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Zubaida, S. 2001. ˜Civil society, community, and democracy in the
Middle East™, in S. Kaviraj and S. Khilnani (eds.), Civil society:
history and possibilities, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
pp. 232“49.
Index



Abrahams, Ray 111 Benin, gold mining in 68“70, 72, 74,
Ache 67 173
Acheson, James 39, 40, 66 Berlin, Isaiah 49
adat (Indonesian traditional law) 129, Big Men (in New Guinea) 161, 171
Boehm, Christopher 143, 146
166
Aga Khan, Sadruddin 116 Bosnia 133, 168
agents and agency 93 bouncers 71
agriculture, origin of 112 Bourdieu, Pierre 72, 92“4
Albania 29, 121, 124“6, 163, 166 bricolage 134
altruism 51, 169 Bunyoro 104
kin-selected 57, 105, 157 bureaucracy, bureaucratic
reciprocal 67“8, 157“9 government 33, 97“100, 102, 136
Ambon (Indonesia) 129, 166 butter¬‚y effect 113
American Anthropological Association
Task Force 153, 165 Cambrian explosion 81
anarchy 2, 76, 97, 169 catastrophic change 110, 114, 128
Ardrey, Robert 139 Chad 76, 100 (see also civil war)
Aureli, Filipo 144 Chagnon, Napoleon 47, 140, 141, 146,
Australia, Aboriginal 43, 59, 68, 147, 153“9, 168
Chetniks 132
157
Australopithicines 139 chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
Axelrod, Robert 64, 68, 96, 121“6, 157 reconciliation 144, 145“6
Ayodhya 131, 132 territoriality 139“41, 145, 146
violence 138, 140, 141, 143, 170
Barth, Fredrik 126“7, 132 Christians 18, 19, 129“30, 133
Barton, Robert 145, 146, 160 civil society
Basalla, George 85 against the state 92, 109, 126, 135,
behavioural ecology 172
(socio-ecology) 39, 47, 82“3, 92, de¬nitions of 3, 10“11, 12“13, 44,
94 169, 172
Benda-Beckmann, Franz von 104, 105 and enclosure movement 43, 106
Benda-Beckmann, Keebet von 129, 130, in Africa 105
in Islamic society 22“3
166

193
Index
194
civil society (cont.) on properties of social systems 50,
in Middle Ages 20, 34, 41 92, 150
in stateless societies 159, 161 (see also on suicide 151, 170
Inuit) Dyson-Hudson, Rada 39, 121
civil war 96, 120, 173
Chad 115, 116, 167 Elster, John 85
Indonesia 129 emergent properties (of systems) 48, 78
Sierra Leone 100, 120 enclosure movement 37“8, 41“3, 103,
Somalia 119, 122“4 106
Sudan 107“8 Enlightenment (European) 4, 8, 24, 49
clan 21, 122“4, 135 (see also descent epidemic model (for spread of culture
groups; lineage) traits) 85, 86, 87
co-evolution 81, 113 ethnicity, ethnic identity 34, 68, 109,
collective farms 88 112, 126“8, 135
colonial states 99“100, 104, 129 evolution, social
command economy 90 Darwinian 49“50, 56, 79“80, 84
common land (see property, collective; progressive 14, 26, 30, 76
˜Tragedy of the Commons™) evolutionary economics 82“3, 109
Comte, Auguste 30 evolutionary psychology 7, 83, 149
con¬‚ict, regulation of 147“8, 166
Conway Morris, Simon 81, 86, 151 Ferguson, Adam 26“32, 36, 46, 51, 169,
co-operation 52, 68 171
among kin 56, 61 Ferguson, Brian 109, 114
defection from 43, 106 (see also feud 53, 121, 163
Prisoner™s Dilemma) Fischer, Michael 150, 153
enforcement of 72, 73“4 ¬tness landscape
evolution of 61“6, 76, 78, 84 biological 6, 80, 82, 111
co-operatives, producer 88“90, 112 social 76, 87, 94, 95, 109, 134 (see also
Cosmides, Lida 83, 149“50, 151 evolutionary economics)
cousins, cross and parallel 59, 158“9 Foucault, Michel 49
Croatia 18“19, 132 France, village society 11“12, 20, 34, 73,
89
Darwin, Charles 5, 30, 87, 170 free-riders 40, 65, 88, 106, 158
