LINEBURG


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cus Horatius Barbatus; one of the restorers of the Republic after the
Decemvirate.
 ¬ © µ  ° µ ¬©  ¬ , °µ ¬ © µ (sixth“¬fth century). A consul in
the ¬rst year of the Republic and frequently thereafter; according to
Cicero, one of the models of responsible constitutionalism.
 ®®  ®© µ  (second century). An otherwise unknown historian.
 § © ®© µ , ¤  © µ (¬fth century). Roman soldier who murdered
his daughter Verginia rather than abandon her to the lust of one of
the wicked decemvirs (normally Appius Claudius, but not named by
Cicero), leading to the overthrow of the Decemvirate. His name is
elsewhere given as Lucius or Aulus.
 ®     (“±). Pupil of Plato and third head of the Academy.

±·
Biographical Notes

 ® °  ® (c./·“c.µ). Athenian soldier and student of Socrates,
author not only of the edifying Education of Cyrus but of a Greek his-
tory continuing Thucydides, an account of his adventures on the ex-
pedition of the younger Cyrus (Anabasis), and memoirs of Socrates
(Memorabilia) as well as smaller works.
   (d. µ). King of Persia. The immense expedition he led
against Greece in ° succeeded in burning Athens but was decisive-
ly defeated at Salamis and Plataea.
 ¬ µ µ (seventh century). Lawgiver at Locri in southern Italy; said
to have been the ¬rst author of written laws.
 ® of  © © µ  (“). Founder of the Stoic school (so named for
its meeting place in the Painted Stoa in Athens) who outlined the
basic doctrines later elaborated by Chrysippus. He wrote an in¬‚uen-
tial Republic modifying Plato™s Republic; it is known only through a
few fragments but was very in¬‚uential for Stoic political theory.




±
Index of Fragments

The following list includes all fragments printed either in the text of or the notes to On the
Commonwealth and On the Laws, listed by source. The location of the fragments in
Ziegler™s editions is noted in square brackets between the source reference and the page in
this edition; unless otherwise noted, references are to On the Commonwealth.

Ambrose On the Death of Satyrus . [.±b] °n
Ammianus Marcellinus °..· [“] °“±; °..±° [µ.±±b] °
Anonymous Byzantine Dialogue on Politics p. ·.“° Mazzucchi [“] ±°
Aristides Quintilianus On Music ©© pp. “·± Meibom [.±] “µ
Arusianus Messius ·.µ·.±« [± fr. ±d] ±; ·.·.±« [“] ·
Augustine Against Julianus .±.µ [.±d] ·; .±.° [.±a] °; .±.± [.·a] ·
City of God . [.±±“±] “; .±± [.±b] ; .± [.±°] ;
.± [.a] ; .± [.a] µ“µ·; .± [.c] µ·; .± [ Arg.] µ“°;
.± [µ.±“a] ·“; .±µ [.] ; µ.± [µ.a] °; ±.± [.] ·“·;
±.±± [“] ·; . [.°b] ·±; . [.a] ·; . [.b] ·; . [.] 
Epist. ±. [.·f ] ±; ±. [.·f ] ; ±. [“] ; ±°.· [µ.b] °

Bielowski Fragments: Anonymi Paradoxa Koronne [.·e] ; Ossolinski  µ [.b] µ
Brevis Expositio on Virgil, Georgics ±.± [µ.±±d] ±

Charisius ±.±.±·« [µ.±°b] ±
Cicero Letters to Atticus .±. [.b] “µ°; ·.. [.a] ·°; ·.. [.±a] ;
.±±.± [µ.a] “°; ±°.. [.b] ·°
On Duties .° [.·b] “
On the Supreme Good and Evil .µ [.a] ; .µ [.a] ·°
Tusculan Disputations µ.±°µ [“] ·

Diomedes ±..±« [inc. ] ±°; ±.µ.°« [±.b] µµ; ±.·.±·« [inc. ] ±°
Donatus Excerpts on Comedy .±W [.±a] 

Favonius Eulogius On the Dream of Scipio ±.µ [.] 

