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Lightning Protector and Grounding Wire
Lightning protectors provide important safety protection for your equipment and your build-
ing. A properly installed lightning protector should prevent a fire starting if your equipment
goes up in flames after a direct hit.
Lightning protectors are specialized equipment like other wireless gear such as high-gain
antennas and pigtails. Some online vendors are:
www.fab-corp.com
www.pasadena.net/shop
www.hyperlinktech.com
www.wisp-router.com
www.ydi.com
Plan carefully to ensure the protector matches your cable and antenna connectors. A common
version is N-Male to N-Female (see Figure 8-9). It can be put inline anywhere there is an
existing N-Connector, such as your antenna.
Unless you ground the protector, though, it won™t do much except slightly weaken your signal
strength. You™ll need 8-gauge copper wire (i.e., thick) from your local hardware store, along
with appropriate fittings. For complete protection, this wire should run all the way to an eight
foot copper clad steel pipe driven into the ground and connected via a special ground fitting.
This isn™t always possible or practical. In low-lightning areas, more often the wire is taken to
the nearest copper water pipe and connected via a fitting designed for grounding. If you have a
metal case, it should be grounded too.




FIGURE 8-9: A grounded lightning protector is an important part of every outdoor installation.
182 Part III ” Playing with Access Points


Configuring Your Access Point
If the existing network consists of a single computer hooked directly to a cable or DSL
modem, you should add a broadband router before continuing. You™ll need a router to share the
connection between multiple computers, including computers connecting via the wireless
access point.
The one exception to this is if all your computers will connect via a wireless connection and
your access point supports connection sharing (usually via a combination of services called
NAT and DHCP). If your access point has two or more Ethernet ports as well as wireless sup-
port, then it almost certainly supports sharing. Check the documentation to be sure.

Preparation
You can configure your wireless access point for your network in many ways. To leave room in
this book for more projects, it™s assumed that you™re adding this new outdoor access point to an
existing network. This network already has a working broadband connection connected via a
broadband router that provides facilities for sharing the connection between multiple comput-
ers. In geek speak, your network provides DHCP, NAT, and gateway services.
Now it™s time to get the access point configured. The steps are:

1. Download the most recent firmware file from the manufacturer™s Web site to your com-
puter. This has the latest bug fixes and it may not be on your device already.
2. Unplug the computer from your network and plug it into your access point. Follow the
access point setup directions to access the administrative interface via a Web browser.
3. Skip the suggested configuration steps and update the firmware using the file you down-
loaded earlier. This option is usually under a System or Tools menu. If you get stuck, see
the manufacturer™s Web site from where you downloaded the firmware.
4. Again connect to the administrative interface via a browser. Now you can start the con-
figuration.

The configuration steps that follow require a few settings and decisions. Of course you can
change anything you want later on, but after people start using the system some things are
easier to change than others. See Figure 8-10 for an example of upgrading the firmware on an
access point.

Always perform the firmware upgrade through the Ethernet port on the access point, not
through the wireless connection. A mis-applied firmware upgrade could result in damage to the
access point and a warranty replacement through the manufacturer.



Access Point Password
It goes almost without saying that you should always set a new password for your access point
so people can™t change the configuration and even disable or hijack it. Make sure that you
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Chapter 8 ” Build Your Own Outdoor Access Point




FIGURE 8-10: Install the latest firmware before configuring the access point.



change the password for the administrative user (“admin” in most cases) and the user-level
passwords, if applicable.

SSID
Choose a unique SSID instead of the default that comes with your access point. This reduces
confusion for people trying to use your system and allows you to easily identify your system
from other wireless signals you may find nearby.
It™s considered good form to provide an SSID that allows someone to contact you if necessary. This
is useful if your new access point starts interfering with their signal. You could use a Web site name
or even an e-mail address. Or you might use your house or apartment number with or without
your street name depending on your expected coverage area. Most systems support SSIDs that are
case-sensitive, are 2 to 32 characters long and include most common punctuation characters.
Some examples of SSIDs you could use are: house922, www.socalfreenet.org,
myname@fastmail.fm, janewireless. Avoid mixing upper- and lowercase letters to prevent
configuration problems.
The SSID is essentially the personal address of your access point. This is what people will see
when setting up their computer to get on your wireless network.
184 Part III ” Playing with Access Points


WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) was designed to provide security for wireless networks. If
you want to start a debate amongst a group of wireless experts, ask them whether you should
use WEP on your wireless network.
Those against will say that WEP can be cracked easily and will cite the seminal paper
www.isaac.cs.berkeley.edu/isaac/wep-faq.html in their support and point to one of
several readily available programs that automate breaking a WEP key.
Those in favor will say that enabling WEP will stop most casual people from accessing your
network and you should turn it on as a matter of routine.
As is so often true, both sides are correct and the right answer for your network is “it depends.”
Wireless security is a large topic that fills entire books: How Secure is Your Wireless Network? by
Lee Barken is a good starting place. Wireless Security End-to-End by Brian Carter and Russell
Shumway is another good book on the subject.
The short answer is to leave WEP off unless you have access to all the computers that will use
your access point. If you turn WEP on at your access point, you™ll need to configure each wire-
less computer individually to use it. And no one else will be able to use your network until their
computer is similarly configured”except the patient hacker running the cracking tools of
course.
For example, if you want to have an open access point that others can share, leave WEP off. If
you want to share with a select group of neighbors, turn it on and then configure each of their
computers”and be prepared to reconfigure them when they mess up the settings.
If you do use WEP, also enable Media Access Control (MAC) filtering on your access point
(most of them support it). It will require you to gather the unique MAC address of every com-
puter that will use your access point, but you can do this when you™re setting up WEP on each
of them. See your access point manual for details.



Wireless LAN Security

Use good security practices whether you use WEP or not. Here are some steps that will keep
your data safe from prying antennas:
Install a firewall on each wireless computer. Free firewalls are available from
I


www.agnitum.com/
www.zonelabs.com/
You may need to hunt around a little to avoid the paid versions, though. This stops the
I

spread of worms within your wireless LAN and limits the damage if one does get loose.
Install anti-virus software and keep it updated. In addition to the standard off-the-shelf
I

products, consider smaller companies like www.nod32.com that provide competitive bulk
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Chapter 8 ” Build Your Own Outdoor Access Point


licensing and yearly renewals if you call them directly. Then as you help people get onto
your wireless LAN, you can offer them virus protection too. A comprehensive list of
products is available at
http://directory.google.com/Top/Computers/Security/Anti_Virus/Products/

Secure your e-mail. Well-known Web mail services like yahoo.com and hotmail.com provide
I

an optional secure logon, but they don™t secure the messages. Consider switching to a
provider like fastmail.fm that provides secure Web pages for all your messages, just as your
online bank does. If you use an e-mail program, be sure to set the Advanced settings to
“This server requires a secure connection (Secure Socket Layer or ˜SSL™)” (or similar) for
both outgoing and incoming mail. If your e-mail provider doesn™t support SSL for e-mail,
switch to one that does (for example, fastmail.fm again).
When you use Web sites with sensitive personal data, double-check that they are in ˜secure
I

mode™. Most Web browsers indicate this with a lock icon of some sort, and the URL will
generally begin with https:// instead of the usual http://.
Surf completely anonymously, if you care, by using a third-party-paid service like
I


www.freedom.net
www.anonymizer.com
A good overview of these services is found at
www.webveil.com/matrix.html

and a general directory is available at
http://directory.google.com/Top/Computers/Internet/Proxies/

Wireless or not, continue to use good security practices like choosing good passwords (a mix of
characters and symbols), not reusing the same password in multiple places, and changing your
passwords regularly. A good password helper program like www.roboform.com can make this
much easier to manage.


