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Wi-Fi Toys
15 Cool Wireless Projects
for Home, Office,
and Entertainment
Mike Outmesguine
Wi-Fi Toys: 15 Cool Wireless Projects for Home, Office, and Entertainment
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Credits
Senior Acquisitions Editor Vice President and Executive Group
Sharon Cox Publisher
Richard Swadley
Executive Editor
Chris Webb Vice President and Executive Publisher
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Development Editors
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For Angie, the first love of my life,
Michael (Baby 2000), and Julia
(Baby XP), the other loves of my life.

And for my parents Simon and Jan, who
encouraged me to put my toys back together
after taking them apart, and to my sisters
Diana and Jennifer, who encouraged me to stop
taking their toys apart and make my own.
Acknowledgments
First and foremost, I wish to thank my wife for her endless patience while writing this book
and for her ceaseless trust in me as a husband and provider. Without her encouragement and
devotion, I would be lucky to have a job sitting in a cube farm complaining about printer errors
like “PC Load Letter.” I™d like to thank my offspring, Michael, who was the perfect kid during
Daddy™s long days and nights away writing. And thank you to our newest bundle, Julia, for
being a peaceful baby whose only gripe was “feed me!” And thanks to my family, Nana and
Papa, Aunties Lori, Alysia, Diana and Jennifer, Granddude, and the Grandmas Great and
Small for letting us stop by unexpectedly. And thanks to our friends from the Lang Ranch
Mom™s Club for being there for my family when we needed you.
I™d also like to thank my cousin Creighton and pals Brett, Sam, and Sean for helping get me
out of a tight spot here and there.
The contributors of this book get special appreciation for helping to put out a great product in
a timely manner. They individually pushed the envelope on the projects outlined here and their
efforts made this book into more than the sum of its parts.
I™m very grateful for the help and encouragement from my editors: Scott Amerman, who kept
me on my toes, Chris Webb, who believed in the book in the first place, Brian MacDonald, who
helped make the book a delight to read, and everyone else at Wiley Publishing who helped
make this book a reality. Thanks, everybody. I hope we can still be friends!
Special thanks to the members of the user group community in Southern California:
SOCALWUG, OCCALWUG, SBWUG, and SDWUG; and the communities of BAWUG,
Netstumbler.com, Nocat, NZWireless, Seattle Wireless, and SoCalFreeNet. These
loose-knit groups of like-minded individuals are shaping the future world of wireless. Their
feedback, suggestions, and onsite help made many of the projects in this book possible.
And thanks to you, dear reader. By picking up this book, you have delved into that interesting
world of wireless and Wi-Fi Toys!
About the Author
Mike Outmesguine is president and founder of TransStellar, Inc., a successful technology ser-
vices company with an emphasis on wireless mobility and energy information systems. As
president, Mike has directed TransStellar, online at www.transstellar.com, through his
vision of “wireless anywhere” to become a leader in the emerging wireless mobility market
while adopting many of these techniques for the energy information market.
Mike is the co-founder of the Southern California Wireless Users Group (SOCALWUG), a
nonprofit user community with a focus on introducing wireless technology to the end-user and
business community. The SOCALWUG has been holding monthly meetings for over two
years and archives all of the past meetings online in streaming media format. Thousands of
wireless enthusiasts from around the world look forward to the monthly meetings and videos
hosted on the Web at www.socalwug.org.
Mike served in the U.S. Air Force as an electronic countermeasures specialist on B-52 aircraft
and in the California Air National Guard in support of C-130 aircraft. Mike served for over 10
years and is a veteran of the Gulf War.
Additionally, Mike has been featured in several speaking engagements, newspaper, and online
resources commenting on wireless technology, wireless security, and the impact on businesses
and government using these technologies. Mike is FCC-licensed under the call sign
KG6NHH.
His passion for technology goes back as far as he can remember. His first personal computer
was a Sinclair ZX-81. (As a video-game addict, he couldn™t afford the coveted Apple ][e that
had just been released!) Since those early years, Mike has spent countless hours immersed in
the technology fields of computers, electronics, networking, the Internet, and most recently,
mobile and wireless.
Mike enjoys long wardrives on the beach.
Mike Outmesguine can be reached at:
TransStellar, Inc.
P.O. Box 1111
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
USA
Tel: 818-889-9445
Fax: 818-337-7420
E-mail: mo@transstellar.com
Contributors
James Burgess”James is a student at the University of Southern California who has been
conducting research in wireless communications since the late 90s. He is the co-founder of
Flexilis, a disruptive technologies research and development firm, where he is currently explor-
ing new wireless implementations and protocols. He takes particular interest in open source
wireless developments, contributing much of his findings to the community. In his free time he
writes for DailyWireless.com, a wireless industry news site. He resides in Los Angeles,
California.
John Chirillo”John is a Senior Internetworking Engineer for a technology management
company specializing in security. He holds an impressive number of professional certifications,
including Cisco certifications and the CISSP. John has authored several books. His latest
include Storage Security and Implementing Biometric Security.
John Hering”After only three years of study at the University of Southern California in Los
Angeles, California, John Hering has already made his mark in the ever-advancing field of
wireless technologies. Using past experience in entrepreneurial business, advertising, and tech-
nology, John co-founded Flexilis (www.flexilis.com), a wireless technologies research
and development firm, which has been responsible for the creation of DailyWireless
(www.DailyWireless.com), the Internet™s premier Wireless news portal. John has played
a critical role in the advancement of emerging disruptive technologies, such as wireless
networking and security, while constantly exploring the use of open source-based solutions,
and will continue to help make way for the future of wireless technologies.
Michael Hurwicz”Michael Hurwicz is a freelance writer, developer, designer, animator, and
musician living in Eastsound, WA. He is the Flash and 3-D Guy at Late Night Design. He
has been writing about technical topics for the computer trade press since 1985. Michael is the
president of Irthlingz, a nonprofit organization dedicated to environmental education and
entertainment. You can e-mail Michael at michael@hurwicz.com, as well as visit his Web
sites at www.latenightdesign.com, www.hurwicz.com, www.flashoop.com,
and www.irthlingz.org.
David Karlins”David Karlins (www.davidkarlins.com) writes and lectures on technol-
ogy and graphic and Web design. His books include Build Your Own Web Site.
Frank Keeney”Frank is a computer security and network consultant. He works for Pasadena
Networks, LLC, www.pasadena.net, on wireless projects for retail, educational, financial,
and other industries. He got his start in wireless when it became clear that security was a need
in wireless networks. He is the co-founder of the Southern California Wireless User Group,
www.socalwug.org.
Trevor Marshall”Trevor is an engineering management consultant, with interests ranging
from RF and hardware design to Linux internals, Internet infrastructure, Digital Video, and
Biomedicine. He can be contacted at www.trevormarshall.com
Michael Mee”Michael started building his own computers after discovering the TRS-80 at
Radio Shack years ago. He went on to work for a software startup, before dot-coms made it
fashionable. Then he had several great years at Microsoft, back when “the evil empire” meant
x Contributors


