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  © ¬©µ    © µ (d. ±). Roman comic dramatist, greatly admired
in antiquity; only fragments of his plays (of which some forty are
known) survive.
 ¬ ©® µ : see  © ¬© µ 
 ¬° µ  ®© µ  ° ©  ¦ µ §© , ¬µ © µ  (second century). An active sol-
dier and statesman (tribune in ±, consul in ±µ, censor in ±°); he
wrote a history of Rome (Annals) from the beginning down to at
least ±, in which he marked the beginning of Roman moral decline
in ±µ.
 © ¬¬ µ: see ¦ µ © µ
  : see ° °© © µ
 ®  ¤  (±“±). A skeptic and the head of the Academy; he was
(with Diogenes the Stoic and Critolaus the Peripatetic) a member of
the so-called philosophers™ embassy from Athens to Rome in ±µµ.
His balanced speeches on justice and injustice on that occasion were
shocking and notorious, and provide the basis for the debate on just-
ice in Book  of On the Commonwealth.
  ©µ  , ° µ © µ (sixth“¬fth centuries). As consul in  he was ac-
cused of attempting a coup and was tried and executed in the follow-
ing year. Both the nature of his attempt and the form of his trial are
unclear.
  ©µ  ¬  ®§ © ®µ   ©¬ ¬ , ¬µ © µ  (second century). As tribune
in ±· he carried a law (supported by Scipio Aemilianus) to extend
the use of the written ballot from elections to trials before the
people. He went on to become consul in ±· and censor in ±µ.
 : see °   © µ
 µ : see  ¬ © µ
  ®¤ (seventh or sixth century). Born in Catane (Catania) in Si-
cily; many of the cities of Sicily and southern Italy identi¬ed him as
the author of their laws. The prologue to his laws quoted by Cicero
in On the Laws (also preserved in the sixth-century Byzantine anthol-
ogy of John of Stobi) is not authentic.
  ©° °µ  (c.°“°). The third head of the Stoa (from ), after
Zeno and Cleanthes; his copious writings (including a Republic and a
work, On Law, used by Cicero) set out Stoic theory in a systematic
form.

±·
Biographical Notes

©   : see µ ¬¬ © µ
¬ µ ¤© µ   ¬ ¬µ  , § ©µ  (d. µ or earlier). Praetor in °; he is
mentioned as one of Cicero™s fellow augurs at On the Laws ..
¬ µ ¤© µ   ¬ ¬ µ  ,    µ  (d. °). Consul ¬ve times and one
of the great military ¬gures of the middle Republic, he besieged and
captured Syracuse in ± during the Second Punic War.
¬ µ ¤© µ   ¬ ¬µ ,   µ (d. ±). Consul in ± and twice
later and pontifex ±··“±; grandson of the great Marcellus. He
drowned in a storm while on an embassy to Masinissa.
¬ µ ¤© µ ° µ¬   ,  °° © µ (d. c.±±). Consul in ±, censor in ±,
and a long-time political opponent of Scipio Aemilianus; he was a
supporter of his son-in-law Tiberius Gracchus.
¬ µ ¤© µ ° µ¬   ,  °° © µ (d. ). Brother of Clodius and the only
praetor to oppose Cicero™s recall in µ·, but later on good terms with
him. He was consul in µ and a member of the augural college. He
dedicated his book on augural law to Cicero.
¬ µ ¤© µ ° µ¬   , § © µ (second century). Consul in ±··, censor
in ±; accused of treason by the tribune Rutilius.
¬ µ ¤© µ °µ ¬   , § © µ  (second“¬rst century). An opponent of
Saturninus and consul in ; also famous for exhibiting elephants in
the games he gave as aedile in .
¬  ® (¬fth century). Demagogic Athenian politician during the Pel-
oponnesian War, much ridiculed by Aristophanes.
¬  °  ® (¬fth century). Like Cleon, a demagogue and politician in
Athens.
¬ ©®©  (fourth century, if real). The Cretan participant in Plato™s
Laws.
¬ ©  ®  (sixth century). Athenian legislator whose reorganization
of government in µ° was the basis of the democratic constitution.
¬ ©  µ  (fourth/third centuries). Author of a history of Alexan-
der the Great in twelve books more renowned for its style than for
its historical accuracy or insight.
¬ ¤© µ (early ¬rst century). Presumably the same as Q. Claudius
Quadrigarius, author of a very rhetorical history of Rome from the
Gallic sack of · to his own time.
¬ ¤© µ ° µ ¬  , ° µ ¬© µ  (c.“µ). Not named by Cicero in
these works but very much present. A master of street politics and
violence, he adopted the plebeian spelling of his family name and
had himself adopted into a plebeian family in order to become tri-