Channel
Your access point can operate on any of the 11 channels (plus a few more in some countries).
However, each channel actually overlaps with two or three channels on either side. Thus only
three distinct channels are actually available: 1, 6, and 11. However, recent research suggests
that a scheme of 1, 4, 8, and 11 is a reasonable alternative.
Do a mini-war drive in the region your outdoor access point will cover, as described in
Chapter 6. Pay particular attention to the channels used by any access points you discover.
Choose the least occupied channel for your access point.
When the access point is installed, you may need to adjust the channel based on real-world
usage. Fortunately, any client computers using your SSID will automatically adjust, so this
186 Part III ” Playing with Access Points


is not as critical as, say, the SSID you choose or the WEP key you set (if you enable
WEP).

LAN Settings
When you first configure your access point, it will be on a private LAN consisting of just your
computer and the access point, so the settings used don™t matter as long as they™re compatible.
However, when you add the access point to your main LAN, it will need to have compatible
settings so it is accessible and doesn™t cause conflicts with other devices on the network. The
settings needed are:

IP address: A unique address for the access point. Choose a number that™s easy to
remember and doesn™t conflict with other devices. For example, many routers use the
range from 192.168.0.1 to 192.168.0.254, and often reserve the first number,
192.168.0.1, or last number, 192.168.0.254, for their own address. So you might choose
192.168.0.2 as the address for the access point.
Subnet mask: On most home networks, this will be set to 255.255.255.0.
Gateway: Usually the router acts as the gateway and the address commonly ends in .1.
Thus, 192.168.0.1 is a common setting.
DNS server: This value is supplied by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) so refer to
their setup instructions. Sometimes the router will forward or cache DNS requests so it
may be the same as the gateway value.

One way to determine these settings is to find the same settings on a computer on your net-
work. Usually the router supplies these settings automatically via Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP). On a Microsoft Windows machine, you can find the value from a com-
mand prompt as follows:
C:\>ipconfig /all
Windows IP Configuration
Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : mike
Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . :
Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Unknown
IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No

Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:
Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : local
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Intel(R) PRO/100 S Desktop Adapter
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-02-B3-B7-xx-xx
Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.199
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.1
DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.1
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.1, 66.80.131.5
Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : Monday, March 22, 2004 9:53:47 AM
Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : Monday, March 22, 2004 10:53:47 AM
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Chapter 8 ” Build Your Own Outdoor Access Point


Here you can deduce that Internet Protocol (IP) addresses range from 192.168.1.1 to
192.168.1.254 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0. The gateway is 192.168.1.1, and the DNS
servers are both the gateway and an alternate of 66.80.131.5.


Configuration Example
The DWL-900AP has a configuration wizard that guides you through the installation. It is
useful to skip the wizard and configure the settings screen-by-screen to see some of the useful
choices that the wizard doesn™t offer and to see how to use them. We™ll walk through these
selections in this section.

Basic Wireless and LAN Settings
If the access point has several operating modes, set it to “access point” (also called “infrastruc-
ture access point”). Other modes are used in other wireless applications, such as a wireless relay
(see Chapter 9), or to connect to another access point.
Find the page in your access point to set the SSID, channel, and often a name for the device
(see Figure 8-11). The name is sometimes visible to client software, but is mostly useful for
maintaining multiple access points as it sometimes gets confusing which one you™re editing
when you have several.




FIGURE 8-11: Set the SSID, channel, and name for your access point.
188 Part III ” Playing with Access Points




FIGURE 8-12: Set the LAN settings for your network.

Be sure to save the wireless settings, and then find the page to set the LAN settings you calculated.
Select the “Static IP Address” setting. If you choose “Dynamic IP Address,” the access point
will work when it™s plugged into your network, but it will be hard to find it via the browser to
administer it as you won™t know what address to use! (See Figure 8-12.)
After you enter and save the LAN values, you™ll need to either adjust your computer network
settings to match, or plug both your computer and the access point back into the LAN and
continue the configuration from there.

