LINEBURG


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ation wanted and about the civility that distinguished that association “ it
is a deliberation shaped by moral considerations. Indeed, apart from rules
like those designating which side of the road should be used by motorists,
it is difficult to think of any subject entirely free of moral considerations.
Unless we recognize that morality is intrinsic to law, we will be unable
to defend the rule of law and hence our liberty against its most deadly
enemy, confusion about what matters most to us. The threat of such
confusion is peculiarly great now because contemporary civilization is
founded on a highly complicated and subtle agreement. That is the only
kind of agreement likely to be found among people of highly developed
individuality who recognize no indisputable criteria for human activities
and who are well aware of the variety possible in the human world. To act
on such an agreement is an exceedingly difficult task. On the one hand,
there is a danger of adopting measures suitable for a theocracy, a tribe, or
an enterprise, rather than for a civil association. On the other hand, there
346 New foundations

is a danger of trying to avoid such measures by denying that law has any
connection with morality. But to do so makes nonsense of law because the
concept of law is a moral concept.
If we wish to defend freedom for individuality, we must recognize
clearly that what is always at issue, in any discussion about law, is
communal morality. And this has two distinct aspects. One refers to
preserving the character of a civil association, which means preserv-
ing the non-instrumental character of law. The other refers to preserving
standards of civility when determining the substance of law.
In order to protect the freedom of individuals to live their own lives, we
must prevent a civil association from being turned into an enterprise. The
pertinent question for that purpose is: How compatible is this measure
with maintaining a civil association? The answer will be no more and
no less certain or objective than the answer to any other human question.
But as arguments and reasons can be advanced and rebutted, lucidly,
plausibly and coherently, disagreements can be discussed objectively,
though never settled to everyone™s satisfaction. But any attempt to escape
from such imperfection by decontaminating the law from morality or
uncertainty will certainly destroy the law.
What the conversation about law, which began in ancient Greece,
reveals above all is that the idea of law offers no simple or easy solutions
to our dilemmas. Now that the desirability and even possibility of main-
taining the rule of law has been openly denied, that challenge can be met
only by promoting a widespread and self-conscious understanding of the
morality of individualism, of the concepts of non-instrumental rules, of
authority, of historical objectivity, and of practical reasoning, concepts
whose relevance for the idea of law has been fitfully recognized in the past
but only recently explicitly identified and explained. Such an understand-
ing is needed in order to appreciate fully and rightly the shortcomings of
law. For the rule of law cannot remove all arbitrariness and uncertainty.
It cannot dispel the mystery surrounding human life. It is itself highly
fragile. Indeed, the rule of law can survive only in a community resigned
to enduring many evils that human beings understandably yearn to avoid.
Nevertheless, the ancient Greeks™ veneration of the rule of law was wholly
justified. They were acutely aware of what we are in danger of forgetting,
that the rule of law is our sole protection against tyranny. But in addition,
our long and rich experience of the rule of law has enabled us to see more
clearly blessings brought by the rule of law which were barely visible to
our predecessors. For we have learned how to escape the tension between
justice and liberty, which Plato and Aristotle struggled unsuccessfully to
resolve. We have discovered how the rule of law can allow us to shape a
civilization where order is preserved while diversity flourishes.