±°
Biographical Notes

bune in µ, when he engineered the exile of Cicero. Their enmity
arose from Cicero™s evidence against him when he was tried for sacri-
lege in ± for having violated the rites of the Bona Dea. He was mur-
dered in a street ¬ght on ± January µ.
  ¬© µ   ®  ©°   , ¬ µ ©µ  (late second century). Author of a his-
tory of the Second Punic War in seven books.
  ¬© µ   ¬¤ µ  , § © µ (second“¬rst century). Consul in ; as tri-
bune in ±°· he passed a law extending the written ballot to trials for
treason in order to convict Gaius Popilius, of whose treaty with the
Tigurini he did not approve.
  ® ¬© µ   ©° ©  , § ® µ  and ° µ  ¬© µ  (third century). The fa-
ther and uncle of the elder Africanus; they were killed ¬ghting in
Spain in the Second Punic War in ±±.
  ® ¬© µ    ©°© , ° µ  ¬© µ  (second century). The son of the elder
Africanus and the adoptive father of Scipio Aemilianus; his poor
health kept him from entering public life.
  ® ¬© µ   © °©  ¦  ©  ®µ , ° µ ¬© µ  (“±). Consul in °µ
and ±; he defeated Hannibal at Zama in ° to end the Second Pu-
nic War.
  ® ¬© µ   ©°© ¦ © ® µ   ©¬ © ® µ  , ° µ ¬© µ  (±µ/
“±). The natural son of Lucius Aemilius Paullus and adoptive
son of Publius Cornelius Scipio; he was consul in ±· and ± and
destroyer in the following years of Carthage (in the Third Punic
War) and Numantia in Spain; he was censor in ±. In real life he
was both a consummate popular politician and a harsh and arrogant
aristocrat, and tried to undo the popular measures of his cousin
Tiberius Gracchus. In Cicero™s writings he appears as a humane
statesman of great intellectual abilities; he was certainly an acquaint-
aince of Polybius, Panaetius, and Terence. He is the protagonist of
On the Commonwealth. His sudden death a few days after the dra-
matic date of the dialogue may have been natural, but Cicero
thought he had been murdered.
  ® ¬© µ    ©° ©  ®  ©    ° © , ° µ  ¬ ©µ  (second century).
Grandson of the elder Africanus and thus a cousin of the Gracchi
and (by his adoption) of Scipio Aemilianus; he was consul in ±
and pontifex maximus. As leader of the senate, he led the mob that
killed Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus when Gracchus stood for
reelection as tribune in ±. He was sent on an embassy to Asia by
the senate immediately thereafter to get him out of Rome; he died

±±
Biographical Notes

before returning.
  ® ¬© µ   ©  ® ®  , ¬ µ ©µ  (d. ·). A supporter of Sulla and later
of Pompey, he was praetor in ·. He is best known as a historian of
the Sullan period but also translated the salacious Milesian Tales of
Aristides.
  ® ¬© µ   µ¬ ¬  , ¬µ © µ  (±“·). From a decayed aristocratic
family; he commanded troops in the Social War (°“) and was
consul in , when he marched on Rome to gain the command in
the Mithradatic War which Marius was trying to obtain. After a
rapid and inconclusive war (including a brutal siege of Athens), he
invaded Italy in , defeated the supporters of Marius (or of the le-
gitimate government) and had himself made dictator in , putting
numerous enemies and wealthy people to death through proscrip-
tions and establishing a reactionary senatorial government. He re-
tired in · and died the next year.
  µ ®  ®© µ ,  ©   ©µ  (d. c.). Consul in °; at some point
thereafter he became the ¬rst plebeian pontifex maximus.
  : see µ  ¬©µ 
  µ : see ¬ © © ® ©µ 
µ  ©© µ , §© µ (second century). As tribune in ± he had the con-
suls Scipio Nasica and Iunius Brutus imprisoned.
µ ©µ  ¤ ®  µ ,   ®© µ  (fourth“third century). Consul in °
(and three times thereafter) and censor in ·; a military leader re-
nowned for his rectitude and frugality.
 ° ¬ µ (seventh century). Tyrant of Corinth in Greece for some
thirty years beginning about µ°.
 µ    §   (sixth century). Founder of the Persian Empire
and king µµ“µ. Xenophon™s Cyropaedia (The Education of Cyrus),
an edifying and ¬ctional version of his life, was said to be the favor-
ite book of Scipio Aemilianus.
¤   µ (sixth century, if real). A Corinthian noble who went into
exile in Etruria because of the tyranny of Cypselus; the father of
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus.
¤  © µ  of ° ¬  µ (c.µ° to after ). Peripatetic philosopher
and pupil of Theophrastus; he ruled Athens (±·“°·) on behalf of
Cassander, the king of Macedonia. After the restoration of Athenian
democracy by Demetrius Poliorcetes in °· he went into exile, end-
ing up in Alexandria, where he was an adviser to Ptolemy I on cul-
tural matters. Cicero admired both his writings and his combination

