåotcndf
Ldeöktnybt ghjuhfvvs lkz gjkextybz cntgtyb rfylblfnf Byjcnhfyyst cneltyns
d åfrfkfdhs Jcjåst eckjdbz jåextybz
Ghjuhfvvs gjkextybz fnntcnfnf Vthjghbznbz, ghjdjlzobtcz dyt extåyjq ghjuhfvvs
Ghjljk©tybt jåhfpjdfybz Ghjxbt cjjåhf©tybz
Frrhtlbnfwbz Pf ghtltkfvb Kbub gk±of
Cjukfitybz j gthtöjlt b cjjndtncndbb Rkfccbabrfwbz eybdthcbntnjd b rjkktl©tq gj bö pyfxbvjcnb
Ghbtv d extåyjt pfdtltybt Ghtljcnfdktybt eckeu cneltynfv
Hfcöjls Ghjuhfvvs bynthyfnehs bkb jåextybz d lheubö cnhfyfö
Abyfycjdfz gjvjom Cneltyns c juhfybxtyysvb abpbxtcrbvb djpvj©yjcnzvb
Cneltyxtcrfz ©bpym Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns
Jgsn pfyznbq d felbnjhbb
Ukfdf 5
Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns Nhtåjdfybz, ghtlüzdkztvst r gjcnegf±obv
d eybdthcbntns CIF 44
Eljcnjdthtybz jå jrjyxfybb chtlytq irjks/ljrevtyns
j htpekmnfnfö ¤rpfvtyjd
Pyfybt fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf
Ntcn gj fyukbqcrjve zpsre rfr byjcnhfyyjve (TOEFL)

6 7
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
CJLTHÉFYBT CJLTHÉFYBT



Ukfdf 9
Cnfylfhnyst ntcns ghb ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd Ghjwtcc gjlfxb pfzdktybz: hfcgbcfybt b rjynhjkmysq cgbcjr 78
Jnåjhjxysq ntcn (SFN)
Ukfdf 10
¤Ntcn fvthbrfycrjuj rjkktl©f≥ (ACT) Gthtöjl d eybdthcbntn CIF 81
Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns Pfxtn ¤rhtlbnjd≥
Gthtöjl bp jlyjuj dscituj extåyjuj pfdtltybz CIF d lheujt
Ukfdf 6 Abyfycbhjdfybt dfituj jåhfpjdfybz 52 Gthtöjl d eybdthcbntn CIF bp extåyjuj pfdtltybz, yt döjlzotuj
Pfåkfujdhtvtyyjt gkfybhjdfybt d cbcntve jåhfpjdfybz Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd
Gjlcxtn dfibö hfcöjljd Ghjwtcc gjlfxb pfzdktybz yf gthtöjl bp jlyjuj rjkktl©f bkb
Gkfnf pf jåextybt b cåjhs pf lheubt ghtljcnfdkztvst eckeub eybdthcbntnf d lheujq
Hfcöjls yf ghj©bdfybt Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns
Abyfycbhjdfybt dfituj jåhfpjdfybz
Ukfdf 11
Cjcnfdktybt jwtyrb kbxysö abyfycjdsö chtlcnd Jåhfotybt pf cneltyxtcrjq dbpjq 89
Jghtltktybt bcnjxybrjd abyfycjdjq gjvjob Rfntujhbb dbp
Cjrhfotybt hfcöjljd yf jåhfpjdfybt Gjhzljr jåhfotybz pf dbpjq lkz dfitq cnhfys
Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns Jåhfotybt pf cneltyxtcrjq dbpjq: gj¤nfgyjt herjdjlcndj
Tckb dfv jnrfpsdf±n d dbpt
Ukfdf 7 Cnbgtylbb lkz cneltynjd, exfcnde±obö d cgjhnbdyjq ©bpyb Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns
cdjtuj extåyjuj pfdtltybz 61
Ukfdf 12
Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns Eybdthcbntncrfz ©bpym d Fvthbrt 94
Ghbåsnbt d Cjtlbytyyst Infns
Ukfdf 8 Ghfdbkmyjt jajhvktybt pfzdktybz d dscibt extåyst Jhbtynfwbz
pfdtltybz CIF 66 Rjycekmnfyn byjcnhfyysö cneltynjd (RBC)
