LINEBURG


<< . .

 23
( 23)



personal life of: at Harvard College, 43;
129, 150; 113, 114, 114n33, 115
Herget, James, 77, 159 intellectual in¬‚uences on, 11n4;
The Hidden Holmes (Rosenberg), 24 marriage of, 10; military career, 17“18
history: and codi¬cation, 57; common law philosophical views of: as bet-abilitarian,
in, 173; judicial decisions in, 23; 42; holistic pragmatism, 43; in¬‚uences
judicial role in, 35; and legal analysis, on, 11n4, 14n9, 36n24, 38“44, 40n33,
92; and legal classi¬cation, 82; of legal 50n18, 62“64, 94n35, 110n26, 171n1;
precepts, 173; legal rules in, 28; pervasive skepticism, 23; and
liability in, 83, 84 pragmatism, 14, 38“39, 43, 43n41,
Hobbes, Thomas, ix, 12, 16, 18, 85, 94, 95, 62“64; on timing in judicial
96, 102; command vision of law of, 39, decisions, 1
111; compared with Holmes, 20; on recent publications about, xi
custom and practice, 53, 69; Dialogue, reputation of, 12, 157; as being
46“47, 51“52; on duty vs. rights, 68; doctrinaire, 24; controversies
and law and morals, 87; legal theory surrounding, 16; as late Hobbesian
of, 19; positivist theory of law of, positivist, 22; roller-coaster path of, 17
35“36, 58, 96; on reason and authority scienti¬c views of: and communal
in law, 46, 51“52; sovereign perogative inquiry, 96; and evolutionary theory,
defended by, 65, 66; on sovereignty 94n35; “Law in Science and Science in
and boundary of law, 69; on supreme Law” (Holmes), 132
legal authority, 40; Willey on, 23 skepticism of, 4, 95, 101“2, 159, 160;
Hobbesian tradition, 87 about principles, 59; and social
Holmes, Fanny Dixwell, 10, 11 inquiry, 107
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr.: speeches of: “The Path of the Law,” 37
academic career of, 11, 13, 14n9, 81, tenure of, 157
writings of, 25, 67, 119; “The
120“21
on evolutionary theory, 94n35 Arrangement of the Law: Privity,” 72;
journal of reading of, 81 article on privilege, 128; “Codes, and
judicial career, 24“25; appointed to SJC, the Arrangement of the Law,” 67; The
11, 118; in legal practice, 80; Lochner v. Common Law, ix, 85, 86, 88, 89, 92, 93,
111, 119, 121, 157, 160; early, 19, 47,
New York, 17
judicial method of, 164 59; essay on common carriers, 121;
judicial philosophy of, 4, 37 essay on “Possession,” 105; essays on
language of, 33 analytical reasoning, 21; historical
legacy of, 7, 157“70 process in, 82;
Index
200

