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 ®¬©µ  °©¬©®µ , µ (d. ). Consul in ; while guar-
ding the Capitol against the Gauls in · he was alerted by the
sacred geese and repelled an attack. He was executed for plotting rev-
olution in .
  ¬ ¬µ : see  ¬ µ ¤ © µ
  ©µ  , ® µ  (seventh century). Fourth king of Rome (/
“±/µ Polybian) and founder of Ostia.
  ©µ  ¦©§ µ¬ µ , § © µ (¬rst century). Probably the consul of ;
nothing else is known about his fancy tomb.
  ©µ  ° © ¬© ° °µ , ¬ µ © µ (second“¬rst century). As consul in ±
(and an augur) he strenuously opposed the reforms of Livius
Drusus; he switched sides judiciously during the civil wars, and as
the oldest living senator supported the Sullan settlement against the
revolt of Lepidus in ·.
 ©µ , § © µ  (c.±µ·“). Like Cicero, he was from Arpinum; al-
though he did not reach the consulate until the age of ¬fty in ±°·, he
proceeded to be elected consul each year from ±° to ±°° to ¬ght the
Gauls. In old age in  he tried to claim the command against Mith-
radates, leading to civil war; he died soon after his capture of Rome
in .
 ©µ §  © ¤©  ®µ ,   µ (d. ). Nephew of Gaius Marius
(both by birth and adoption) and the son of Marcus Gratidius, thus
related to Cicero. Praetor in µ and  as a Marian, he was brutally

Biographical Notes

tortured to death by Catiline on Sulla™s return in .
 © ®©    (c.°“±). King of Numidia; he wisely chose to support
Rome at the right moment in the Second Punic War and was re-
warded with an enlarged kingdom after the defeat of Carthage. He
remained loyal to Rome until his death, shortly after the (¬ctional)
visit to him by Scipio Aemilianus in ± reported in On the
 © µ : see ¦  ©µ 
§ © ¬¬ µ (¬ctional). The Spartan participant in Plato™s Laws.
  ¬¬ µ: see   © ¬© µ 
©¬ ©¤  (c.µµ°“). Athenian general and victor at Marathon in
°. Fined for the failure of his expedition to conquer Paros, he died
of a wound received on the expedition.
©®  (mythical). King of Crete and (according to Plato) author of the
Cretan law code; posthumously one of the judges in the underworld.
µ © µ    ¬ , ° µ ¬©µ  (d. c.±±µ). Consul in ± and supporter
of Tiberius Gracchus. He succeeded his brother Publius Licinius
Crassus Mucianus as pontifex maximus in ±; he was a renowned
jurist and is said to have compiled from ponti¬cal records the text
known as the Great Annals (Annales Maximi). His son was Quintus
Scaevola the Pontifex.
µ© µ  ¬, ±µ ©®µ  (d. c.). Known as the Augur to distin-
guish him from his cousin the Pontifex. The son-in-law of Laelius
and a junior participant in On the Commonwealth, he was consul in
±±·, a distinguished jurist, and father-in-law of Lucius Licinius
Crassus; he appears as an elder statesman in Book ± of On the Ora-
µ © µ     ¬ , ± µ © ® µ (d. ). Known as the Pontifex to dis-
tinguish him from his cousin the Augur. The son of Publius Mucius
Scaevola and like him (and his uncle and his grandfather) pontifex
maximus. Consul in µ and the author of a large treatise on civil law,
he instructed Cicero in law in the mid °s until his murder in  by
the younger Marius.
µ © µ     ¬ , ± µ © ® µ (¬rst century). The grandson of
Scaevola Augur, he was a friend of Cicero and his brother; aside
from his verse in praise of Cicero™s Marius, he is known to have writ-
ten risque poetry.
µ ©µ ,  ° µ © µ (second century). The brother of Lucius Mum-
mius the destroyer of Carthage in ±, Spurius never reached the