Pfghfibdfybt vfnthbfkjd lkz gjlfxb pfzdktybz d dscibt Rehfnjh
extåyst pfdtltybz CIF Ébkboysq djghjc d eybdthcbntnt
Rjulf gjcskfnm dfi pfghjc Ltymub b åfyrjdcrbt eckeub
Relf yfghfdkznm dfi pfghjc Vtlbwbycrfz cnhföjdrf
Xnj drk±xfnm d dfi pfghjc Jåotybt, rekmnehyfz ©bpym b hfpdktxtybz
Htubcnhfwbz lkz ghjöj©ltybz ntcnjd ghb ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns
Pfgjkytybt b djpdhfotybt vfnthbfkjd lkz gjlfxb pfzdktybz/fyrtns
Ghbkj©tybz Ukjccfhbq
d dscibt extåyst pfdtltybz CIF 99
Ajhvf pfzdktybz/fyrtns
Htubcnhfwbjyysq dpyjc …båkbjuhfabz 105
Cdtltybz jå jåhfpjdfybb
Relf cjjåofnm j htpekmnfnfö ghjöj©ltybz ntcnjd Erfpfntkm 107
Pfzdktybt kbxyjuj öfhfrnthf
Htrjvtylfwbb
Cghfdrf jabyfycjdjv gjkj©tybb
Ghtltkmyst chjrb ghbtvf pfzdktybq b cgjcjås bö ghtlcnfdktybz
Ghbtv cneltynjd d cthtlbyt ujlf
Cjåtctljdfybz
Jåofz ajhvf pfzdktybz/fyrtns
Dsåjh extåyjuj pfdtltybz
Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns



8 9
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
DDTLTYBT DDTLTYBT




…jktt extåyjv pfdtltybb, rfr ghfdbkj, d vtcnyjv (¤jåobyyjv≥) rjkktl©t, f pfntv gthtöjl
3 600 rjkktl©tq b eybdthcbntnjd d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb ghtlkfuf- d lheujq ghtlcnfdkz±n cjåjq dtcmvf hfcghjcnhfytyyjt, jåsxyjt zdktybt. D Ukfdfö 3
±n åfpjdjt eybdthcbntncrjt jåhfpjdfybt d hfvrfö ghjuhfvv, lf±obö djpvj©yjcnm gj- b 10 lftncz jgbcfybt vtcnysö rjkktl©tq b jåüzcyztncz cbcntvf gthtöjlf bp jlyjuj
kextybz cntgtyb. Yfkbxbt ¤njuj ibhjrjuj dsåjhf jpyfxftn, xnj bvt±ncz ljcnegyst ghj- rjkktl©f d lheujq.
uhfvvs, cgjcjåyst eljdktndjhbnm pfghjcs dctö ©tkf±obö exbnmcz d CIF. Jlyfrj rfr
yfqnb ghjuhfvve, zdkz±oe±cz lkz dfc kexitq? D yfcnjzotq åhji±ht cnfdbnmcz wtkm D ¤njq åhji±ht ds nfr©t yfqltnt vfnthbfks, rjnjhst gjvjuen dfv ghfdbkmyj jajh-
yt njkmrj ghtljcnfdbnm dfv ytjåöjlbvst cdtltybz lkz njuj, xnjås cltkfnm ghfdbkmysq vbnm pfzdktybt d rjkktl©b (Ukfds 8 b 9) b hfpjåhfnmcz d ghjwtcct jåhfotybz pf db-
dsåjh, yj b ghblfnm dfv edthtyyjcnb lkz gjlujnjdrb pfzdktybz, rjnjhjt lfkj ås dfv pjq (Ukfdf 11). Rfr njkmrj dfv ghtlkj©fn cnfnm cneltynjv jlyjuj bp rjkktl©tq
djpvj©yjcnm gjcnegbnm yf jåextybt d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb. CIF, ds pföjnbnt jpyfrjvbnmcz c gjktpysvb cdtltybzvb j njv, xtuj dfv cktletn
j©blfnm, rjulf ds ghbåeltnt d Cjtlbytyyst Infns (Ukfdf 12). D rjywt yfcnjzotq
Pfxtv exbnmcz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb? åhji±hs bvttncz ukjccfhbq; d ytv hfpüzcyz±ncz ytrjnjhst ckjdf b ahfps, c rjnj-
hsvb dfv ghbltncz xfcnj cnfkrbdfnmcz ghb gjlfxt pfzdktybz d dscibt extåyst pf-
Djn kbim ytcrjkmrj ghbxby, jåüzcyz±obö, gjxtve åjktt 500 0001 byjcnhfyysö cne- dtltybz Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd.