Index




adjudication 35, 43, 98, 99, 100, 102, 127, Cahn, Naomi 272
149, 150, 152, 153, 155, 156, 168, 169, Calvin, John 335
170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 180, 181, Cardozo, Benjamin 198
185, 187, 199, 208, 213, 218, 247, 248, Christie, George F. 251
251, 252, 253, 254, 256, 260, 262, 264, Cicero 1, 42, 59, 67, 68, 73, 74, 76, 77, 86,
278, 279, 281, 284, 289, 291, 296, 297, 108, 113, 114, 120, 327, 333
298, 300, 322, 323, 324, 338, 339 Civil Rights Acts 286, 287
Aeschines 3 civil society 67, 103, 119, 120, 121, 123, 124,
Aliens bill of 1792, debate on 322 125, 126, 127, 129, 138, 141, 148, 149,
Altman, Andrew 255, 258, 259, 260, 264 150, 157, 160, 167, 180
anagrapheis 1 Coke, Sir Edward 97
anarchy 3, 63, 95, 131, 132, 227, 240, commonwealth 44, 50, 53, 67, 96, 100, 102,
315, 318 103, 104, 113, 121, 131, 138, 149
ancient Greeks (see also Aristotle, Plato) 2, Conservatism 288
5, 41, 346 constitution (general) 1, 9, 16, 17, 18, 22, 25,
Aquinas, Thomas 1, 41, 48, 68, 69, 105, 106, 30, 31, 32, 33, 39, 53, 81, 98, 113, 124,
108, 217, 218, 309, 327, 333 128, 138, 139, 143, 144, 145, 150, 151,
aristocracy 21, 145 163, 164, 176, 178, 201, 209, 278,
Aristotle 1, 21, 26, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 295, 296
49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 65, 69, 70, 71, 72, Constitution of the United States of
73, 75, 77, 84, 86, 91, 105, 106, 119, America 261, 279, 280, 285, 288,
135, 151, 152, 157, 164, 218, 223, 254, 294, 296
307, 309, 322, 327, 328, 334, 340, 346 contract 11, 14, 22, 127, 137, 138, 146, 150,
Arnold, Thurman 250 160, 173, 212, 215, 225, 232, 233, 239,
Augustine 1, 59, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 78, 257, 258, 261, 262, 270, 273, 289, 290,
86, 87, 91, 105, 108, 152, 307 298, 300, 301, 314, 336, 345
City of God, 60 Critical Legal Studies (CLS) 1, 221, 254
Societas, 62 Critical Race Theory 263
Universitas, 62 Feminism 1, 221, 263, 264, 284
Austin, John 124, 180, 181, 188, 204, 207,
211, 212 Decalogue 84
democracy 21, 25, 31, 33, 49, 236, 285,
Bartlett, Katherine 267 292, 295
Bender, Leslie 266, 267, 271, 272, 273 Demosthenes 3, 4, 15
Bentham, Jeremy 1, 153, 185, 189, 196, 201, Dewey, John 195, 197
211, 277, 280, 326, 333, 334, 335 Draco™s code 1
Berlin, Isaiah 248 Duguit 185, 192
Blackstone, William 155, 254 duty 35, 46, 49, 66, 68, 85, 102, 103, 111,
Brandeis, Louis Dembitz 248 114, 115, 123, 125, 126, 130, 133, 136,
Burger, Warren E. 286, 287 142, 144, 146, 147, 149, 151, 161, 162,
Butler, Judith 272 167, 169, 177, 234, 258, 272, 279, 293,
Butterfield, Herbert 248 318, 322

347
348 Index
Dworkin, Ronald 1, 276 Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr. 185,
“fraternal association” 301 193, 248
Individualism v. Altruism 256, 258, 326 Hume, David 160, 307, 308, 328
“one right answer thesis” 283, 286
Ihering, Rudolf von, see Jhering
Engels, Friedrich (see also Marx, Karl) 225 independence 23, 41, 45, 120, 127, 139, 151,
epieikeia 34, 35 163, 170, 191, 246, 277
evidence 37, 66, 97, 110, 132, 171, 172, 238, individuality 47, 48, 87, 118, 121, 134, 246,
244, 252, 253 272, 309, 324, 325, 326, 328, 329, 330,
ex post facto 155, 193 331, 332, 333, 345, 346
interests 4, 11, 15, 23, 26, 32, 35, 49, 54, 62,
Feminist/Feminism, see Critical Legal 65, 72, 109, 157, 164, 166, 168, 170,
Studies, Feminism 173, 174, 178, 180, 181, 205, 206, 225,
Finley, L. 272 227, 230, 231, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238,
Frank, Jerome 185, 188, 194, 195, 196 239, 241, 242, 244, 248, 253, 254, 279,
freedom 9, 109, 111, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 285, 294, 295, 298, 310, 311, 314, 320,