Aulus Gellius Attic Nights ±.. [.a] ·°; ·.±.±± [.a] ; ±..“· [µ.±±a] ±
Grillius Commentary on Cicero™s Rhetoric p. .± Martin [µ.b] 


±
Index of Fragments

Isidore Etymologies ±.±.“ [.µa] ·

Lactantius Institutes ±.±.±±“± [inc. ] ±°; .±.µ [± fr. ±e] ; .±. [Laws fr. ±] ±·µ;
µ..±° [Laws ±.] ±±·n; µ.±±. [.±c] ·; µ.±.µ“ [.·] ; µ.±.“µ [.b] “;
µ.±.“ [.±a] ; µ.±. [.±b] ·; µ.±.µ“± [.“±] “; µ.±. [.°a] ·±;
µ.±., ,  [.°a±“, “µ] ·±; ..“ [.] ·±“·; ..“ [.°a] ;
.±°.± [±.°] ±
Epitome ().±“µ [.µa] ±n; µ±(µ). [“] ·n
On the Workmanship of God ±.±±“± [.±a] ·; .±“± [.] ·

Macrobius Commentary on the Dream of Scipio ±.±.“.µ [.] “µ; ±..“ [.] “
On Di¬erences and Similarities of Greek and Latin Verbs ±·. [Laws .±·] ±
Saturnalia µ.. [Laws fr. ] ±·µ
Marius Victorinus Commentary on Cicero™s Rhetoric p.±µ. [inc. ] ±°

Nonius Marcellus µ.±° [.d] ; °.± [.c] °; .±·, ± [.f ] ; .µ [.a] ;
.±± [.·c] ; .±µ [.·a] ; µ. [.±d] ; ·. [µ.±°c] ±; . [.±b] ;
·. [.c] µ; µ.± [±.µ·b] µ; ±°. [.·b] ·; ±µ.± [.a] ·;
±µ.± [.°c] ··; ±.±· [.°d] ·±; ±µ.± [.±g] ; ±·.· [.c] µ;
±. [.·d] ; °±. [µ.d] °; .± [.d] µ; . [µ.c] °;
.± [.±e] ·; µ.· [.±c] ; . [.b] ·µ; . [.a] µ·; ·. [± fr. ]
; . [±.µ·b] µ; °.±µ [.a] ; . [.e] µ; .± [.d] µ;
.° [.±±c] µ·; °°. [.a] µ; °±.µ [ fr. inc. ±] µ; °. [.e] ;
°. [.µc] ±; ±.± [.a] ·; ±.± [±.b] ±; .± [.b] ·°;
.±µ [.b] ·°; ·. [µ.±°a] °; . [.±] µ; .° [.±f ] ·;
.±± [.µb] ±; .· [ inc. ] ··; ·.° [.±±b] µ·; . [.f ] ;
°.± [.b] ; . [.b] ; .± [.±f ] “; . [± fr. ±a] ±;
°. [.a] µ; ±.±± [ inc. ] ··“·; .± [.g] ; ±.± [.b] µ;
.± [.±g] ; ·. [µ.] ; .± [.µb] ·; .± [.c] ; µ°°. [.±b] ·;
µ°±.· [.c] ; µ±.· [.e] ; µ±·.µ [.d] ; µ±.±µ [.e] µ;
µ±.±· [.±e] ; µ±.± [µ.±±c] ±; µ. [.°e] ·±; µ. [± fr. ±f ] ;
µ.±° [.µa] ; µ.±µ [.a] ·

Pliny Natural History, Praef. · [± fr. ±c] ±“; Praef.  [± fr. ±b] ±
Priscian Latin Grammar .µµ.« [ inc. µ] ·±; ..±« [.b] ·°; .·°.±±« [.e] ;
.·.±« [.f ] µ
The Twelve First Verses of the Aeneid ..±« [.±b] 

Ru¬nus De bono pacis .± [.b] 

Scholiast on Juvenal . [.c] ·µ; ±°. [ inc. ] ·
Seneca Moral Letters .µ [.b] ; ±°. [inc. ·] ±°; ±°. [.b] ±
Servius on Virgil, Georgics .±µ [.c] ; Aeneid µ.µ [.b] °;
Aeneid .·µ [inc. µ] °; Aeneid ±°.µ [.d] °“±




°°
General Index

This index does not include characters in the dialogues (except for discussion in the Intro-
duction) and some persons and places mentioned only once. Roman citizens are normally
listed only under their family names (e.g. Aemilius, not Paullus); full cross-references will
be found in the biographical notes, which include all named individuals.

