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Step 4: Testing Your Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Configuring NetStumbler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Setting Up a GPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Navigating the NetStumbler Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Overview Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
SSIDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Signal and Noise Graphing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Working with NS1 Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Merging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Exporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Summary Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Text Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Wi-Scan Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Using War Driving Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

Chapter 7: Mapping Your War Driving Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Mapping Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Mapping Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Microsoft MapPoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Microsoft Streets & Trips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
DeLorme Street Atlas USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
The Global Positioning System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
How GPS Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Formats for Recording Latitude and Longitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Creating a Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Step 1: Gathering Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Step 2: Exporting Into a War Driving File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Step 3: Converting to Mapping Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Step 4: Importing and Displaying in a Mapping Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Microsoft MapPoint Import Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Microsoft MapPoint Using StumbVerter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
DeLorme Street Atlas USA Using WiMap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Step 5: Viewing the Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Visualizing Extras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
3-D Rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Custom Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Satellite and Aerial Imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Signal Strength Mapping with MapPoint and Excel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166


Part III: Playing with Access Points 169
Chapter 8: Build Your Own Outdoor Access Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Location, Location, Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
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Line-of-Sight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Providing Power and Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Balance the Trade-Offs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Choosing the Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Access Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Power-Over-Ethernet Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Waterproof Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Mounting Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Lightning Protector and Grounding Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Configuring Your Access Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Access Point Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
SSID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
WEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
LAN Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Basic Wireless and LAN Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Setting Your Password and Saving the Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Advanced Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Assembling the Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Measure Twice, Cut Once . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Modifying the Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Mounting the Case and Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Temperature and Water Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Temperature Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Water Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Put it On the Roof Already! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Taking It To The Next Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Traffic Graphing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Do-It-Yourself Access Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
DIY Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
DIY Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
More DIY Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Related DIY Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205


Chapter 9: Building a Solar-Powered Wireless Repeater . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Learning Solar Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Setting Up a Wireless Repeater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Integrating Solar Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Understanding Solar Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Solar Power Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Finding PV sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Configuring Your Solar System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Installation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Assembling Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Step 1: Install the Battery Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Step 2: Install the Charge Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Step 3: Install the DC-to-AC inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Step 4: Install the Wireless Radios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Step 5: Install the AC Power Strip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
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Time to Go Outside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Building a Mounting Bracket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Sinking the Pole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Mounting the Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Mounting the Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Mounting the Solar Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Applying Power and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235


Chapter 10: Creating a Free Wireless Hotspot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
What Is NoCatAuth? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Pre-Install Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
The Linux Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Software Installation for a NIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Testing, Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
The WAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
The AP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Installing NoCat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Configuring NoCat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Testing and Using NoCat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Test #1 Accessing NoCat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Test #2 Accessing Google . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Test #3 Registering and Logging In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Test #4 Checking IPtables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Test #5 Open Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Test #6 Allowed Web Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Test #7 All Roads Lead to Rome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Troubleshooting NoCat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Trouble #1: Allowing a Redirected Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Trouble #2: The Eternal Splash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Trouble #3: More Eternal Splash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266


Chapter 11: Playing Access Point Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
The Basics of AP Gaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Detecting an Access Point on a Drive-By . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Finding an Access Point by Triangulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Crazy Like a Foxhunt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
The Fox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Variations of a Foxhunt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Foxhunt Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Finding Mass Quantities of Access Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Scoring System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Hunting Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
AP-Hunt in action: The DefCon Wardriving Contest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
An Access Point Treasure Hunt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Playing Treasure Hunt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Variations for treasure hunting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Other AP Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Capture the Flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Virtual Touring in the Real World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Finding an Edge in Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
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Part IV: Just for Fun 285
Chapter 12: Wi-Fi Your TiVo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
TiVo Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Series 1: Wi-Fi for Early Adopters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Series 2: Wi-Fi for Late Arrivals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Step 1: Raiding the Computer Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Step 2: Ensuring TiVo Is Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Step 3: Plugging In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Step 4: Configuring for Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
PC to TiVo to PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Publishing with the Home Media Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Desktop Publisher and Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Remote Viewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
TiVo Hacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302


Chapter 13: Create a Long-Distance Wi-Fi Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Selecting a Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Antenna Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Antenna Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Potential Obstacles and Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Beam Tilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Determining the Fresnel Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Path Loss and Earth Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Fresnel Zone Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Budgeting Your Wireless Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Effective Transmitting Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Propagation Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Effective Receiving Sensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Putting It All Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Cabling the Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Testing and Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Making the Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