IBM. There he worked on database products like Access and Foxpro for Windows. Returning
to his hacking roots, he™s now helping build high-speed community wireless for dial-up users
everywhere, especially through SoCalFreeNet.org.
Brett Schumacher”After working as Systems Administrator for a Prime Missile Systems
Group, Mr. Schumacher went on to lead the technology group for a private utility based in
Woodland Hills, CA. While in this position, he was responsible for evaluating and deploying
“Best of Breed” energy systems, hybrid systems that comprise multiple technologies, including
solar, micro turbines, and internal combustion engines. Stretching from California to New
York, these technologies are completely managed and controlled from Mr. Schumacher™s
Woodland Hills Control Center. Each of these sites is installed and acting as the primary
power system for their host facility.
Each site is seamlessly integrated and has become the most unique centrally managed portfolio
of assets of its kind. Each will serve as the model for others that follow. Mr. Schumacher was
awarded a U.S. patent for this network design.
Mr. Schumacher is also currently working with a consortium of experts to bring communica-
tion standardization to this new and very exciting industry.
Jack Unger”Jack is an “old timer” in the wireless ISP industry. He™s been in it and helping
create it since 1993. He built one of the first-ever public WISPs and put it on the air in 1995.
Jack created the first wireless ISP deployment training workshop in the world and has been
presenting this workshop around the country since 2001. He wrote the first wireless ISP
deployment handbook (Deploying License-Free Wireless WANs). This vendor-neutral book is
published by Cisco Press. Jack enjoys traveling around the U.S. doing WISP training, site sur-
veys, network designs, network troubleshooting, and WISP consulting.
Barry Shilmover also contributed to Wi-Fi Toys.
Contents at a Glance
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvii
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix

Part I: Building Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Chapter 1: Building Your Own Wi-Fi Antenna Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Chapter 2: Building a Classic Paperclip Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Chapter 3: Building a Directional Tin Can Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Chapter 4: Modifying Your Access Point with a High-Gain Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Part II: War Driving”Wireless Network
Discovery and Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Chapter 5: Gearing Up for War Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Chapter 6: War Driving with NetStumbler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Chapter 7: Mapping Your War Driving Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Part III: Playing with Access Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Chapter 8: Build Your Own Outdoor Access Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Chapter 9: Building a Solar-Powered Wireless Repeater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Chapter 10: Creating a Free Wireless Hotspot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Chapter 11: Playing Access Point Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

Part IV: Just for Fun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Chapter 12: Wi-Fi Your TiVo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Chapter 13: Create a Long-Distance Wi-Fi Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Chapter 14: Deploy a Car-to-Car Wireless Video Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Chapter 15: Making a Dynamic Wireless Digital Picture Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvii
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix


Part I: Building Antennas 1
Chapter 1: Building Your Own Wi-Fi Antenna Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
About Wi-Fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
About RF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Frequency versus Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Unlicensed 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Wi-Fi Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Parts of a Wi-Fi Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Data Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Wi-Fi Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Antenna System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Understanding Coaxial Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
What Sizes of Coax Are Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Keep It Short! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Measuring Line Loss in Decibels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Calculating Line Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Types of Coax Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Male versus Female Coax Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Reverse Polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Building a Coaxial Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Step 1: Preparing the Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Step 2: Placing the Crimp Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Step 3: Stripping and Removing the Outer Jacket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Step 4: Pulling Back the Inner Shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Step 5: Stripping the Dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Step 6: Checking for Shorts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Step 7: Clipping the Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Step 8: Inserting the Center Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Step 9: Crimping the Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Step 10: Placing the Connector Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Step 11: Shields Up! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Step 12: Placing the Crimp Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Step 13: Crimping the Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Step 14: Inspecting the Finished Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Choosing a Wi-Fi Pigtail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Connector Types for Wi-Fi Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Finding Pigtails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Cheap Cable Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
xiv Contents


Chapter 2: Building a Classic Paperclip Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Recognizing Different Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Omni Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Dipole Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Coaxial Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Vertical Driven Array Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Directional Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Yagi Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Parabolic Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Panel Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Waveguide Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Understanding Antenna Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Before You Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
What You Need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Choosing a Wireless Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Choosing Platform Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Building the Paperclip Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Step 1: Preparing Your Wire Prongs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Step 2: Preparing Your Antenna Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Step 3: Creating Your Dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Step 4: Preparing the Pigtail for Attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Step 5: Soldering the Pigtail to the Dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Step 6: Securing the Pigtail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Step 7: Inserting the Antenna Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Mounting and Testing Your Paperclip Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Hitting the Road with Your Paperclip Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Chapter 3: Building a Directional Tin Can Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Types of Can Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Understanding Waveguides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Sizing a Waveguide Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Finding the Right Can . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Preparing the Can . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Step 1: Preparing the Can Opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Step 2: Cleaning the Can . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Where to Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Step 1: Measuring the Distance to the Opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Step 2: Starting Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Step 3: Preparing for the Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Step 4: Finishing the Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Fitting the Radiating Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
A Round Radiating Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Step 1: Cut Too Much . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Step 2: Strip the Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Step 3: Cut to Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
A Wedge Radiating Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Final Construction and Weatherizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Step 1: Building the N-Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Step 2: Mounting the N-Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Step 3: Weatherizing the Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Extra: Antenna Simulation and Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
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Chapter 4: Modifying Your Access Point with a High-Gain Antenna . . . . . . . 81
Choosing an Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Staying Legal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
FCC Point-to-Multipoint Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
FCC Point-to-Point Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
FCC Safety Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
The Site Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Propagation Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Multipath Losses and Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Attaching a High-Gain Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Step 1: Configure the Access Point to Use Just
One Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Step 2: Attach the Pigtail Cable to the Access
Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Linksys Makes It Easy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
The FCC Makes It Hard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Step 3: Run the Antenna Cable From the Pigtail to the Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Step 4: Position and Install the Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
What About Signal Amplification? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100



Part II: War Driving”Wireless Network
Discovery and Visualization 101
Chapter 5: Gearing Up for War Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Overview of the War Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
It All Starts with the Wireless Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Types of Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
External Antenna Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Choosing the Right Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
NetStumbler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
MiniStumbler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Kismet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Using GPS on Your Laptop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Globally Positioning Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Picking a GPS Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Picking the Right Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Powering Your Rig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Installing the System in Your Car . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Step 1: Installing the Wireless Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Step 2: Placing the Laptop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Step 3: Attaching the Rooftop Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Step 4: Adding the GPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Step 5: Plugging It All In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Step 6: Launching the Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Your First War Drive! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Discovering the Invisible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Where to Go? Anywhere! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
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Chapter 6: War Driving with NetStumbler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Installing NetStumbler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Step 1: Downloading NetStumbler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Step 2: Installing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Step 3: Launching for the First Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

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