±
Biographical Notes

of philosophy with an active public life.
¤©   µ  (fourth century). A Peripatetic philosopher and pupil of
Aristotle; Cicero made copious use of his many writings on govern-
ment and cultural history.
¤© § ®   of   ¬ ® (c.°“c.±µ). Pupil of Chrysippus and head
of the Stoic school in Athens; he took part in the philosophers™ em-
bassy of ±µµ from Athens to Rome with Carneades and Critolaus.
¤©® ©µ  © © (fourth century). Tyrant of Syracuse ·“ (with in-
terruptions). Plato attempted without success to turn him into a phil-
osopher king; he died in exile in Corinth.
¤  (seventh century, if real). The alleged author of the ¬rst written
Athenian law code, renowned for its severity. The extant homicide
law from the late ¬fth century is ascribed to him.
¤µ©¬ ©µ , § © µ (third century). Consul in °, censor in µ; he de-
feated the Carthaginian ¬‚eet at Mylae in ° and was the ¬rst per-
son to be awarded a triumph for a naval victory.
§  ©  (eighth“seventh century, if real). A water nymph, associated
with a spring near the Porta Capena in Rome; King Numa™s signi¬-
cant other.
°  ¤  ¬  of § © § ® µ  (¬fth century). Pre-Socratic philos-
opher, author of the poems On Nature and Puri¬cations. Among his
more important ideas are his belief in the four elements and in the
transmigration of souls; he is said to have tested the latter by jump-
ing into Mount Aetna.
® ®© µ , ± µ© ® µ  (“±). The most versatile and original poet of
early Rome, best known for his many tragedies and his epic Annals,
on Roman history. Cicero admired him greatly and quotes him fre-
quently.
° © µ µ  (±“·±). The founder of the philosophical school that
bears his name. He was a materialist who believed that pleasure (de-
¬ned in fairly austere terms) was the goal of life and friendship one
of its greatest attributes; he rejected all strong emotions and (unless
unavoidable) participation in public life. Cicero attacks his beliefs
frequently and violently; they were made accessible and perhaps
popular in Rome in the µ°s through the brilliant poem On Nature
(De rerum natura) of Lucretius.
 the ° °  ¬©  ® (imaginary). The soldier whose apparent death
and subsequent resurrection are the occasion for the eschatological
vision attributed to him (the Myth of Er) at the end of Plato™s Repub-

±
Biographical Notes

lic, which is the model for Scipio™s dream at the end of On the
Commonwealth.
µ ¤µ  of ® ©¤ µ (c.°“c.°). Mathematician and astronomer; re-
sponsible for the theory of concentric celestial spheres. His astron-
omy was versi¬ed by Aratus.
¦ © µ   ©  µ    µ   µ , ± µ © ® µ (d. °). One of the
heroes of the Second Punic War (consul ¬ve times, dictator in ±·);
he was given the soubriquet Cunctator (Delayer) because of his tac-
tics.
¦ © µ  °©    , ± µ© ® µ  (third century). An aristocrat and senator,
he was the ¬rst Roman to write history, an account of Rome from
the origins to his own time, in Greek. A Latin version was probably
available in Cicero™s time.
¦  © © µ  ¬µ  © ®µ , §  ©µ  (third century). Consul in  and ·,
censor in ·µ; he played a major role in the war against Pyrrhus and
was renowned for his virtue.
¦ ®® ©µ  , § ©µ  (late second century). Two cousins almost impossible
to distinguish. One of them was consul in ±, a son-in-law of
Laelius, and a participant in the dialogue of On the Commonwealth;
the other (probably) was a historian.
¦©§ µ¬ µ: see   © µ
¦¬  ©® ©µ , § © µ  (third century). Killed in ±· at the Battle of Lake
Trasimene during his second consulate. As tribune in , he car-
ried a law for distribution of land in northern Italy to Roman set-
tlers; he was seen in the conservative later tradition as a precursor of
the Gracchi.
¦¬  © µ , § ®  µ  (fourth century). The son of a freedman, he began
as a scribe and became aedile in °; he made public for the ¬rst
time both the o¬cial calendar and the forms of legal procedure (legis
actiones).
¦µ © µ    © ¬¬ µ ,   µ (¬fth“fourth century). Military tribune
with consular power in °± and many times thereafter, dictator in
 and after. The conqueror of Veii, he was then exiled for misap-
propriating booty; recalled and made dictator, he saved Rome from
the Gauls in · and organized the rebuilding of the city.
¦µ © µ  ° © ¬µ , ¬ µ © µ (second century). As consul in ±, he
presided over an inquiry into Hostilius Mancinus™ treaty with the
Numantines. A close friend of Scipio Aemilianus, he is a participant
in On the Commonwealth, in which he reluctantly delivers in Book 