140, 141, 142, 143, 151, 190, 191, 206, 321, 322, 323, 325, 327, 329
224, 225, 230, 236, 257, 259, 261, 262, Isocrates 3, 14
279, 289, 290, 308, 314, 317, 330, 335, is/ought distinction 180, 181, 193, 204, 207,
337, 344, 345, 346 213, 217, 286, 287, 295
free will 71, 82, 111, 135, 210, 225, 256
Frug, Mary Joe 273 Jhering, Rudolf von 185, 188
Fugitive Slave Acts 279 judicial 30, 35, 47, 97, 100, 127, 150, 154,
Fuller, Lon L. 217, 319 156, 158, 169, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178,
194, 195, 196, 202, 216, 218, 239, 247,
Gabel, Peter 260, 261 248, 249, 251, 253, 256, 259, 263, 267,
Gilligan, Carol 268, 269, 272, 273 276, 278, 283, 284, 286, 291, 294, 296,
Golunskii, S. A. 240, 241, 242, 243, 244 335, 338, 340
government 50, 72, 78, 159, 280, 288, 301, discretionary power of 34, 170, 260, 282
335, 342, 343 jurisprudence 15, 106, 154, 168, 175, 180,
organic theory of 125, 186, 194, 208, 216, 181, 187, 188, 194, 204, 244, 247, 250,
231, 234, 263, 298, 299, 300 253, 262, 264, 275, 276, 279, 297, 307,
paternal 139, 166 334, 335
patriotic 139 Affirmative 250
“positive” 136, 247 Historical 185, 188
as trust 123, 124 Marxist 221, 333, 335, 336
as welfare state 126, 132, 249, 250, Mechanical (see also legal formalism)
263, 293 156, 169, 185
Gray, John Chipman 185, 188, 193, 194 Political (see also Critical Legal
Studies, Marx) 247, 248,
¨ ¨
Hagerstrom, Axel 197 249, 250, 276, 318, 334,
Hart, H. L. A. (Herbert) 1, 204, 211, 250, 335, 340
277, 278, 280, 292, 293, 295, 333, Pure theory of 204, 205, 207, 211
334, 335 Skeptical 307, 316, 319, 334
“core” and “penumbra” of 214, 215, 218 Sociological 204, 229, 244
primary and secondary rules of 212, Teleological 249
213, 217 justice 14, 16, 19, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30, 34, 35,
rule of recognition 212 41, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 59,
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 186, 325 64, 66, 67, 71, 72, 77, 78, 80, 81, 86, 91,
“historical objectivity” 339, 340, 341 97, 100, 105, 106, 120, 142, 145, 147,
Hoadly, Bishop 194 149, 155, 156, 165, 171, 172, 174, 177,
Hobbes, Thomas 1, 82, 91, 108, 115, 118, 179, 181, 187, 189, 198, 202, 204, 205,
121, 122, 125, 126, 134, 135, 145, 152, 206, 211, 213, 215, 217, 227, 228, 235,
164, 180, 217, 300, 307, 308, 309, 317, 248, 250, 252, 253, 257, 263, 268, 270,
326, 328, 332, 333 271, 272, 277, 279, 284, 285, 287, 294,
Index 349
296, 300, 303, 315, 319, 320, 321, 322, as enterprise association 18, 24, 25, 54,
323, 326, 327, 328, 333, 341, 346 121, 132, 134, 140, 142, 192, 222,
distributive (see also government as 223, 231, 237, 239, 299, 301, 302,
welfare state) 257 311, 313, 320, 334, 342, 344, 345
injustice 10, 27, 40, 51, 54, 65, 67, 97, 171, equity in 14, 34, 35, 98, 99, 118, 155, 180,
292, 293, 341 193, 252, 254, 270
eternal law 59, 64
Kant, Immanuel 135, 153, 161, 185, 186, expectations in 95, 172, 332
190, 191, 195, 198, 204, 206, 207, 208, fairness in 213
209, 211, 234, 254, 309, 327, 333, 334, flexibility of 43, 173
335, 338, 340 fragility of 39, 330
categorical imperative of 147, 149, 234 gaps in 19, 34, 35, 39, 255
Kelsen, Hans 200, 204, 211, 212, 213, 216, human law 64, 73
218, 333, 334 indeterminacy of 259, 280, 286, 318, 337
Kennedy, Duncan 255, 256, 257, 258, 263 as integrity 135, 296, 297, 298, 301
Klare, Karl 261, 262, 263 linguistic nature of (see also law as rules
as adverbial conditions) 185, 186,
law 1, 4, 5, 21, 49, 137, 276 196, 310, 311, 312, 339, 344
ambiguity in 19, 30, 52, 54, 98, 121, 200, morality of 107, 114, 140, 152, 175, 177,