Darwinian evolution (see evolution, detection of 71, 72, 73
Darwinian) and social disorder 159, 169
Dawkins, Richard 81, 85 functionalism 50
Denich, Bette 33, 117“18, 132
Dependency Theory 78 Gamble, Clive 145
descent groups 21, 56, 59, 61 (see also game theory 40 (see also zero- and
clan; lineage) non-zero-sum games)
Duf¬eld, Mark 78, 101, 106, 108, 114, integrating social and biological
theory 61, 79
116
Durham, William 85“6 limitations of 75, 93, 134
Durkheim, Emile 48“9 predicting end of co-operation 96,
culture is learned 83 158
Index 195
Geertz, Clifford 83, 150 inclusive ¬tness 58, 105
Gellner, Ernest India 103, 109, 117, 120, 131“2
civil society and market economy 9, Indonesia 129“31 (see also Ambon)
Industrial Revolution 82, 106
20, 43, 104
de¬ning civil society 12“13 infanticide 156
pre-modern civil society 22, 74, International Monetary Fund 102
Inuit 52“3, 74
172
genes, ˜sel¬sh™ 80, 82 Iroquois Confederacy 29“30, 61
geological revolution 4
Ghana 106 Kachin 111, 112, 114
Giddens, Anthony 4, 75, 77, 83, 92“4, kanun (Albanian law code) 125“6
Kaplan, Robert 115“16, 120, 136, 138
124
gift exchange 65 Karimojong 40
global economy 74, 79, 83, 136, 173 Kauffman, Stuart 81, 86, 111, 151
globalisation 96, 103 Kemp, Sam 54“5
gold rush, Johannesburg 53“5, 66, 68, Kenya 108, 124
Kingston-Mann, Ester 43, 105
72, 75, 76
Gombe 140“1 kin selection (see altruism)
Goodall, Jane 139 kinship 56, 109, 121“6, 135, 170
Goody, Jack 13, 14, 111 ¬ctive 58, 68
Gouldner, Alvin 10, 41 Kropotkin, Peter 2, 35, 135
government, traditional 33, 98 Kumar, Krishan 15
bureaucratic (see bureaucracy) !Kung (Ju/™hoansi) 21, 29, 59, 165, 166
Green Revolution 86
group selection 50“1, 157 law (see adat; Inuit; kanun)
Leach, Edmund 111
habitus 72 Lee, Richard 21, 165
Hamilton, William 56“8, 61, 67, 105 Lessinger, Johanna 103, 117, 131
Hann, Chris 14, 23, 90 Levellers 36
Hardin, Garrett 38, 40, 47, 103 L´ vi-Strauss, Claude 120, 134
e
Helbling, J¨ rg 152, 158
u Lewis, Ioan 123
Hill, Christopher 36 lineage 105, 121“2, 125, 143, 146 (see
Hindu nationalism 117, 128, 132 also clan; descent groups)
Hobbes, Thomas 24“5, 46, 69, 168 Lloyd, William 38
Hobsbawm, Eric 128, 134 Locke, John 25“9, 47, 65, 69, 91, 169,
Hoebel, E. Adamson 53 171“2
Holocaust 119 ˜loose molecules™ (unemployed young
horticultural societies 159 men) 96, 116“18, 136
Hungary 90, 110, 112 Lorenz, Konrad 139
hunter-gatherers 7, 49, 60, 84, 144, lotteries 73
145“6, 160 (see also Ache;
Australia, Aboriginal; Inuit; Mahale 141
!Kung; territoriality, northwest Malinowski, Bronislaw 50
coast; war, on northwest coast of Marx, Karl 33, 82
North America) Maschner, Herbert 147, 161
Index
196
Maynard-Smith, John 79 Prisoner™s Dilemma 35, 63“5, 68, 94,
McAdam, Douglas 114, 118, 131 118, 120, 135, 152
McCay, Bonnie 39, 40, 66 privatisation 96, 104, 105, 107“8, 136,
McGuire, Randall 44, 148 164, 173
memes 85 property
Mexico 107, 108 collective 31, 40, 41, 66, 72, 105,
Migdal, Joel 104, 112, 113 125
Miller, Jonathan 143 individual ownership of 25, 29, 38,
mir (Russian village commune) 43, 105 104
modernity (modernism) 19, 32 Prussia 49
Morgenstern, Oskar 61“2, 75 Pueblo (Native American) society 44,
Mormons 88, 112 148
Muslims 103, 128, 129“30, 131“2, 133,
Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred 50, 92
168
mutual aid 68, 95, 118, 127 rain forest, value of 86
Rao, Nandini and Rammanohar
Nasar, Sylvia 62, 63, 64 Reddy 128, 131
Nash, John 63, 64 rational action and adaptation 79