Biographical Notes

consulate, but he accompanied Scipio Aemilianus (and Panaetius)
on an embassy to the east in ±°“±. He is one of the participants
in On the Commonwealth.
®  © µ , §®  µ (third century). Roman dramatist and epic poet;
his poem (Bellum Poenicum) on the First Punic War was the ¬rst
Latin epic on Roman history. Few fragments of his poetry survive.
® ©  : see   ® ¬ © µ
®©µ , µ (sixth century, if real). A famous augur, known primar-
ily for the encounter with Tarquinius Priscus: when he foretold that
what Priscus was thinking would come true, he successfully accom-
plished it by splitting a whetstone with a razor.
®µ  : see ° ° © ¬© µ 
 °© © µ , ¬ µ © µ (second century). Consul in ±±, he played a large
role in the death of Gaius Gracchus; his exile in ±°, however, result-
ed not from that but from his having been bribed by the Numidian
king Jugurtha.
° µ © µ ,   µ  (°“c.±°). Tragic poet and nephew of Ennius.
Only fragments of his plays survive.
° ®  © µ of  ¤  (c.±°“c.±±°). Stoic philosopher and head of
the Stoa from ±; his views about ethics and predestination were
less rigid than those of the early Stoa. Not coincidentally, he was
very much at home with Rome and the Roman aristocracy and ac-
companied Scipio Aemilianus on his eastern embassy in ±°“±.
° °©  ©µ     , § © µ (d. ±±). As tribune in ±±, he carried a law
requiring written ballots in votes on the approval or rejection of
laws. Suspected of culpability in the death of Scipio Aemilianus, he
later gave up his Gracchan sympathies and defended Opimius when
he was accused of the murder of Gaius Gracchus. He committed sui-
cide when convicted (of treason or extortion) in ±±.
° °©  ©µ     , §®  µ  (d. ). Tribune in , supporter of
Marius, and Marian consul in µ and ; he ¬‚ed to Africa in  and
was killed by Pompey in Sicily.
° µ¬ ¬µ : see   © ¬© µ 
° ©  ¬  (c.°“). Athenian general, orator, and statesman, leader
of the Athenian democracy from the mid ¬fth century until his
death from the plague in .
°  © µ , § © µ (second century). Mentioned by Lucilius as too
learned to be an ideal audience for his satires; known only from
Cicero™s references to this passage of Lucilius.

Biographical Notes

° ¬  © (mid sixth century). Tyrant of Agrigentum in Sicily, famous
for the hollow bronze bull in which he tortured people by roasting.
He was stoned to death by his grateful subjects; the bull, which had
been taken to Carthage as a trophy, was returned to Agrigentum by
Scipio Aemilianus after the sack of Carthage.
° ©¤ ©  (¬fth century). Athenian sculptor, most famous for his statues
of Athena in the Parthenon and of Zeus at Olympia.
° ©¬ © ° ©© (d. ). King of Macedon µ“ and father of Alexander
the Great; he conquered Greece and was about to attack the Persian
Empire when he was assassinated.
° ©¬ © °° µ: see   © µ
° ©¬  ¬ µ  (¬fth century). Pythagorean, some of whose cosmological
and metaphysical writings survive. Plato is said to have bought (or
plagiarized) his books.
° ©¬ µ: see ¦ µ  ©µ 
°©  ©  µ  (d. µ·). Tyrant in Athens µ±“µ· (with interruptions).
°©  : see  ¬° µ ®©µ 
°©   µ  of   ©¬  ®  (seventh“sixth century). Lawgiver; one of the
Seven Sages.
°¬   (“·). Pupil of Socrates, founder of the Academy, teacher
of Aristotle and many others. Cicero admired his dialogues and
translated some of them; his Republic and Laws are the literary
models for On the Commonwealth and On the Laws, although Cicero
repeatedly attacks his political ideas as unrealistic and inhumane.
°¬ µ µ  (c.µ°“±). The manuscripts of his comedies (of which
twenty survive complete) give his name as Titus Maccius Plautus,
but it is very uncertain. He was credited in antiquity with having
written at least ±° plays.
° ¬   (fourth“third century). Platonist; head of the Academy
° ¬  © µ (c.°° to after ±±). From Mantinea in Arcadia; he came to
Rome as a hostage in ± and stayed there to become a friend of
Scipio Aemilianus, conversations with whom he records in his His-
tories, which narrate in Greek the history of Rome from the Second
Punic War to his own time. His discussion of constitutional theory
(extant) and of early Roman history (very fragmentary) in Book  is
one of the sources and models for Books ± and  of On the
°  ° © µ , ± µ© ® µ (second century). As consul in ±° he was de-