ltynjd cj dctuj vbhf ghjljk©f±n cdjt jåhfpjdfybt d CIF.
Jåhfpjdfntkmyst byajhvfwbjyyst b rjycekmnfwbjyyst wtynhs CIF
Rfxtcndj. Rjkktl©b CIF bpdtcnys dj dctv vbht dscjrbv rfxtcndjv cdjbö ntöyb-
¤Nhelyj gthtjwtybnm nt gjvjom b gjllth©re, rjnj-
xtcrbö chtlcnd, jåjheljdfybz, htcehcjd b ghjatccjhcrj-ghtgjlfdfntkmcrjuj cjcnfdf.
hst z gjkexbk jn rjycekmnfwbjyyjuj wtynhf. Jy åsk
Bvt±obtcz cbcntvs frrhtlbnfwbb jåtcgtxbdf±n nfrjt gjkj©tybt, ghb rjnjhjv ds-
vjbv gthdsv b jcyjdysv bcnjxybrjv byajhvfwbb jå
cibt extåyst pfdtltybz ghjljk©f±n gjllth©bdfnm ¤nb cnfylfhns. D Ukfdfö 1 b 2
fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvt jåhfpjdfybz. Rybub, ©ehyfks
lftncz jåüzcytybt cbcntvs åfpjdjuj eybdthcbntncrjuj jåhfpjdfybt. D Ukfdt 4 jcyjd-
b yfkbxbt ljcnegf d Bynthytn d ¤njv wtynht jrfpf-
yjt dybvfybt eltkztncz dble frrhtlbnfwbb, rjnjhsq dfv cktletn bcrfnm, rjulf ds
kbcm xhtpdsxfqyj gjktpysvb, f tuj cjnhelybrb
gjlftnt pfzdktybt d rjkktl©b CIF.
jxtym gjvjukb vyt d ljcnb©tybb vjbö wtktq≥.
Dsåjh. Cbcntvf jåhfpjdfybz CIF yt bvttn ctåt hfdysö d vbht, rjulf htxm bltn j “ Cneltyn irjks åbpytcf bp Hjccbb
ibhjnt ghtlkfuftvjuj ¤njq cbcntvjq dsåjhf dbljd extåysö pfdtltybq, frfltvbxtc-
rbö b cjwbfkmysö eckjdbq, nhtåjdfybq, ghtlüzdkztvsö ghb gjcnegktybb d rjkktl©b, Ghjwtcc dsåjhf lkz ctåz kexibö dscibö extåysö pfdtltybq b ghfdbkmyjt jajhvkt-
ghjuhfvv, lf±obö djpvj©yjcnm gjkextybz cntgtyb, b ghtlvtnjd, rjnjhst ds vj©t- ybt pfzdktybq yf extåe d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö gjnhtåetn jn dfc åjkmijq pfbynthtcj-
nt dsåhfnm lkz cgtwbfkbpfwbb. D Ukfdfö 4 b 5 hfpüzcyz±ncz nhtåjdfybz, ghtlüzdkzt- dfyyjcnb, egjhcndf b nofntkmyjuj gkfybhjdfybz. Jlyfrj gjxnb d rf©ljq cnhfyt bvt-
vst r gjcnegf±obv d fvthbrfycrbt rjkktl©b, f nfr©t lf±ncz yfghfdktybz, gjpdj- ±ncz cgtwbfkmyst rjycekmnfyns, gjybvf±obt dfib ye©ls b cgjcjåyst gjvjxm dfv.