286, 322 193, 194, 203, 215, 234, 235, 241,
arbitrariness in 95, 100, 105, 108, 156, 268, 277, 279, 281, 284, 295, 312,
250, 332, 333, 338, 346 319, 326, 328, 329, 331, 337, 341,
authenticity of 142, 315, 316, 318, 320 344, 345
authority of 78, 95, 98, 99, 102, 119, 121, inner morality of 319
122, 127, 138, 142, 143, 160, 161, natural law/nature 27, 28, 32, 43, 48, 51,
162, 180, 181, 209, 213, 216, 217, 52, 68, 73, 74, 75, 76, 83, 86, 108,
226, 300, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 109, 111, 116, 196, 206, 214, 217, 276
320, 332, 334, 340, 342, 346 obedience to 12, 30, 39, 78, 157, 160,
authorization to make 96, 122, 123, 127, 164, 178
130, 282, 313, 316 objectivity of 51, 198, 204, 235, 251, 260,
changes to 22, 39, 65, 174, 193, 263, 338 317
as civil association 75, 101, 125, 313, 320, obligation in 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 29, 30, 32,
324, 325, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346 51, 55, 67, 78, 79, 81, 94, 101, 105,
civil law 77, 96, 100, 108, 113, 120, 163 106, 121, 122, 131, 143, 158, 161,
coercion 44, 70, 71, 142, 160, 167, 179, 163, 181, 211, 216, 226, 233, 259,
207, 229, 233, 235, 242, 251, 297 277, 294, 315, 317, 318, 319, 321,
command theory of 164, 180, 207, 322, 323, 324, 333, 341
211, 212 order through 13, 15, 21, 50, 59, 71, 75,
common law 97, 98, 153, 154, 155, 156, 80, 192, 314, 327
169, 180, 201, 316 peace through 12, 41, 63, 71, 95, 100, 105,
complexity of 168 192, 319, 333
conscience in 83 penal law 147
consent to 98, 121, 122, 333 philosophy of, see jurisprudence
contingency in 34, 38, 86, 152, 185, 186, positive law 51, 74, 76, 84, 136, 137, 149,
187, 191, 253 150, 205, 290
as convention 43, 105, 106, 296, 297 promulgation of 82, 83, 84, 341
and custom 4, 5, 10, 19, 35, 39, 50, 83, 84, reform of 144, 168, 172, 180, 263,
98, 160, 187 266, 272
disobedience to 113 “rule book conception” of (see also law as
civil disobedience of 287 rules) 1, 290, 293, 294
diversity of/in 23, 40, 98, 101, 116, rule of law 2, 9, 13, 30, 95, 103, 109, 119,
328, 332 127, 128, 134, 153, 167, 179, 250,
divine law 74, 78 252, 255, 259, 276, 278, 289, 294,
as education 52, 71, 91, 167, 285 307, 311, 313, 316, 322, 331, 336,
enforcement of 65, 345 341, 343, 345, 346
350 Index
law (cont.) 206, 208, 209, 215, 218, 234, 236, 270,
as rules 1, 16, 27, 43, 50, 72, 75, 84, 95, 281, 286, 295, 316, 322, 335
100, 109, 116, 120, 153, 155, 165, Lundstedt, Anders 197
168, 185, 188, 192, 200, 204, 252,
253, 254, 276, 277, 278, 281, 290, MacKinnon, Catherine 267, 269, 272, 274
293, 294, 307, 308, 314, 326 magistrate (see also judicial) 2, 4, 5, 15, 22,
as adverbial conditions 126, 318 33, 42, 43, 46, 47, 49, 52, 53, 67, 122,
blueprint view of 37 125, 126, 130, 158
generality of 13, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38 Manheim, Karl 248
Instrumental view of (see also law market, exchange 237
as enterprise association) 124, marriage 6, 146, 149, 197, 253, 344, 345
127, 180 Marx, Karl 1, 221, 250, 255, 266, 301, 302,
nominalist view of 196 318, 327
noninstrumental view of, see law as alienation, theory of 223, 261
rules as adverbial conditions bourgeois/bourgeoisie 222, 223, 225, 227,
signpost view of 37 230, 232, 233, 234, 236, 237, 238,
scientific approach to (see also 240, 241, 243, 244, 245
jurisprudence, political) 198, 207, Capital 232
208, 210 and commercial relations 232, 233
sedition against 79, 104, 130, 131, 143, Communist Manifesto 241
176, 330 economic determinism 244
stability of 13, 37, 40, 99, 156, 187, labor 222, 223, 224, 231, 232, 233, 236,
200, 337 237, 238, 246
as standards 256 Marxist, see jurisprudence