Biographical Notes

feated by the Numantines and made a disadvantageous treaty, which
he disavowed as soon as it was safe; the senate approved his behav-
ior, which Cicero contrasts with the more honorable actions of Hos-
tilius Mancinus two years later. He was an active opponent of
Tiberius Gracchus and became censor in ±±.
°  ° © µ  § ®µ , §®  µ  (±°“). The dominant ¬gure in
Rome from the ·°s to the Civil War in . As consul for the ¬rst
time in ·° with Marcus Licinius Crassus, he undid many of Sulla™s
reactionary constitutional changes; as a general in the °s he defeat-
ed the pirates and Mithradates, widely extending Roman rule in the
east. His compact with Julius Caesar and Crassus in ° (˜˜the First
Triumvirate™™) gave him a dominant role in Rome; he was consul for
the second time in µµ and (during a period of extraordinary discord)
sole consul in µ. In the Civil War he was defeated by Caesar at
Pharsalus and murdered when he ¬‚ed to Egypt.
°  °© ¬ ©µ  , ® µ  (eighth“seventh century, if real). Second king of
Rome (·±/±“·/ Polybian).
°  ° ® © µ   © µ , ©  µ (±°“). A lifelong friend of Cicero
and his brother (who was married to Atticus™ sister), one of the inter-
locutors of On the Laws and the recipient of hundreds of extant let-
ters from Cicero (Letters to Atticus, in sixteen books). A man of great
wealth and wide ¬nancial interests and an Epicurean, he never en-
tered public life; he remained a member of the equestrian order and
lived for many years in Athens (hence his cognomen). Cicero relied
on his support (¬nancial and moral) and judgment on many occa-
sions; he was astute enough to survive the proscriptions of the Sec-
ond Triumvirate and lived to see his daughter married to Augustus™
close friend and general Agrippa. A biography of him by his friend
Cornelius Nepos survives.
° ° © ¬© µ  ¬ ®  , § © µ (second century). Accused of treason by
the tribune Gaius Coelius Caldus in ±°· for the terms he made as
legate with the Gallic Tigurini after his commander was killed; he
went into exile.
° ° © ¬© µ  ¬ ®  , ° µ  ¬© µ  (second century). As consul in ± he
opposed the plans of Tiberius Gracchus and was exiled through the
e¬orts of Gaius Gracchus in ± (and recalled two years later); the
father of Gaius Popilius Laenas.
°  ©µ     ,   µ  (“±). Consul in ±, censor in ±,
and renowned for the stern morality of his character and opinions.

Biographical Notes

He was the greatest orator of his age and a man of considerable liter-
ary accomplishment: his treatise on agriculture survives, as do frag-
ments of his history of Rome (Origines) and his speeches. Cicero of-
ten takes him as the model of civic virtue, particularly because he
was, like Cicero, the ¬rst in his family to hold the consulate. The pic-
ture of him in Cicero™s dialogue Cato the Elder: On Old Age presents
a kinder, gentler Cato.
°  © µ     ,   µ (µ“). As rigid a moralist as his great-
grandfather the censor and a doctrinaire Stoic as well; both an
opponent of the First Triumvirate and singularly unlovable in his
own right, he was praetor in µ but failed to be elected consul. After
he committed suicide after the Battle of Thapsus in the Civil War,
he became (retroactively) the embodiment of principled republican-
°  µ © µ  µ   µ , ° µ ¬©µ  (sixth“¬fth century). Possibly real
but legendary hero of the early republic (consul in µ°µ and µ°) who
fought against the Sabines.
°  µ ¬µ : see ©µ ¬©µ 
°µ ¬ ©  ¬ : see  ¬  © µ
°  µ  (c.±“·). King of Epirus from · to ·, he invaded
Italy at the request of Tarentum and defeated the Romans twice
(°“·) in battles so costly that ˜˜Pyrrhic victories™™ became prov-
erbial. He was defeated at Beneventum in ·µ and killed in street
¬ghting in Argos three years later.
°  §    (sixth“¬fth century). Born in Samos but migrated to
Croton in southern Italy, where he had a large political and philo-
sophical in¬‚uence. A vast range of numerological, theological, and
philosophical beliefs are attributed to him; it is di¬cult, if not impos-
sible, to disentangle his genuine ideas.
±µ ©®  ©µ   ©® © ® ®  µ , ¬µ © µ  (¬fth century). Appointed dicta-
tor for the second time in  in connection with the alleged coup at-
tempt of Spurius Maelius. In his ¬rst dictatorship in µ, he was
summoned from his farm to stave o¬ military disaster and became
an emblem of the farmer-soldier.
±µ ©® µ : see  µ¬ ¬©µ 
±µ © ©® µ: see  µ ¬ µ 
 µ  (eighth century, if real). The twin brother of Romulus, who (in
some versions) killed him in a dispute over the foundation of Rome.
  µ ¬ µ (eighth century, if real). The founder and ¬rst king of