kz±obt dfv dsåhfnm ctåt gjlöjlzobq rjkktl©. Ds vj©tnt gjkexbnm byajhvfwb± b cjdtns jnyjcbntkmyj extås d Cjtlbytyysö Inf-
nfö d ctnb jåhfpjdfntkmysö byajhvfwbjyysö b rjycekmnfwbjyysö wtynhjd CIF, rj-
„rjyjvbxtcrfz b ¤nbxtcrfz wtyyjcnm. D rfxtcndt dkj©tybz d dfit åeleott, gjke- njhsö dj dctv vbht yfcxbnsdftncz cdsit 450. D ¤nbö wtynhfö bvt±ncz dct ytjåöj-
xtybt extyjq cntgtyb d CIF ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq hfpevyjt hfcöjljdfybt dfibö lbvst erfpfntkb, herjdjlcndf, cghfdjxybrb rjkktl©tq b byajhvfwbz j ntcnfö ghb
chtlcnd. Yfkbxbt ibhjrjuj lbfgfpjyf gkfns pf jåextybt b hfcöjljd yf ghj©bdfybt ghbtvt fåbnehbtynjd, f nfr©t hfåjnf±n rjycekmnfyns gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz, rj-
gk±c ghtljcnfdktybt rjkktl©fvb jghtltktyyjq abyfycjdjq gjvjob cltkfkj jåext- njhst öjnzn gjvjxm dfv b dfitq ctvmt ecgtiyj cghfdbnmcz c ghjwtccjv dsåjhf fvt-
ybt d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö ljcnegysv lkz nsczx cneltynjd, rjnjhst exbkbcm lj dfc. hbrfycrbö rjkktl©tq b gjlfxb pfzdktybz yf extåe d CIF. Ytrjnjhst wtynhs nfr-
D Ukfdfö 6 b 7 ghbdjlbncz byajhvfwbz b lf±ncz cjdtns j hfcöjlfö yf gjkextybt jå- ©t ghjdjlzn nfrbt vthjghbznbz, rfr dscnfdrb bkb ctvbyfhs rjkktl©tq. D byajh-
hfpjdfybz d CIF b djpvj©yjcnzö tuj abyfycbhjdfybz. vfwbjyysö b rjycekmnfwbjyysö wtynhfö vj©yj åtcgkfnyj gjkexbnm ghtldfhbntkmye±
byajhvfwb± d ajhvt dbltj- bkb uheggjdsö ghtptynfwbq, ljcnegf yf dtå-cfqns b
Ubårjcnm. Jlyjq bp yfbåjktt zhrbö jnkbxbntkmysö xthn eybdthcbntnjd b rjkktl©tq ytpfdbcbvsö htcehcysö åbåkbjntr, yj d ytrjnjhsö bp nfrbö wtynhjd c dfc vjuen
CIF zdkztncz ubårjcnm d dsåjht rehcjd d rjkktl©t bkb eybdthcbntnt, yj xnj bvt- gjnhtåjdfnm gkfne pf jrfpfybt ljgjkybntkmysö eckeu.