±
Biographical Notes

a version of Carneades™ speech attacking justice.
§ © ®© µ  ,  µ ¬ µ (second century). As tribune in ± he carried a law
requiring the use of written ballots in elections.
§ ¬ : see  µ¬ °©  © µ
§ ¬µ : see  µ¬ °© © µ
§ ¬¬ © µ , § ® µ  (second century). A historian of early Rome whose
Annals comprised at least thirty-three books.
§ ¬¬ © µ ° ° ¬ ©  ¬ , ¬µ  ©µ  (¬rst century). From the anecdote re-
ported by Cicero, he was no philosopher; he was, however, consul in
· and censor in ·° and supported Cicero vigorously against Cati-
line in .
§   µ: see  °  ® ©µ 
§© ¤©µ ,  µ (second century). He proposed a ballot law at Ar-
pinum, which was opposed by his brother-in-law, Cicero™s grand-
father. He was killed in Cilicia in ±°, where he was serving as a pre-
fect in the war against the pirates.
  ¬ ©¤  of °  ® µ (fourth century). A pupil of Plato who wrote
a wide range of philosophical works, some of them on political and
legal theory, including dialogues which Cicero knew and used.
  ¤ µ  (¬fth century). Originally from Halicarnassus and a set-
tler of the Greek colony of Thurii in southern Italy in ; his His-
tories of the Persian Wars are the ¬rst work of Greek historiogra-
phy, and he was (and is) regarded as the Father of History.
  (tenth“ninth century, according to Cicero). The author of the
Iliad and Odyssey (as well as other poems), according to ancient tradi-
tion; the date given by Cicero is somewhat earlier than modern schol-
ars accept for the epics.
  © µ    µ  ,   µ (¬fth century). Consul in  with
Lucius Valerius Potitus; they restored the Republic after the fall of
the decemvirate.
  © µ   ¬  (sixth“¬fth century, if real). He foiled the attempt
of the Etruscan king Lars Porsenna to take Rome and restore the ex-
pelled Tarquinius Superbus by single-handedly defending the
bridge over the Tiber as it was destroyed beneath him.
 © ¬ ©µ ,  µ ¬ ¬µ  (seventh century). The third king of Rome (·/
±“°/ Polybian), known primarily for his military accomplish-
ments.
 © ¬ ©µ   ® © ® µ , § © µ  (second century). As consul in ±·, he
lost a battle to the Numantines and negotiated a treaty which the sen-

±µ
Biographical Notes

ate then repudiated, with his support, after an investigation by
Furius Philus. He was surrendered to the Numantines in recom-
pense; when they found the arrangement unsatisfactory and re-
turned him to the senders, he was (after some debate) readmitted to
citizenship and continued his career.
 °    ¬µ  (d. ±±). Athenian politician and demagogue.
©µ ¬© µ  , °   µ ¬ µ (eighth century, if real). Encountered Romulus on
the Quirinal Hill after the latter™s disappearance and learned that
Romulus had become the god Quirinus.
©µ ¬© µ  © µ¬ ¬µ  , § ©µ  (¬fth century). Consul in  and one of the
¬rst board of decemvirs in µ±; he allowed Lucius Sestius to appeal
to the people.
©µ ®© µ   µ µ , ¬µ ©µ  (sixth“¬fth century). He led the overthrow
of the monarchy and was one of the ¬rst pair of consuls, together
with Tarquinius Collatinus.
©µ ®© µ   µ µ    ¬¬ © µ  , ¤  © µ  (second century). Consul in
±, when he was imprisoned by the tribune Curiatius.
©µ ®© µ    ®§ µ  §    ® µ ,   µ  (c.±“c.µµ). A friend of
Gaius Gracchus in his youth (whence his cognomen); a historian
and antiquarian, who dedicated his book on magistrates™ powers to
Atticus™ father. He seems to have o¬ered a more democratic interpre-
tation of the Roman constitution than other writers.
¬ ¬ © µ , § © µ (d. c.±). A close friend of Scipio Aemilianus and his
legate in Africa; also Scipio™s principal interlocutor in On the
Commonwealth. As consul in ±° he proposed and withdrew an agrar-
ian law; in ± he was on the commission to punish the adherents of
Tiberius Gracchus.
¬ ® : see °° © ¬©µ 
¬  © µ , ©  µ (sixth“¬fth century). The ¬rst dictator, in  (or
µ°±), and also consul in one or both of those years; one of the mili-
tary heroes of the ¬rst years of the Republic.
¬©  ©® © µ    µ , ¬µ © µ  (±°“±). Consul in µ, censor in ;
Cicero, part of whose political education was supervised by him,
thought him the greatest orator he had known and made him the
principal speaker of On the Orator. He died suddenly in September
±, shortly after the dramatic date of the dialogue and just before the
outbreak of the Social War.
¬©  ©® © µ    µ  µ © ®µ , °µ ¬ © µ (d. ±°). Consul in ±±,
pontifex maximus, a member of Tiberius Gracchus™ agrarian com-