statute 97, 154, 201 proletarian/proletariat 230, 237, 240,
as “technical regulation” 231, 237, 242, 245
238, 239 “species-activity” 223
tort law 271 “species-being” 221, 222, 223, 224,
uncertainty in 39, 113, 149, 181, 198, 245, 246
200, 203, 204, 209, 210, 256, Menkel-Meadow, Carrie 271
328, 338 metaphysics 108, 110, 135, 153, 206, 214,
universal law 27, 35, 110, 143, 148, 150 308, 309
unwritten law, see law and custom Mill, John Stewart 190, 204
will of the Sovereign as 77, 81, 82, 95, 96, Minnow, Martha 267
98, 125, 139, 140, 142, 158, 161 monarchy 3, 21, 70, 96
legal fiction(s) 195, 196 Montesquieu, Baron de 170
legal formalism 185, 218, 259 Myrdal, Gunnar 248
legislature 123, 124, 127, 130, 131, 142, 144,
149, 150, 169, 176, 181, 191, 201, 207, Neibuhr, Reinhold 248
248, 249, 257, 276, 287, 291, 300, New Deal 262
316, 317 Nihilism 307, 309, 310, 313, 324
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich 240 Nominalism (see also law as rules,
Levi, Edward 200, 337, 340 nominalist view of ) 196
Liberalism nomos 1, 4, 16
Classical 255, 257, 259, 261, 263 norms 204, 205, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 231,
Progressive 288, 289, 291 242, 243, 244, 264, 267, 268, 276
liberty 1, 9, 41, 87, 91, 97, 102, 106, 109, Nussbaum, Martha 267
111, 113, 118, 132, 147, 160, 176, 190,
254, 255, 259, 263, 280, 281, 282, 288, Oakeshott, Michael 1, 307, 329, 334, 335,
293, 328, 345, 346 339, 340, 342
Llewellyn, Karl, 196 practice(s) 309
Locke, John 108, 167, 180, 327, 333, 335 moral practice 311
logic (see also reason) 37, 38, 39, 47, 49, 77, tradition(s) 311
84, 91, 104, 142, 143, 151, 160, 161, Oliphant, Herman 196
180, 186, 188, 192, 196, 197, 200, 205, Olivecrona, Karl 197
Index 351
Pashukanis, Evgeny Bronislavovich 228, Realism 188, 198, 204, 218, 263, 265
301, 335 reason 19, 21, 27, 28, 36, 38, 39, 40, 43,
Pericles 4, 314 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 52, 53, 55, 59, 60,
planned economy 237 63, 64, 67, 68, 69, 70, 73, 74, 75, 76,
Plato 1, 9, 21, 22, 23, 26, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 77, 78, 79, 80, 83, 86, 87, 91, 92, 93,
36, 37, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 103, 104, 109, 110,
51, 52, 54, 55, 65, 73, 106, 152, 248, 111, 112, 114, 116, 117, 118, 126, 133,
327, 328, 334, 346 135, 138, 140, 146, 148, 149, 150, 151,
Crito 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 51, 105, 152, 156, 162, 165, 179, 186, 188, 191,
160, 301, 317, 333 209, 212, 214, 249, 257, 265, 267, 289,
philosopher king of 17, 51 308, 309, 311, 325, 327, 328, 329,
Polan, Diane 261 332, 338
Polanyi, Michael 248 analogical reasoning 201, 203, 204,
polis 11, 12, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 208, 323
26, 41, 62, 67, 70, 119, 223 divine reason 28, 48, 53, 60, 63, 64
political society 157, 300 practical reason 26, 27, 34, 39, 40, 48, 49,
Positivism (see also law as rules) 197, 204, 72, 75, 76, 78, 106, 116, 133, 135,
276, 277, 281, 296 143, 150, 151, 152, 153, 198, 218,
Pound, Roscoe 192, 198 287, 322, 339, 340, 341, 346
power 2, 3, 10, 11, 15, 17, 22, 25, 40, 43, 45, theoretical reason 26, 39, 48, 55, 135,
49, 50, 53, 68, 69, 70, 71, 75, 76, 79, 80, 151, 218
81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 91, 93, 95, 96, 99, Rechtsstaat 206
101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 109, 112, redistribution of wealth (see also
113, 115, 118, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124, government as welfare state) 53, 126,
125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 257, 289, 325
134, 135, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, regimes (see also constitutions, general) 3,