tn tot åjkmitt pyfxtybt, nfr ¤nj yfkbxbt e cneltynjd djpvj©yjcnb gthtöjlbnm bp
jlyjuj extåyjuj pfdtltybz d lheujt. Pfdthitybt gthdsö ldeö ktn jåextybz, lf±obö Dct jåhfpjdfntkmyst byajhvfwbjyyst b rjycekmnfwbjyyst wtynhs Cjtlbytyysö Inf-
ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb rfylblfnf d åfrfkfdhs (vkflituj cgtwbfkbcnf) d jlyjv njd gjllth©bdf±ncz Ujcelfhcndtyysv ltgfhnfvtynjv CIF c wtkm± ghtljcnfdktybz


10 11
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
DDTLTYBT UKFDF 1 … F P J D J T E Y B D T H C B N T N C R J T J … HF P J D F Y B T D C I F



jåütrnbdyjq byajhvfwbb j lbfgfpjyt djpvj©yjcntq jåextybz, bvt±oböcz d Cjtlb-
ytyysö Infnfö; jlyfrj ¤nb wtynhs b eghfdkz±obt bvb jhufybpfwbb bvt±n d hfpysö
cnhfyfö hfpkbxyst yfpdfybz. Lkz njuj, xnjås yfqnb åkb©fqibq wtynh, jåhfofqntcm
…FPJDJT
d åkbpkt©fott gjcjkmcndj bkb rjycekmcndj CIF bkb cvjnhbnt gthtxtym nfrbö wty-
nhjd yf cfqnt Dctvbhyjq rjvgm±nthyjq ctnb http://exchanges.state.gov/education/
EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT
educationusa/centers.htm.
J…HFPJDFYBT
D CIF
Étkftv Dfv eljdktndjhtybz dfitq ghjcmås jå extåt d CIF^

¤Rjycekmnfyns gj djghjcfv jåhfpjdfybz, hfåjnf±-
obt d ¤njv wtynht, gjvjukb vyt hfpjåhfnmcz dj vyj- Jåhfpjdfybt d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö gjxnb yfdthyzrf åeltn jnkb-
ubö djghjcfö, rfcf±oböcz extås d Cjtlbytyysö xfnmcz jn cbcntvs jåhfpjdfybz, ghtlkfuftvjq d dfitq cnhfyt. „nf
Infnfö, b dctulf åskb ujnjds ghjnzyenm vyt here gj- ukfdf pyfrjvbn dfc c (extysvb) cntgtyzvb, bvt±obvbcz d Cjtlb-
vjob. …kfujlfhz yfkbxb± d ytv ghtrhfcysö vfnt- ytyysö Infnfö, hfpkbxysvb dblfvb exht©ltybq b jhufybpfwbq, f
hbfkjd z nfr©t vyjujt epyfk j rjkktl©fö b eybdth- nfr©t ytrjnjhsvb jcyjdysvb nthvbyfvb b bltzvb, c rjnjhsvb ds
cbntnfö, yf rjnjhsö jcnfyjdbk cdjq dsåjh≥. cnjkrytntcm, tckb pföjnbnt exbnmcz d eybdthcbntnt bkb rjkktl©t
CIF.
“ Cneltyn afrekmntnf gcböjkjubb bp Vfkfqpbb

Gjktpyst dtå-cfqns Rjkktl©b, eybdthcbntns b bycnbnens: xtv jyb
jnkbxf±ncz lheu jn lheuf
Dthcb± cthbb åhji±h ¤Tckb ds öjnbnt exbnmcz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö≥ d ht©bvt
jykfqy vj©yj gjkexbnm gj flhtce: http://exchanges.state.gov/education/educationusa/ Bycnbnens, ghbcdfbdf±obt (extye±) cntgtym d Cjtlbytyysö Inf-
IYWTS.htm nfö, vjuen yfpsdfnmcz k±åsv bp ¤nbö nthvbyjd, ghbxtv rjkktl©b
b bycnbnens ybxtv yt ecnegf±n eybdthcbntnfv. Rfr ghfdbkj, rjkktl©b
Erfpfntkm bvt±oböcz dj dctv vbht jåhfpjdfntkmysö byajhvfwbjyysö b rjycekmnf- bvt±n ntyltywb± åsnm vtymit b jåsxyj ghtlkfuf±n njkmrj cntgtyb åfrfkfdhf b rfy-
wbjyysö wtynhjd CIF vj©yj gjkexbnm gj flhtce: http://exchanges.state.gov/ lblfnf d åfrfkfdhs, d nj dhtvz rfr eybdthcbntn ghtlkfuftn dfv b cntgtym vfubcnhf
education/educationusa/centers.htm bkb rfylblfnf d vfubcnhs. D ¤njq åhji±ht nthvbys ¤dscitt extåyjt pfdtltybt≥,
¤rjkktl©≥ b ¤eybdthcbntn≥ åelen dc±le egjnhtåkznmcz rfr dpfbvjpfvtyztvst. By-
cnbnen jåsxyj cgtwbfkbpbhetncz yf lf±obö djpvj©yjcnm gjkextybz cntgtyb ghjuhfv-
vfö, rjnjhst ghtlkfuf±ncz d ntöybxtcrbö bycnbnenfö, bycnbnenfö vjls, bycnbnenfö
bcreccndf b lbpfqyf b n.l.