Academy: New ix, ±±; Old ±±, ±, ±µ; Aratus ix, ±±, ; see also Jupiter
Arcesilaus ±±
see also Antiochus, Arcesilaus,
Archimedes ±±, ±, n
Carneades, Philo, Plato, Xenocrates
Acilius, Lucius ±µ Archytas , 
aediles “µ°, ±µ Areopagus ±
Aelius Catus, Sextus ±, ·±, ±µ Aristo ±±, ±µ
Aelius Stilo, Lucius ±µ aristocracy ±; advantages “, ;
disadvantages ±, ±“; and
Aelius Tubero, Quintus xiii
Aemilius Paullus, Lucius ±± oligarchy ; see also constitutions,
Aemilius Scaurus, Marcus ±·°“·± oligarchy
a¬ection, natural ·° Aristotle xvii“xviii, n, , ±±, ±n,
Agrigentum ·µn, · ±µ, ±; Nicomachean Ethics n,
Alba Longa  µn; On Justice ; Politics xv, ±·n,
Alexander the Great , ·n ·n, °n, n, ±µn.; Protrepticus ·;
analogies: biological , ; harmony see also Peripatetics
µ“µ·; helmsman , , ·, , , Arpinum vii, xxi“xxii, ±°µ, ±°
; household ·, “; mahout µµ; Asellio: see historiography
painting ·; physician ·, ,  assemblies: centuriate µ; conduct of
Anaxagoras ± ±°“±, ±·“·; curiate °; see also
animals, obligations to µ curiae, tribes
Annales Maximi ±, ±°·; see also astronomy, study of , ±“±µ; see also
historiography universe
Antiochus ix, ±±n, ±n, ±µ Athens, Athenians , ±, , , ·, ·µ,
Apis  ±°, ±°, ±°
appeal, right of (provocatio) , µ°“µ±, attainder, bills of ±·; see also appeal,
µ“µ, ±µ“µ; see also assemblies assemblies
Attalus ·n
Appius: see augury
Appuleius Saturninus, Lucius ±µ, ±·; augury , ·, °, , µ°, ±±“, ±·,
±·
see also laws


°±
General Index

Aurelius Cotta, Lucius ±· decline ·; de¬nition ±, µ, ·µ;
discord in ±µ“±; extinction ·; and
ballot, use of ±°, ±“·±; see also laws fatherland ±±; necessity ; origins
barbarians µ; see also chronology ±·“±; safety ±; true and false
benevolence, natural ±± ·µ“··; see also constitutions
body: and mind ·; as prison · conscience ±±“°
bribery °; see also laws constitutions xv; best ±; cycle °, , °,
burial, rules concerning µ, ±µ±“µµ ·, µ“µ; forms ±“±, µµ, µ;
mixed °, , ±, ·, , µ“µ·, ±;
Caecilius Metellus Numidicus, Quintus , Servian µ, ·“°; stability and
±· instability ±, µ
calendar, sacri¬cial ±±; see also religion Consualia ·
Carneades xvi, µ·, “, , ·°, ±±; see consulate, consuls ·, ±µ, ±
Corinth µ, “; see also cavalry, cities,
also Academy
Carthage , µ, , , µ“; see also Tarquinius Priscus
wars Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, Publius xii
Cassius, Spurius , µ Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Publius , ±,
Caucasus ±°° ±, ·, µ“±°, ±µ±
cavalry, support of “ Cornelius Scipio Nasica, Publius 
censors, function of , ±µ, ±± Cornelius Sulla, Lucius ix, n, ±°n, ±µ±,
Charondas ±, ±, ±µ ±µ
children, supervision of °“± country, obligation to ±, µ, ·, ±±
chronology, discussions of µ, , µ±, ; Crete , °
curiae ·; see also assemblies
see also year
Chrysippus , ±±±n; see also Stoicism Curiatius, Gaius: see tribunate
Curius Dentatus, Manius ±, ·±, ±°
Cicero: see Tullius Cicero, Marcus
cities, foundation of ±, “; see also custom, ancestral , “µ, , ±°; see
Rome, vices also institutions, law
citizenship: double ±°“±; obligations of Cyrus the Great ±, ±µ±
, ·, , ·“; see also statesman,
dead, rituals for the ±; see also burial,
virtue
city, universal ±·; see also gods, universe religion
Claudius Marcellus, Marcus (general) , death ·, ·
±°“±± debt µ
decemvirate “µ°, µ“µ, ·µ“·
Claudius Pulcher, Appius (nd century)
±µ dedications, limitations on ±, ±·
Cleon  de¬nitions, importance of ±·
Cleophon  deliberation, need for ±; see also
clienthood (clientela)  prudence
Clisthenes  Demaratus: see Corinth
Clitarchus ±°· Demetrius , , ±µ“µµ, ±; see also
Clodius: see historiography Peripatetics
Clodius Pulcher, Publius ±, ±, democracy ±; advantages °“, ;
±µ“ disadvantages ±, “°; and mob
Cnossos ±±° rule ; see also constitutions,
Coelius Antipater: see historiography ochlocracy
colonies , · Dicaearchus xv, n, µn, ±; see also
comedy “ Peripatetics
command (imperium) ±µ dictatorship , µ±, , ±°, ±°
commonwealth: ancestral ±; as Diogenes ±; see also Stoicism
association ±, ; best ±±°, ±; Dionysius ±, ·µ



