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sign of a predator it does not follow that if a predator weren™t there a
shadow wouldn™t be there, hence that such shadows can be used to dis-
criminate predators from nonpredators. Nor does it follow that if a
shadow weren™t there a predator wouldn™t be there “ not on a cloudy
day. Thus it is that a creature can perfectly well have a representation of
Xs without being able to discriminate Xs from Ys.




237
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