Chapter 14: Deploy a Car-to-Car Wireless Video Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Introduction to Videoconferencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Step 1: Choosing a Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
USB Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Camcorder Using IEEE1394 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Analog Video Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Ethernet Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Video Capturing in Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Two-Party Videoconferencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Multi-Party Videoconferencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Understanding Internet Video Chatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
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Step 2: Configuring NetMeeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Finding NetMeeting on Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Setting Up NetMeeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Windows Audio Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
NetMeeting Video Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Making a NetMeeting Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Step 3: Setting Up a Wi-Fi Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Step 4: Preparing the Cars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Selecting the Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Powering Your Rig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Equipment Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Placing the Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Extra Credit: Multipoint Car Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344


Chapter 15: Making a Dynamic Wireless Digital Picture Frame . . . . . . . . . 345
What is a Digital Picture Frame? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Choosing a Digiframe Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Preparing the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Step 1: Installing Your Wireless Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Step 2: Configuring the Network Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Step 3: Setting Up a Shared Digipix Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Step 4: Installing the Screen Saver Slideshow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Step 5: The Case for a Remote Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Step 6: Configuring the Computer for the Role of Digiframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Hacking the Laptop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Step 1: Removing the Necessary Coverings of the
Laptop Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Step 2: Removing the LCD Panel From the Laptop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Step 3: Checking for Cable Runs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Step 4: Removing Obstructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Step 5: Modifying Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Step 6: Trimming Off the Lid Latch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Step 7: Attaching the Bodies Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Mounting the Picture Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Shutting Down the Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Updating Pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Extra Credit: Motion Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Preface
W
ireless networking is permeating every facet of our modern society. Kids are using
wireless cell phones and text messaging to keep in touch in ways never imagined a
few years ago. Adults are using wireless networking to work from home, or away
on vacation. Wireless Web and data works from the very depths of a Disneyland ride to cruise
ship excursions and cross-country airline flights. Enthusiasts like yourself are breaking beyond
packaged products to enter new realms of connectivity and mobility.
This book is a testament to the hobbyists, hackers, tweakers, and rule-benders who are con-
stantly pushing the envelope of accepted use of technology. Wireless is especially ripe for
experimentation by you rule-benders.
New social and personal dynamics are being created every day because of wireless. This book
attempts to examine the practical exploitation of wireless networking. The projects here will
help you get an understanding of the driving force behind the revolution. With the background
and step-by-step nature of project creation, you will be able to move beyond the scope of this
book and develop your own creations, to your own ends.
Wi-Fi Toys is an introduction to breaking down the boundaries set by manufacturers and prod-
uct vendors. Seize your moment and create something astounding.
Introduction
I
nternet without wires. Think about that for a minute. All of the entertainment, utility, and
performance of the Internet yours, without being tied to a desk. Without even being tied to
the home or office. Internet without wires...anywhere! Wireless is a growing revolution
changing the way people communicate and share ideas. From cell phones to PDAs to mobile
computers, wireless access puts you instantly in touch with millions of other people around
the planet. Wi-Fi, in particular, is changing how people access the Internet from laptops and
PDAs. It™s emerging as an alternative for cellular service, and it may even replace regular
telephone lines as voice conversations begin to be re-routed over Wi-Fi networks in larger
numbers.
Wi-Fi is that subset of wireless communications designed for high-speed Internet access. Sometimes
simply referred to as “wireless,” or known by its many-lettered specification IEEE 802.11b, a, g, and
so on, Wi-Fi allows compatible devices to connect without cables or physical connections.
With speeds far in excess of most cable modem, DSL, and even T1 service, Wi-Fi is rapidly
becoming the standard for Internet access. The store shelves are flooded with Wi-Fi access
points, clients, music players, network hubs, and printers, and myriad other consumer devices
sport Wi-Fi access. Take the Xbox, Playstation 2, and TiVo”these all have Wi-Fi ability now.
Remember when people were saying how everything in the house will eventually be wired?
How anything from a toaster or refrigerator to a stereo system or television would have
Internet access? Well, it™s been some time coming, but with wireless in the home, these are now
possibilities. Refrigerators are being sold with Wi-Fi connections, and several products will
now connect your digital media from your computer to your television over Wi-Fi. I wonder
when my toaster will send me a wireless e-mail when the toast pops?
Wireless is awesome, but it is also somewhat limited. The hardware you can buy in the store is
mass-marketed and mass-produced. So it doesn™t have that extra edge that power users are
looking for. Extra edges like longer range, sharing with friends, saying no to power lines, and
finding every access point on your street can be yours with the projects in this book.
Wi-Fi Toys was written to help you take wireless to the next level. Go beyond the user manual
and build your own projects using this book as your guide.
Few things are more liberating than a Wi-Fi connection.