D rf©ljv rjkktl©t bkb eybdthcbntnt ds yfqltnt nfrbt afrekmntns, rfr afrekmnt-
ns uevfybnfhysö b tcntcndtyysö yfer bkb irjkf åbpytcf. Rf©lsq afrekmntn ytctn
jndtncndtyyjcnm pf lf±obt djpvj©yjcnm gjkextybz cntgtyb ghjuhfvvs, rjnjhst
ghtlkfuf±ncz rjkktl©tv bkb eybdthcbntnjv d ¤njq jåkfcnb jåextybz.

Cntgtyb åfrfkfdhf b rfylblfnf d åfrfkfdhs

Ghjöj©ltybt rehcf jåextybz, lf±otuj ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb åfrfkfdhf, jåsx-
yj pfybvftn gjkyst xtnsht ujlf, öjnz jlybv cneltynfv lkz ¤njuj nhtåetncz xenm
1
vtymibq gthbjl, d nj dhtvz rfr lheubv ghböjlbncz gjnhfnbnm yf pfdthitybt egjvz-
Ltym jnrhsnsö ldthtq 2002 u. Ltym jnrhsnsö ldthtq 2002 u. dj Dctvbhyjq rjvgm±nthyjq ctnb:
http://www.opendoorsweb.org/. Institute of International Education, New York, N.Y. (Bycnbnen jåextybz yenjuj rehcf ytcrjkmrj åjkmit dhtvtyb. Ghjuhfvvs, lf±obt djpvj©yjcnm gjkext-
ybz cntgtyb rfylblfnf d åfrfkfdhs, rfr ghfdbkj, nhtåe±n ldeö ktn jåextybz. Ghj-
byjcnhfyysö cneltynjd, Ym±-Qjhr, infn Ym±-Qjhr).



12 13
TCKB DS –JNBNT EXBNMCZ D CJTLBYTYYS– INFNF– …FPJDJT EYBDTHCBNTNCRJT J…HFPJDFYBT
UKFDF 1 … F P J D J T E Y B D T H C B N T N C R J T J … HF P J D F Y B T D C I F UKFDF 1 … F P J D J T E Y B D T H C B N T N C R J T J … HF P J D F Y B T D C I F



uhfvvs, hfccxbnfyyst yf gjkextybt cntgtyb rfylblfnf d åfrfkfdhs, vjuen åsnm ¤rj- jnltktybt, vtlbwbycrbq afrekmntn, irjke ghfdf b afrekmntn ©ehyfkbcnbrb. D ntö-
ytxysvb≥ ghjuhfvvfvb, gjpdjkz±obvb gjckt pfdthitybz rehcf jåextybz yfxfnm rf- ybxtcrbö bycnbnenfö dj dctö ghtlkfuftvsö bvb ghjuhfvvfö, lf±obö ghfdj yf gjke-
hmthe d rfxtcndt vkflituj cgtwbfkbcnf, bkb ¤gthtöjlysvb≥ ghjuhfvvfvb, cjjndtncn- xtybt cntgtyb, jcyjdyjt dybvfybt eltkztncz tcntcndtyysv yferfv. Ljgjkybntkmye±
de±obvb gthdsv ldev ujlfv jåextybz d hfvrfö ghjuhfvvs, lf±otq ghfdj yf gjke- byajhvfwb± j ghjatccbjyfkmyjv jåhfpjdfybb vj©yj yfqnb d …hji±ht 2 ¤njq cthbb
xtybt cntgtyb åfrfkfdhf. „nb ghjuhfvvs bvt±n ntyltywb± d åjkmitq cntgtyb jcyj- ¤Gjcktlbgkjvyjt jåextybt, ghjatccbjyfkmyfz gjlujnjdrf b bccktljdfntkmcrfz ltz-
dsdfnmcz yf uevfybnfhysö yferfö. D ckexft gjcktlytuj dsåjhf ds vjukb ås pfntv gt- ntkmyjcnm≥.