Setting Your Password and Saving the Configuration
Be aware that your access point is live from here on, so the next step is to change your
password. The browser address of the access point will now be the static IP you entered
(for example, http://192.168.1.2).
If you can™t get back into the configuration of your access point, you may need to reset it to the
factory default settings and start over. The instructions for this are usually on the CD that
came with the access point or on the manufacturer™s Web site. The same steps are used if you
forget your password.
Change your administration password at the appropriate page and then log back in to con-
tinue. At this point, it™s useful to save your configuration settings. Most access points allow you
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Chapter 8 ” Build Your Own Outdoor Access Point




FIGURE 8-13: Frequently save your configuration to a file (if supported).

to download the settings to a file on your computer so you can easily restore them later. As you
now have the access point basically configured and accessible from your network, it™s a good
time to save the settings. As you continue changing other settings, you can save again (and
again) to ensure you don™t miss anything. Figure 8-13 shows the save-to-file setup page.

Saving your settings becomes even more important if you turn on WEP and start using MAC
filtering to protect your network. It™s tedious to re-enter MAC addresses and key values (and be
sure to keep a backup copy).


Advanced Settings
Your access point will have a page of advanced wireless settings somewhere that contains items
like those shown in Figure 8-14. Some are more useful than others:

Antenna selector: It™s important to set this if your access point has two antennas, because
you™ll only be using one. It isn™t always clear whether left and right are while facing the
front or back of the access point, but the manual or manufacturer™s Web site should clarify.
Speed (Tx/Basic Rate): You can increase the range of your network by decreasing the maxi-
mum allowed speed. In theory, it shouldn™t make any difference because Wi-Fi should
automatically downgrade to a lower speed if the connection is poor. In practice, it™s useful
190 Part III ” Playing with Access Points




FIGURE 8-14: There are many useful advanced wireless settings.


to force everyone to a lower speed and save the overhead of all the hunting around for the
best speed. Note, though, that you can significantly lower the maximum speed of your
network and reduce sharing among users, because now all transmissions will take longer
and everyone has to wait until each transmission completes before getting a turn.
Authentication and SSID Broadcast: If you use WEP, you can change these two settings
to Shared Key and Disabled, respectively. These hide your system more effectively from
hackers. Sometimes disabling the SSID Broadcast can cause problems with some client
adapters, so test this first.
Power : If there are a lot of access points in your area, it™s good form to turn down the
power if all the computers connecting to you are close by. This reduces interference to
other users. This is also a good security practice as it makes your access point less visible
and your network harder to access from further away. Experiment to find a reliable value.

If you™re in doubt about what the settings do, change and test them one at a time. Be sure to
save your configuration changes so you can revert to a previous version if something stops
working.
Don™t be afraid to explore other settings. If the supplied documentation doesn™t explain the
settings adequately, a Web search will quickly find more information.
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Chapter 8 ” Build Your Own Outdoor Access Point


When you™re all done, save the settings to disk, power everything off, take a break, and then
come back and do one final test. If possible, find a computer that hasn™t had wireless installed
before, then add an adapter and ensure that you can configure it to work with your access
point. If you™re using WEP and advanced security measures, this is especially important, as
some of the details are hard to get just right.
It™s much easier to work out what™s wrong with all the pieces of the puzzle right in front of you,
than when half the gear is up a pole in the rain.



Assembling the Box
Now that the access point is configured and all of the hardware is available, it™s time to get
everything together, test it, place the access point into an enclosure, and set it up on the roof.


Testing
When you have all the parts together, plug everything in and make sure it all works and fits
together. Although you just tested the access point settings, you didn™t test the PoE adapter and
the actual cables you™ll be using. This is a great time to find the bad connection on that old
Cat-5 cable you got from a friend™s garage. Use as much of the final equipment as possible,
including the high-gain antenna and any pigtails. Figure 8-15 shows an example of this test.




FIGURE 8-15: Testing all of the parts before deployment.
192 Part III ” Playing with Access Points


A laptop is connected to the access point via a PoE adapter, while the long Ethernet cable con-
nects much of the equipment that will go inside the case.
If it doesn™t work the first time, start removing equipment to simplify things, or start with what
used to work and gradually change things. For example, first use the original power supply and
a standard Ethernet cable, and add the external antenna.
If possible, connect the AP to the Internet in its final software configuration. Then try to
surf via a wireless connection. When you™re done testing, you can be confident that the
hardware and software setup all work before you start cutting metal and climbing on

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