Nash equilibrium 63, 168 Red Queen (model of co-evolution) 81,
natural human condition 27, 47 (see also 113
state of nature) ˜release from proximity™ 145
Neel, James 148, 149 Renfrew, Colin 111“12
Nelson, Richard 22, 82“3 Reyna, Stephen 76, 100, 110, 115, 116,
networks, social 145, 146 167
Neumann, John von 61“2, 75 Richards, Paul 100, 108, 116, 120
NGOs 114 Rights of Man 36
Nigeria 100 Rodseth, Lars 145
night time economy 70“1, 74, 76 rotas 73
Nishida, Toshisada 139 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 25
Nuer 21, 107, 108, 121, 122, 143 Russia 10, 108, 118, 164 (see also mir)
Rwanda 108, 117, 128, 132, 171
open ¬eld system 35, 37
Ostrom, Elinor 39, 40, 66 Sahlins, Marshall 59
Sarakatsani 58
Parsons, Talcott 50 Schlee, G¨ nter 21, 115, 122, 124, 134
u
pastoralists, nomadic 61, 122 Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie 125,
patronage 100, 109 163, 166
peace negotiation 163, 167, 168, 171 Scott, James 86
Peterson, Dale 138, 140“3, 152, 163, 165 scrounging 66 (see also free-riders)
pied wagtails (Motacilla alba sea level (post-glacial) 147, 157
yarrelli) 139 self-help 53
Poland 17, 19 self-interest
population density 116, 156, 157, 162 as incentive to social relations 32, 78,
primordial relationships 17, 33, 41, 113, 84, 91, 169, 172
in market economy 82
126
Index 197
Seligman, Adam 16, 26“7, 31, 33, 43, Turks, Ottoman 125, 163, 166
Turner, Terence 148, 149
45, 104
Serbia 18“19, 132
Sierra Leone 100, 108, 116, 120, 163 Uganda 99
Sillitoe, Paul 143, 161“2 underdevelopment 116
Smith, Adam 33, 41, 64, 82, 104 unemployment 116, 117 (see also ˜loose
Smith, Eric Alden 5, 39“40, 121, 145 molecules™)
social contract 24, 98, 113, 130 United Nations 115
sociobiology 149, 150 unokai (Yanomami warriors) 142,
socio-ecology (see behavioural ecology) 154“6, 168
Somalia 21, 115, 121“4, 135, 167, 168 Ustashe 132
sovereignty, limited 74“5, 91
Soviet Union 113 (see also Russia) Valen, Leigh Van 81
Spain, village society 72“3 Vucho, Aleksander 102
Spencer, Herbert 30, 48, 77, 80, 87, 98
Sponsel, Leslie 149 Waal, Alex de 95
state of nature 28, 47, 48, 65, 69, 71, 161 war
(see also natural human condition) adaptive signi¬cance of 151, 159, 170
states, weak 109, 114, 122 de¬ned 138
structural adjustment policies 96, 102 in complex societies 162, 171 (see also
structuration 75, 78 civil war)
Sudan 95, 106, 107, 114 in Papua New Guinea 161“2
suicide 151“70 on northwest coast of North
Switzerland, village society 20, 40, 73 America 147, 160“1
origin of 147, 160“1
Tacitus 36 Weber, Max 30, 32, 33, 98
Taylor, Christopher 117, 128, 132 Winter, Sidney 82“3, 85
territoriality 39“40, 139 Winterhalder, Bruce 5, 66
chimpanzee 139“41, 145, 146 World Trade Center 152
hunter-gatherer 144, 145“6 Wrangham, Richard 138, 140“3, 152,
northwest coast 147, 157 163, 165
terror and terrorism 119“20, 135,
Yanomam¨ 140, 142, 146, 148“9, 151,
o
152
Tester, Keith 26, 27 152“3, 170 (see also unokai )
Tierney, Patrick 148“9, 152, 154, altruism 157
impact of trade goods on 164
156
˜tit-for-tat™ 65 marriage 158“60
Tocqueville, Alexis de 16 territoriality 156
tolerated theft 66 Yugoslavia 17“18, 33, 102, 117, 118“19,
Tooby, John 83, 149“50, 151 132“3
˜Tragedy of the Commons™ 40, 51, Yukpa 148, 156
105
Trivers, Robert 56, 67 Zambia 16
Trobriand Islands 50 zero- and non-zero-sum games 62“3,
Turkey 22 69, 102, 119, 128, 135

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