htdtcnbcm yf rehc, ghjöj©ltybt rjnjhjuj cjjndtncndetn nhtnmtve ujle jåextybz d hfv-
Eybdthcbntns infnjd
rfö xtnshtöktnytq ghjuhfvvs, lf±otq djpvj©yjcnm gjkextybz cntgtyb åfrfkfdhf.
Ghjuhfvvs, hfccxbnfyyst yf gjkextybt cntgtyb rfylblfnf d åfrfkfdhs, ghtlkfuf±n-
cz rjkktl©fvb, rehc jåextybz d rjnjhsö cjcnfdkztn ldf ujlf b rjnjhst bpdtcnys rfr Eybdthcbntns infnjd jcyjdsdf±ncz b ceåcblbhe±ncz ghfdbntkmcndfvb infnjd CIF
rjkktl©b ybpitq cnegtyb bkb vtcnyst rjkktl©b. Rjkktl©b b eybdthcbntns c xtns- (yfghbvth, Rfkbajhybb, Vbxbufyf bkb Ntöfcf) c wtkm± ghtljcnfdktybz ytljhjujuj jå-
htöktnybv rehcjv jåextybz ghtlkfuf±n ghjuhfvvs, lf±obt ghfdj yf gjkextybt cnt- hfpjdfybz ©bntkzv cdjtuj infnf. „nb eybdthcbntns vj©yj nfr©t yfpsdfnm veybwb-
gtyb åfrfkfdhf, ghbxtv d jxtym ytvyjubö bp ¤nbö rjkktl©tq b eybdthcbntnjd ghtlkf- gfkmysvb eybdthcbntnfvb c ntv, xnjås jnkbxfnm bö jn xfcnysö extåysö pfdtltybq. D
uf±ncz b ghjuhfvvs, lf±obt djpvj©yjcnm gjkextybz cntgtyb rfylblfnf d åfrfkfdhs. jabwbfkmyst yfpdfybz ytrjnjhsö bp egjvzyensö eybdthcbntnjd döjlzn ckjdf ¤eybdth-
cbntn infnf≥ bkb drk±xftncz htubjyfkmysq ¤ktvtyn, nfrjq rfr ¤djcnjxysq≥ bkb ¤ct-
Abkjcjacrfz rjywtgwbz uevfybnfhysö yfer dthysq≥. Eybdthcbntns infnjd bvt±n ntyltywb± åsnm jxtym åjkmibvb c rjynbyuty-
njv cneltynjd d 20 000 bkb åjktt xtkjdtr b jåsxyj ghbybvf±n yf extåe åjktt ibhj-
Uevfybnfhyst yferb ghtlcnfdkz±n cjåjq erjhjxtyye± ajhve nthvbyf ¤uevfybnfhyst rbq rheu cneltynjd, xtv xfcnyst eybdthcbntns. Hfcöjls yf jgkfne jåextybz d eybdth-
b tcntcndtyyst yferb≥, b abkjcjacrfz rjywtgwbz uevfybnfhysö yfer zdkztncz jlyjq cbntnfö infnjd, rfr ghfdbkj, åsdf±n vtymit, xtv d xfcnysö eybdthcbntnfö. D ljgjk-
bp eybrfkmysö öfhfrnthysö jcjåtyyjcntq cbcntvs dscituj jåhfpjdfybz CIF. Fvthb- ytybt r ¤njve, ©bntkb infnf (kbwf, gjcnjzyyj ghj©bdf±obt b gkfnzobt yfkjub d lfy-
rfycrjt åfpjdjt jåhfpjdfybt jcyjdsdftncz yf ¤njq rjywtgwbb, d rjnjhjq pfkj©tyf dt- yjv rjyrhtnyjv infnt) gkfnzn pf jåextybt vtymit, xtv nt, rnj gjcnjzyyj ghj©bdf±n