°
General Index

divination ±“; see also augury rulers ·±“·, ±±, ±µ; universal
Draco  acknowledgment ±±
dreams µ good: de¬nition of ±±“±, ±; human
and divine ·±; supreme ±“
earth, the: geography and size of ±, Gratidius, Marcus ±·°
“±°°; guardianship of ·; periodic Greece , µ“
destructions of ±°° Greek culture, arrival of in Rome 
education , , °
Egypt , ,  heavens: observation °; path to ±°±; see
embassies ± also astronomy, universe
Empedocles µ Heraclides ±; see also Peripatetics
empire ·“·; smallness of ; see also Hercules ·±, ±°; see also humans
Herodotus xv, ±°
earth
Ennius, Quintus ±µµ; Annals ±, ±, , historiography, Roman ±°“·
±, ·, µ; Epigrams ±, ±°, ±µ±; Homer , , ±, µ
Plays ±, ±; Varia  Hostilius, Tullus , µ°
ephors µ, ± Hostilius Mancinus, Gaius “·°
Epicureanism ±, n, n, ·n, ·°n, ±±n, humans: celestial origin ±±; de¬nition
±±n, ±±n, ±±n, ±n, ±µ, ±µ· ±±, ±±; dei¬cation ±°;
equality ±, ±, , ±, ; see also expressiveness ±±µ; insigni¬cance ±;
nature ±, ±±±, ±±µ; obligations ·;
democracy
equity µ, ·°, ±; see also law similarity among ±±; weakness ·
Etruscans  Hyperbolus 
Eudoxus ±±
exile , · imperialism, Roman xviii“xix
impiety, punishments for ±
ingratitude, public 
Fabius: see historiography
Fabricius Luscinus, Gaius ·±, ±µ injustice µ, ; see also justice
family rituals, obligation of ±“µ°; see institutions xvi, µ, ±, , °; ancestral
±, ·; degeneration µ
also religion
Fannius, Gaius xiii, , °, ±°·; see also interdict ±°
interrex, interregnum °, ±°, ±°
historiography
Isocrates ·µn
festivals: see religion
Fetiales , , ±·
Fever, altar to ±° Italy 
Fibrenus ±, ±± Iulius, Proculus , ±°
Iulius Iullus, Gaius µ
Flaminius: see tribunate
Flavius, Gnaeus “µ° Iunius Brutus, Decimus ±µ°n, ±µ
Iunius Brutus, Lucius ·
foresight: see prudence
friendship ±±·“± Iunius Congus, Marcus ±, ±·µ
frugality , 
judgment ±°, ±±·; see also prudence
Furius Philus, Lucius xiii
Jupiter , , , , ±, ±, ±·
Ganges ±°° jurists, opinions of ±°“±°
justice °, , µ·, µ, ·, ±±°, ±±·,
Gellius: see historiography
globes, celestial ±°“±±; see also astronomy, ±“, ±µ·“µ; civil , ±°“±;
debate on xvi, “·; derived from
heavens, universe
glory, value of “±°°, ±± fear of punishment ·“; divine
god(s): authorized ±; epithets ±°; and human ±·; natural , µ,
identi¬ed with outer sphere ; “, ·°, ±±µ, ±±·, ±±, ±°“±; as
relationship to men xxii, ±±“±; as obedience to law ±°“±; rewards