±
Biographical Notes

mission, and father-in-law of Gaius Gracchus. He died in battle in
Asia in ±° and was succeeded as pontifex maximus by his natural
brother, Publius Mucius Scaevola.
¬©  ©® ©µ ¬µ µ ¬¬ µ , ¬µ © µ  (d. µ). A Sullan supporter; as consul
in · and for some years thereafter, he fought against Mithradates
until succeeded by Pompey. He retired to his luxurious villas in µ
to admire his ¬shponds, earning Cicero™s scorn.
¬©  ©® ©µ    , § © µ (d. ). After his praetorship in  and gov-
ernorship (of an unknown province), he was tried and convicted for
extortion in  in a court presided over by Cicero, dying shortly
thereafter. As a historian of early Rome, in his Annals he took an
antiaristocratic position; in life, he was similarly anti-Sullan.
¬©  ©µ   ®¤  ® ©µ  (third century). A Greek captive from Taren-
tum; in Rome he wrote the ¬rst epic poem in Latin, a version of the
Odyssey written in the archaic Saturnian meter; he also wrote both
tragedies and comedies as well as a hymn to Juno in °·.
¬©© µ ¤µµ , µ  (d. ±). As tribune of the plebs in ±, he pro-
posed a varied program of laws (including land distribution, citizen-
ship for the Italians, and reorganization of the courts) that were in-
tended to bolster senatorial rule but which satis¬ed no one. After his
murder his legislation was annulled, and the disgruntled Italians se-
ceded, beginning the Social War.
¬µ © ¬ ©µ  , § ©µ  (d. ±°/±). A Roman knight and author of thirty
books of verse satires including attacks on (or descriptions of ) some
of the major political ¬gures of his time. He served at the siege of
Numantia under the command of Scipio Aemilianus.
¬µ µ ¬¬ µ: see ¬©  © ®© µ 
¬µ   ©  (sixth century). Virtuous wife of Tarquinius Collatinus; her
rape by Tarquinius Superbus™ son Sextus and subsequent suicide
were the proximate cause of the overthrow of the monarchy.
¬µ   © µ  © © °©  © ®µ , ° µ  © µ (sixth century). Father of Lu-
cretia.
¬µ µ  (eighth century, if real). According to Cicero, an ally of
Romulus after whom the Roman tribe Luceres was named; his ident-
ity was a traditional antiquarian puzzle. Lucumo is also the original
(Etruscan, not Greek as Cicero suggests) name of Lucius Tar-
quinius Priscus.
¬ µ § µ (ninth century, if real). The mythical (or divine) ¬gure who
established Sparta™s constitution and bizarre way of life in the early

±·
Biographical Notes

ninth century. He was also said by some to have founded the Olym-
pic games a century later, leading to chronological problems (if he
was not divine).
  : see ¬ © © ®© µ 
 ¬ ©µ  , ° µ © µ (¬fth century). Said to have distributed free grain
in Rome to relieve a famine and to have aimed at tyranny; he was
put to death by the master of the horse Servilius Ahala in .
® ©® µ: see    ©¬ © µ
® © ¬© µ ,  ®© µ  (second century). As consul in ± he began the
siege of Carthage in the Third Punic War and was Scipio™s com-
mander. One of the founders of Roman jurisprudence (and a partici-
pant in On the Commonwealth), he may have edited a collection of
Numa™s laws.
® ¬©µ   ± µ  µ , µ ¬µ  (second century). Probably an error
for Titus Manlius Torquatus, consul in ±µ and pontifex; renowned
for his knowledge of civil and ponti¬cal law.

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