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr.: (cont.) considerations, 121“22; role of timing
“Law in Science and Science in Law” in, 1; text as dominant for, 6
(Holmes), 173; letters, 61; “The Path judicial determinism, assumption of, 97“98
of the Law,” x, 8, 37, 38, 41, 45, 119, judicial inquiry, rede¬ning, 161
133, 160; “Primitive Notions in judicial interpretation, and social desires,
Modern Law,” 81, 84, 87, 122; 135
“Privilege, Malice, and Intent,” 118, judicial power, limits of, 4
126, 128, 130, 132; separation of law judicial reconsideration, phenomenon of,
and morals in, 36“37; “The Theory of 131
Torts,” 71, 75, 83, 84, 108, 120; judicial responsibility, 78
“Trespass and Negligence,” 88, 161 judicial restraint, xii; activism and, 33; basis
Horwitz, Morton, 24, 93, 118, 122, 124, for, ix; and civic consensus, 174; and
collective inquiry, 110; as critical
133
Hough, Charles M., 144 inquiry process, 8; evolution of, 45;
Holmes™s approach to, 37, 125, 171;
Hudson County Water Co. v. McCarter, 137,
Holmes™s understanding of, 122; and
141“42, 151
Hume, David, 16n15, 41n33, 63 public standards, 175“76; and reform,
4; and theory of common law, 19
indeterminate cases, 32“33. See also legal judicial review, Marshall™s notion of,
indeterminacy 153“54
innocence, Austin™s use of term, 88, 88n18 judicial rewriting, and history, 167
inquiry, naturalistic theory of, 56 judicial role, interpretations of, 98
intention: in law of possession, 105“6; as judicial selection, politicization of, 19
legal malice, 91 judicial supremacy, question of, 35
interest balancing, judicial, 117 jurisprudence, Holmes™s course of lectures
internal analysis, notion of, 64 in, 120“21
international community, and juvenile jury determinations: and community
executions, 3 standards, 161; law derived from, 98
“interstitial legislation,” 98 jus commune, 48
“irreconcilable desires,” 123, 127. See also
social desires Kames, Lord, Henry Home, 40n33
Kant, Immanuel, 63, 105, 106
James, Henry, 10, 11, 62 Kaplan, Benjamin, 82, 93, 94n34
James, William, 4, 14, 41, 42; Holmes™s Kaplow, Louis, 7, 8
friendship with, 10, 11; in¬‚uence on Kelley, Patrick J., 11, 93, 126, 152n39,
Holmes of, 104; and Metaphysical 158
Club, 43, 43n41, 62, 64 Kelsen, Hans, 18
judges: as autonomous policy makers, 121; Kent, Chancellor James, 154, 159
business men appointed as, 88; and Kent™s Commentaries on American Law, 173;
common law, 56; policy articulated by, Holmes™s editorship of, 4, 13, 60;
117; and questions of policy, 132; Holmes™s revision of, 10, 21, 38
sovereignty of, 134, 135 Kramer, Larry D., 5, 154
judicial consensus, gradual development Kuhn v. Fairmont Coal Co., 166
of, 161 Kuklick, Bruce, 12n4
judicial decisions: in¬‚uence of policy on,
119; law as prediction of, 133n36; and labor: and state regulation, 148; struggle
legal indeterminacy, 27; and policy with business of, 119, 120
Index 201

labor cases, controversial dissents in, legal controversy, and constitutional
interpretation, 16
137“38
laissez-faire economic theory, in legal indeterminacy, 44; forcing judicial
constitutional due process, 106 action, 115“16; positivist, 27, 27n3
last wrongdoer doctrine, 126n20 legal positivism, xii, 96; classic form of,
law: breadth of, 30; centralized view of, 95; 58n39; compared with common law
command de¬nition of, 52, 58; and model, 29; emergence of, 54; and law
con¬‚icting convictions, 7; conscious and morals, 133; metaphorical space
determination of, 132; in, 29“30; “might makes right” in, 97;
consequentialist theory of, 152n39; opposition to, ix, x; purpose and
continuum of, 119; and determinate meaning of, 115n36. See also
boundaries, 157; evolutionary positivism
paradigm for, 159; growth of, 31“32; legal positivists, “inclusive” and “exclusive,”
historical studies of, 83; history of 114
legal precepts in, 173; Hobbesean legal rationality, debate over, 14
view of, 17, 36; liability in, 84; as legal realism, Holmes™s, 69
logical system, 87; in mid-twentieth legal reasoning, Hobbes on, 20
century, 59; naturalistic historical legal theory, ix; “bottom-up,” 19; common
foundation for, 87; ontology of, 26, law as, 13; consistency in, 39; Holmes™s
44, 64, 99; positivist model of, 26“27; unorthodox, 11; positivist, 27;
as prediction of judicial decisions, rejection of individual subjective
133n36; as process-oriented, 92; as judgments in, 40; and scienti¬c
social phenomenon, 26; source of, 47. inquiry, 110
See also liability legislation: judicial interference with, 5;
“Law and Command” (Pollock), 70 medieval notion of, 49n8; relation to
law and morals, 171; Austin™s separation of, common law, 48
160; in contemporary legal legitimacy: and common law method, 35;
philosophy, 172; debate over, 113; in positivists™ view of, 36
history, 160; and judicial power, 114; Lehuerou, Julien Marie, 82
and legal positivism, 133n36; Leiter, Brian, 27n3
principles and, 112“13, 114; Leviathan (Hobbes), 102
separation of, 111, 159; terminology lex scripta, 48
in, 104 liability: constitutional, 151; emergence of
The Law in Quest of Itself (Fuller), 38 standards of, 79; evolutionary theory
“Law in Science and Science in Law” of, 87; external standard of, 19;
(Holmes), 132, 173 historical views of, 84; and moral
Law without Values (Alschuler), 17 terminology, 104; from moral toward
Lectures on Jurisprudence (Austin), ix, 66, external standards of, 58, 81, 82“83,
87, 92, 158; objective standard of
72, 112
legal classi¬cation: alternative common law, 148; and policy
understanding of, 159; and analytical considerations, 123“24; and “prudent
positivism, 77; Austin™s contribution man” standard, 89“90; and revenge,
to, 64, 72; based on duty, 75; and 92; strict, 25; subjectively based, 158,
codi¬cation, 57; Holmes™s interest in, 159; test of, 88; vicarious, 74
67“68; Holmes™s six divisions for, 73; liability, Holmes™s general theory of, 71,
and negligence, 76“77 78, 82; extension of, 92“93; historical
legal concepts, Holmes™s perception of, 58 insight in, 82
Index
202