Biographical Notes

Rome. After a long reign he mysteriously disappeared in a storm (or
eclipse of the sun) and became the god Quirinus.
µ ©¬ ©µ  µ ¦µ , ° µ ¬© µ  (late second to early ¬rst century). A stu-
dent of Panaetius and protege of Scipio Aemilianus, he became con-
sul in ±°µ. Tried and convicted (unjustly) for extortion in the °s,
he went into exile at Smyrna, in the province he was said to have
mistreated. Cicero™s description of his trial compares him to Soc-
rates. Rutilius is also a participant in On the Commonwealth, and
Cicero says that Rutilius told him about the conversation which On
the Commonwealth claims to report.
 ¤ ® ° ¬µ  (seventh century?). King of Nineveh or Assyria, prob-
ably a distortion of Assurbanipal (“µ). One of the most fre-
quently mentioned (with Semiramis) Asian monarchs, whose connec-
tion with historical fact is tenuous at best. The epitaph of which
Cicero twice quotes the last two lines was widely known and was
probably written in the ¬fth or fourth century.
  ¬ : see  µ  © µ 
 µ µ : see   © ¬© µ 
 ©°©: see   ® ¬ ©µ 
 °  ® © µ   ¬¬ ©  (second“¬rst century). A military tribune at
Numantia under Scipio Aemilianus, he later wrote a history of his
own time in at least fourteen books.
 °  ® © µ §    µ , § © µ  (d. ±±). Tiberius Gracchus™
younger brother and a member of his agrarian commission. As tri-
bune himself in ±“±, he extended his brother™s work of reform
and was killed in a riot in ±±.
 °  ® © µ §   µ ,  © © µ  (d. ±µ). Consul in ±··, censor
in ±, and a successful general; the father of the tribunes Tiberius
and Gaius Gracchus.
 °  ® © µ §   µ ,  ©   ©µ  (d. ±). Quaestor at Numantia
under Hostilius Mancinus (and the negotiator of the repudiated
treaty), he became tribune in ±. His program to distribute state
land to the poor (and thus increase the number eligible for military
service) met with violent opposition: he had his fellow tribune Oc-
tavius deposed and appropriated the bequest of Attalus III of Per-
gamum to pay for land distribution. While trying to be elected tri-
bune for a second year he was killed by a mob led by the pontifex
maximus, Scipio Nasica Serapio.
  © ¬© µ    ¬ , § © µ (¬fth century). As master of the horse in

Biographical Notes

 he killed Spurius Maelius and as a result was forced into exile
by popular hatred.
  ©µ  , ¬µ © µ  (¬fth century). During the ¬rst year of the Decem-
virate, a body was found in his bedroom; he was tried for murder
(and for burying a body within the city) before the popular assem-
©  ®© ¤  (b. c.µµ). Greek lyric and elegiac poet, allegedly born in
the same year that Stesichorus died.
©  ® ® : see  ® ¬© µ 
    (“). Plato™s teacher and the principal character in Pla-
to™s dialogues. An Athenian who resisted the tyranny of the Thirty
at the end of the Peloponnesian War “ some of whom were his
friends and associates “ he was accused of impiety and of corrupting
the young in  and executed; Plato™s Apology, Crito, and Phaedo
represent his speech and his days in prison awaiting execution. As
Socrates wrote nothing, his actual beliefs are uncertain, although
most people believe that the early dialogues of Plato are close to his
true manner of ethical disputation, in which his interlocutors are for-
ced to question their own beliefs. All the major philosophical
schools of the subsequent generations (except the Epicureans) claim-
ed to be his followers.
 ¬  ® (early sixth century). As archon of Athens in µ/ he reor-
ganized the constitution on the basis of property classes and abol-
ished debt servitude. He was generally considered to have been the
creator of Athenian democracy.
° µ © ° °µ  (fourth century). Plato™s nephew and successor as head of
the Academy from · to .
  © µ  (d. c.µµ). Greek lyric poet; he allegedly died in the year
Simonides was born.
µ ¬° © ©µ  §  ¬ ,    ©µ  (second century). Consul in ±, previ-
ously acquitted in ± for his massacre of Lusitanians who had sur-
rendered to him. An augur and a famous orator, he was among those
who heard Carneades in ±µµ.
µ ¬° © ©µ  § ¬µ , § ©µ (second century). Consul in ± and a
skilled astronomer who explained a lunar eclipse to the troops in
Macedonia in ±.
 ± µ © ®© µ ,   µ (sixth“¬fth century, if real). The evil son of the
tyrannical Tarquinius Superbus; his rape of Lucretia led to the over-
throw of the monarchy.