hf d ghtljcnfdktybt dtcmvf hfpyjcnjhjyytuj frfltvbxtcrjuj jåhfpjdfybz, hfpdbdf±- pf ghtltkfvb infnf, d rjnjhjv yföjlbncz bö eybdthcbntn. Byjcnhfyyst cneltyns, f
otuj e cneltynf hfpujdjhyst yfdsrb, evtybt ghfdbkmyj gbcfnm b cgjcjåyjcnm r cfvj- nfr©t ©bntkb lheubö infnjd cxbnf±ncz ghj©bdf±obvb pf ghtltkfvb lfyyjuj infnf,
cnjzntkmyjve vsiktyb±. D uevfybnfhyjv rjkktl©t bkb d eybdthcbntnt, bvt±otv b gj¤njve yf ybö yt hfcghjcnhfyztncz kmujnf cjrhfotyyjq gkfns pf jåextybt d extå-
nofntkmyj hfphfåjnfyye± ghjuhfvve ghtgjlfdfybz uevfybnfhysö lbcwbgkby, cnelty- ysö pfdtltybzö infnf. Rhjvt njuj, ghb ghbtvt d eybdthcbntn infnf r byjcnhfyysv
ns yfxbyf±n cdjt jåextybt, lf±ott ghfdj yf gjkextybt cntgtyb, c ghjöj©ltybz d cneltynfv vjuen ghtlüzdkznmcz åjktt dscjrbt nhtåjdfybz, xtv r ©bntkzv infnf.
rkfccfö ibhjrjuj hfpyjjåhfpbz rehcjd d jåkfcnb bcreccnd, uevfybnfhysö yfer, zps-
Xfcnyst eybdthcbntns
rjd b jåotcndtyysö b tcntcndtyysö yfer. Pfntv cneltyns dsåbhf±n ghtlvtn cgtwbf-
kbpfwbb (yfpsdftvsq ghjabkbhe±otq lbcwbgkbyjq), b jn 25 lj 50 ghjwtynjd pfyznbq
d rkfccfö gjcdzof±ncz bpextyb± ¤njuj ghtlvtnf. Lf©t jn ntö, rnj yt ghblth©bdftn- Xfcnyst extåyst pfdtltybz abyfycbhe±ncz pf cxtn hfpkbxysö chtlcnd, drk±xf±obö
cz ghjuhfvvs uevfybnfhysö yfer, f dvtcnj ¤njuj yfvthtdftncz cjdthitycndjdfnmcz d d ctåz gj©thndjdfybz, gkfne pf jåextybt, uhfyns yf ghjdtltybt yfexysö bccktljdf-
cdjtq ghjabkbhe±otq lbcwbgkbyt, nfrjq, yfghbvth, rfr by©tythyjt ltkj, jåsxyj nht- ybq b lfhtybz, gjcnegf±obt jn åsdibö gbnjvwtd ¤nbö extåysö pfdtltybq. Gkfnf pf
åetncz d ljgjkytybt r jcyjdyjve ghtlvtne 25 ghjwtynjd cdjbö pfyznbq d felbnjhbb jåextybt d xfcnysö eybdthcbntnfö bvttn ntyltywb± åsnm dsit, xtv d eybdthcbntnfö
gjcdzofnm bpextyb± uevfybnfhysö b jåotcndtyysö lbcwbgkby. Njxyj nfr ©t cneltyn, infnjd, yj d gthdsö yt ltkftncz hfpkbxbz vt©le ©bntkzvb infnf b ntvb, rnj ghj-

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