Who This Book Is For
This book is for you if you are interested in spending a little extra time with your Wi-Fi access
points and computer. The primary focus is the technical enthusiasts with a few extra hours on
the weekend. A small degree of technical know-how is helpful in understanding the concepts
and putting together some of the more involved projects. The hardest physical skill you will
encounter is drilling and soldering.
Many of the projects in this book can be accomplished with an assembly of off-the-shelf, easily
purchased products, so hobbyists of all skill levels will find something in this book.
xxiii
Introduction


As this book is broken down into four main parts, you may wish to jump straight to the section
that interests you. For example, in Part II, Chapter 5 introduces you to the art of war driving to
find wireless networks in your neighborhood. In Part I, Chapter 4 shows you how to add an
antenna to a wireless access point to increase usable range. And in Part IV, you can learn what
it takes to get your TiVo onto your Wi-Fi network at home.
The book tries to introduce new concepts early in the book and build on them later as the book
progresses. If you jump around and miss something, just go back and read the concept.


What This Book Covers
The projects in this book are based on the Wi-Fi, IEEE 802.11b standard. This standard is com-
monly understood to support a theoretical transfer rate of 11 megabits per second (Mbps). In
practice it can be as “low” as 3 Mbps. But that™s still way faster than most Internet connections.
Wi-Fi 802.11b was chosen because of the extremely widespread adoption of the technology. It
is the de facto standard throughout the world. Almost every product that supports another
wireless standard also supports 802.11b. For example, wireless cards can come in tri-mode fla-
vors which support 802.11b/a/g on the same card. Also, 802.11b is the cheapest of the three
popular standards. If it™s good enough for 20,000 public hotspots, it™s good enough for us!
Several new and promising wireless technologies are being developed and tested all the time.
These emerging wireless technologies may vary greatly in cost, speed, and function. The projects in
this book are meant to be adopted to new technologies as they become popular in the marketplace.


How This Book Is Structured
This book was designed for the novice wireless user. We expect you to know what a wireless
access point is and how to plug it into your network at home. Where wireless gets really inter-
esting is when you start to go beyond the plug-and-play nature of Wi-Fi-enabled devices.
This book is divided into four parts. Each part separates a general concept and builds upon that
concept. You can jump around to the different projects in each part. But it should be noted that
earlier parts introduce earlier concepts.

Part I: Building Antennas
This section of the book introduces you to the concept of an antenna as a transmission line. All
wireless signals travel into and out of a network through the antenna. By understanding what
the antenna does, you can take a wireless radio signal and cow it to your will by choosing the
right antenna. You will be shown how to make and find cables, build antennas, and finally add
one to your wireless access point.

Part II: War Driving”Wireless Network Discovery and
Visualization
Some of you will jump straight to this section and that™s fine. War driving is one of the coolest
things about Wi-Fi. In fact, it™s one of the reasons I co-founded SOCALWUG. It can be
xxiv Introduction


argued that war driving has increased the popularity of wireless. It certainly got Wi-Fi its day
in the news more than once. Hardly a week goes by without some newspaper somewhere men-
tioning war driving. This section shows you how to war drive and how to use the most popular
program, NetStumbler. It also introduces many techniques for mapping your results.


Part III: Playing with Access Points
This section can be very interesting. Wireless access points are the gateway between the wired
and unwired world. By exploiting this ability to create connections between the physical and
ethereal world of wireless, access points become a tool for your Wi-Fi endeavors. In this sec-
tion, you will see how to build a weatherproof access point and create a free hotspot to share
your wired connection with neighbors. Also, you will build a solar-powered repeater, connect-
ing users to the Internet with no wires at all! And finally, we coined the term “AP games” to
help describe the growing trend of using wireless access points for sport.


Part IV: Just for Fun
Well, perhaps not all fun and games, this section presents some very cool projects as well as one
or two that you may not be able to live without. Learn how to add Wi-Fi to your TiVo and
create a wireless digital picture frame. Add Wi-Fi to a roadtrip and perform car-to-car video-
conferencing. And ultimately, bring a computer more than 20 miles away onto your local wire-
less network by creating a long-distance Wi-Fi link.



What You Need to Use This Book

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