°
General Index

lyric poetry, tedium of 
justice (cont)
±; sources ±, , ±±; as stupidity
; as theft “· Macer: see historiography
Machiavelli xix
knowledge, senses and ±±“±µ Maelius, Spurius 
magistrates ±µ·“±, ±·; see also aediles,
Laelius, Gaius xiii consulate, dictatorship, praetorship,
land, distribution of °,  tribunate
language, origin of ° Manilius, Manius xiii
Lares ±°, ± Marcellus: see augury
Latins, treatment of ±µ, · Marcius, Ancus , “
law , ±°, , °, ±, ±, ±µ, ±µ·“µ, Marcius Philippus, Lucius ±
±µ; and ancestral custom ±; civil Marius, Gaius , ±°µ“, ±µ±
±°“±°, ±±±, ±±, ±µ, ±“µ°, ±µ; Marius Gratidianus, Marcus ±·°
as command and prohibition ·±, Marseilles, government of ±, °
±±±“±, ±°, ±; as equity ±±; Masinissa µ
eternity ±±, ±, ±; interpretation Milky Way ·
; and justice ±±; and magistrate mind, human , ±±°; see also passions
±µ·; and mind of god ±“; Minos 
natural xvi, xxii, , ·±“·, ±±±“±, monarchy ±, , “°; advantages
±±“, ±“, ±µ·, ±·µ; and “; disadvantages ±, ±“, ,
philosophy ±±±; ponti¬cal µ, ·, ±; hereditary or elective °;
±“µ°; positive ±±, ±±, ±, ±; and tyranny , µ“; see also
preservation ±·; purpose ±, ±; constitutions, tyranny
and rights ±; sources ±±°“±±; morality, ancestral ·
universal ±; unjust ±“; Mucius Scaevola, Publius ±“µ°, ±µ
variability µ; see also justice, laws Mucius Scaevola, Quintus (augur) vii,
lawgivers ,  xiii, ±°
laws (statute): of Appuleius ±; ballot Mucius Scaevola, Quintus (poet) ±°µ
µn, ±·°“·±; bribery ±·±, ±·; Mucius Scaevola, Quintus (pontifex) vii,
inheritance ±“µ°; of Livius Drusus ±“µ°
±, ±; Mamilian ±µ; of Marius Mummius, Spurius xiii
±·±; Porcian µ°“µ±; religious music “µ, ±µ; see also universe
±“; of Solon ±µ“µµ; of Titius mysteries, Eleusinian ±“
±, ±; Voconian µ; see also
Naevius, Gnaeus , ±µ
justice, law, Twelve Tables
leisure , µ, ·, ±, ±° nature xvi; as bond among humans ±·; of
liberty ±, °, ±, , “°, , ·, , commonwealths µ±; consistency of
µ±, ; excesses ·; limits ±, ±·±; µ; de¬ning hierarchy of better and
worse ; gifts to humans ±±°, ±±;
see also democracy
License, temple to ± life in accordance with ±; and
Licinius Crassus, Lucius vii, ±· mortality ; not source of justice ;
Licinius Crassus Mucianus, Publius ±µ as source of civic virtue , ; as
Licinius Lucullus, Lucius ±“ standard ±; as stepmother °; and
Liris ±°, ±±, ±·µ utility ±, ; see also humans, law
Navius, Attus , ±
Lucceius: see historiography
Lucilius, Gaius xii, ±,  numerology, mystical , 
Lucretia ·, ±
luxury ±“ ochlocracy (mob rule) °; see also
Lycurgus , ·, , °, , , µ, , constitutions, democracy
±, ± oligarchy °; see also aristocracy,



°
General Index

±, n, °, n
constitutions
Pompeius, Quintus “·°
On the Commonwealth: argument xiv“xx;
Pompeius Magnus, Gnaeus ix, ±°, ±±,
composition and setting xi“xiii;
±µ, ±·
in¬‚uence xx; preservation xiv“xv;
Pompilius, Numa °“±, ··, , ±°, ±,
purpose xix“xx; see also Tullius
±±, ±µ±
Cicero
On the Laws: argument xxi“xxiv; Pomponius Atticus, Titus xxii
Porcius Cato, Marcus (censor) xv, , ±,
composition and setting xiii“xiv;
“, , , ·±, , , ±°·,
incompleteness xx“xxi;
±°
inconsistencies xxiii; in¬‚uence
Porcius Cato, Marcus (younger) ±·
xxiii“xxiv; relationship to Roman law
praetorship ±µ
xxiv; see also Tullius Cicero
priesthoods °“±, ±·, ±±; see also
Pacuvius ±,  religion
Panaetius xii, , ±, ; see also Stoicism prudence ·, , ·°, , ±±, ±·
passions , µ, “; see also soul public a¬airs, participation in, , “,
pederasty ·“° ±“±·, ±, ±µ
Pericles ±, ,  punishment , µ, ·, ·, ·, ±±“°,
Peripatetics , ±n; see also Aristotle, ±µ“, ±·
puri¬cation ±±
Demetrius, Dicaearchus,
Pyrrhus , ·±
Theophrastus
Phalaris ·µn Pythagoreanism  ±, µ, n, ±±·, ±±n
Philip II , 
Quinctius Cincinnatus, Lucius 

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