Biographical Notes

 ± µ ©®© µ   ¬ ¬  © ®µ , ¬µ © µ  (sixth century, if real). The hus-
band of Lucretia and one of the ¬rst pair of consuls (with Lucius
Junius Brutus); he was subsequently forced to abdicate because of
his relationship to Tarquinius Superbus.
 ± µ ©®© µ  ° © µ , ¬ µ © µ (seventh“sixth century, if real). The
son of Demaratus and an immigrant to Rome; he changed his name
from Lucumo on being chosen ¬fth king of Rome (reigned ±µ/
“µ··/ Polybian).
 ± µ ©®© µ   µ°   µ , ¬µ ©µ  (sixth century, if real). The son
(grandson in some versions) of Tarquinius Priscus; he and his wife
Tullia murdered her father Servius Tullius and usurped the throne
of Rome, whose seventh and last king he became (µ/±“µ°/·). He
was expelled because of his tyrannical behavior and the rape of Luc-
retia by his son Sextus.
 © µ ,  © µ  (eighth century, if real). Sabine king; for a time he was
co-ruler of Rome with Romulus.
 ¬  of © ¬  µ  (seventh“sixth century). One of the Seven Sages
and the ¬rst known natural philosopher. He is credited with being
the ¬rst to explain eclipses ( May µµ) and the ¬rst creator of a ce-
lestial globe.
 ©    ¬  (c.µ“). Athenian general and statesman, respon-
sible for the naval victory over Persia at Salamis in °. He was sub-
sequently ostracized and condemned for dealings with Persia; he
died as Persian governor of Magnesia.
  °   µ  (c.·±“c.·). Aristotle™s pupil and successor (in )
as head of the Peripatetic School. His many works on political philos-
ophy are almost completely lost, although they in¬‚uenced Cicero
greatly; what survives are two botanical works and his descriptions
of personality types, the Characters.
  ° °µ  (eighth century). King of Sparta; responsible for the cre-
ation of the ephors as a limitation on monarchic power.
  ° ° µ  (fourth century). A pupil of the rhetorician Isocrates, he
wrote a Greek history in continuation of Thucydides and a history
of the reign of Philip II of Macedon.
  µ  (mythical). The semi-divine king of Athens and creator of a
uni¬ed Attica.
©  µ  of ¬  © (¬fth century). Pythagorean philosopher and the
chief speaker of Plato™s Timaeus.
©  µ  of  µ   ® ©µ  (c.µ“°). Author of a massive history

Biographical Notes

in Greek of Sicily and Italy, the ¬rst major work on the subject; his
work was admired for its learning and its careful chronology.
©    µ  (c.µ°“c.°). Lyric poet from Miletus, whose innova-
tions included an increase in the number of strings on the lyre. A
substantial fragment of his Persians survives on papyrus.
©  ©µ  ,   µ  (second“¬rst century). Tribune in  and a follower
of Saturninus; his agrarian law was blocked by bad omens and
vetoed by other tribunes. He was later convicted of treason for
keeping a bust of Saturninus in his house.
  ±µ  µ : see  ® ¬© µ 
µ  : see  ¬ © µ
µ   µ: see °  µ© µ 
µ ¬¬ © µ ,   © µ (sixth century, if real). The sixth king of Rome
(µ··/“µ/± Polybian), best known as the organizer of the division
of the people into property classes and creator of the centuriate as-
µ ¬¬ © µ ©    ,   µ (second century). Cicero™s grandfather, a
leading citizen of Arpinum.
µ ¬¬ © µ  ©  ,   µ (±°“). The author; also the principal
speaker of On the Laws.
µ ¬¬ © µ ©    , ± µ ©®  µ (c.±°“). Cicero™s younger brother,
praetor in ; a participant in On the Laws and the dedicatee of On
the Orator and On the Commonwealth. At the dramatic date of On the
Laws he was in fact a legate with Caesar in Gaul, where he wrote
four tragedies in sixteen days while besieged in Alesia. He was pro-
scribed and killed at the same time as his brother.
 ¬ © µ  °  © µ  , ¬ µ © µ (¬fth century). Consul in  with Mar-

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