144, 145, 148, 157, 160, 161, 162, 163, 14, 178, 192, 343
164, 167, 170, 172, 174, 176, 177, 179, Rehnquist, William H. 286, 287
180, 181, 191, 193, 194, 212, 215, 222, Ricardo, David 248
224, 225, 227, 229, 230, 235, 236, 237, right(s) 3, 24, 29, 31, 32, 43, 74, 81, 82, 94,
241, 245, 246, 249, 250, 255, 260, 261, 96, 97, 98, 101, 102, 103, 106, 109, 118,
262, 266, 268, 272, 279, 282, 288, 294, 120, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129,
295, 296, 297, 299, 300, 302, 303, 307, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 137, 138, 139,
309, 310, 317, 327, 328, 331, 332, 140, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 150,
336, 341 157, 161, 163, 168, 169, 172, 176, 177,
Pragmatism 197, 296, 297 178, 180, 188, 189, 190, 193, 194, 206,
precedent 2, 99, 155, 156, 157, 174, 178, 194, 215, 216, 227, 231, 232, 243, 263, 264,
195, 201, 202, 215, 251, 252, 253, 276, 267, 268, 270, 271, 272, 277, 278, 280,
278, 296, 323 281, 282, 284, 287, 289, 290, 291, 292,
primogeniture 146 293, 294, 295, 297, 298, 299, 308, 316,
property 11, 18, 23, 25, 50, 53, 61, 73, 76, 77, 323, 327, 330, 332, 340, 341
110, 125, 126, 132, 137, 139, 148, 154, Ross, Alf 197
159, 161, 167, 190, 193, 223, 224, 225, Russell, Bertrand 197
226, 231, 232, 242, 243, 262, 289,
290, 336 Savigny, Friedrich Karl von 185, 188,
public opinion 139, 178, 203, 238, 291 193, 340
Puchta, G.F. 188 Schlesinger, Rudolph 238, 239, 240
punishment (see also law, coercion), 2, 4, 17, Schmitt, Carl 187
43, 46, 47, 67, 70, 71, 73, 103, 104, 111, Schopenhauer, Arthur 324
112, 113, 117, 118, 119, 120, 136, 147, separation of powers 170, 291
148, 149, 157, 158, 159, 162, 164, 166, sin 46, 62, 64, 70, 71, 73, 79, 101, 111
173, 178, 179, 180, 210, 211, 282, Skepticism (see also jurisprudence,
294, 324 Skeptical) 48, 214, 286, 288, 307, 308,
deterrence theory of 103, 118, 147 309, 310
retributive theory of 71, 324 Smith, Adam 160, 248
352 Index
Socialism (see also planned economy) 240, Theseus 2, 3
243, 244, 302 Transcendentalism 209
Socrates (see also Plato, Crito) 10, 11, 12, tyranny 2, 4, 9, 50, 70, 79, 80, 81, 95, 131,
13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 29, 51, 105, 160, 317, 157, 291, 292, 346
333, 341
Solon 1, 4, 14, 53 Unger, Roberto 255, 256, 259, 260, 263
sovereign 9, 30, 33, 37, 77, 80, 81, 82, 83, 94, unions 137, 138, 141, 142, 152, 262
95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, Utilitarianism 147, 215, 326
104, 105, 106, 125, 139, 140, 142, 143,
144, 145, 146, 148, 157, 158, 160, 161, Vaihinger, Hans 195, 196
162, 163, 164, 177, 180, 317 virtue 14, 18, 45, 50, 52, 55, 73, 74, 78, 81,
as supreme proprietor 139, 140 109, 112, 117, 170, 243, 250, 256, 270,
soviet (see also jurisprudence, Marxist) 228, 285, 296, 297, 300, 310, 316, 320, 321,
236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 337, 338
245, 248
Stalin, Joseph 240, 242 Wagner Act 262, 263
stare decisis (see also precedent) 157, 173 war 12, 37, 38, 95, 101, 104, 115, 128, 131,
state of nature 95, 109, 118, 119, 121, 127, 138, 140, 141, 151, 325, 335
137, 138, 139, 145, 148, 149, 160, 164, Wasserstrom, Richard 252, 253, 254
257, 317 Webb, Beatrice and Sidney 302
Stoicism 48, 59 Whitehead, Alfred North 248
Strogovich, M.S. 240, 241, 242, 243, 244 Williams, Wendy 267
Stone, Harlan Fiske 248 Wittgenstein, Ludwig 197
Story, Joseph 279 wisdom 14, 16, 17, 26, 27, 43, 50, 51, 97,
Summers, Robert S. 218, 334 98, 316
Supreme Court of the United States 247,
248, 261, 286, 288, 295 Yntema, Hessel 196

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