liberalism: Holmes™s association with, Metaphysical Club, 41, 43, 94, 104; naming
138n3; principles of, 174 of, 105; origins of, 62; topics discussed
Liberalism and the Limits of Justice (Sandel), in, 64
Mill, John Stuart, 42, 43, 64
174
Miller, Samuel Freeman, 143“44, 145
Lincoln v. Dore, 141
line drawing: applications of, 140, 140n7; modernism, in American legal thought,
common law, 142; and common law 124
rule making, 161; and competing moral absolutes, legal concepts implying,
policies, 125; in constitutional context, 91
151; dif¬cult cases for, 146; and due morality: compared with external
process cases, 141; language of, standards as basis for law, 92;
123“24; and police power, 142; and customary, 160; and law, x; and
state regulation, 148 positive law, 87“88; and subjectivity,
Lochner v. New York, 45, 129, 131, 136, 139, 159
The Morality of Law (Fuller), 38
146, 148, 150, 151
Locke, John, 63 moral language, Holmes™s critique of, 111,
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 137, 138 128
logic: Aristotelian, 172; Hegelian, 173; and moral principles, status of, 58. See also
judicial questions, 120; in law, 120 principles
Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (Dewey), morals: law as separate from, 36, 59; and
legal decisions, 98; and legal
34
Long, Huey, 156 distinctions, 7; and legal positivism,
Long, John, 11 22. See also law and morals
lotteries, prohibition of, 149 moral sense theories, 40n33, 171n1
Lowell Lectures, 19, 64; The Common Law Morse, Robert M., 14n9
derived from, 92; Holmes™s Mugler v. Kansas, 145, 147, 148
evolutionary philosophy in, 91 Munn v. Illinois, 145
Lyons, David, 29“30, 165 Munroe, William Adams, 80

Magna Carta, 153 national conscience, and judicial decisions,
Maine, Sir Henry, 11, 21, 57, 58, 95, 159 6
maintenance: historical meaning of, 168; Nazi laws, 59
legislative de¬nition of, 169 Near v. Minnesota, 155
Maitland, Frederick, 95 negligence: as cause of action, 89; and
malice, legal, 91 concept of duty, 75“76; foreseeability
Mans¬eld, Lord, William Murray, 47, 88 of harm in, 90; Holmes™s
interpretation of, 76“77, 88
Marbury v. Madison, 154
Margolis, Joseph, 44 negligence latiori sensu, 75
Marshall, John, 153 “noncognitivism,” in law and morals, 171
Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. See norms, and moral criteria, 114. See also
Supreme Judicial Court of custom
Massachusetts Northern Securities v. United States, 31, 32,
master-servant relationship, 73, 83, 84 32n16, 115, 138, 139
maxims, in common law, 48 Norton, Charles E., 62
McKinley, William, 137 Novick, Sheldon, 24
meanings, in law, 120. See also law
“mechanical” jurisprudence, 120 Oakeshott, Michael, 100“101
Menand, Louis, 102 ontology, of law, 26, 44, 64, 99
Index 203

open system, law as, 26 Holmes™s correspondence with, 42,
“ordinary man,” Holmes™s view of, 138n3, 61“62, 104, 118; and legal
139. See also “prudent man” standard classi¬cation, 77
“originalists,” 15 popular assent, and legal interpretation,
“original understanding,” and judicial 172
review, 154 popular consensus, in legal interpretation,
Origin of Species (Darwin), 14, 64 3, 3n8
“popular constitutionalism,” 9
Otis v. Parker, 144, 147, 148, 149, 151
popular thought, and judicial decisions,
Parker, Joel, 14n9 174
Parsons, Talcott, x positive law, boundaries of, 65
“The Path of the Law” (Holmes), x, 8, 37, positivism, 113; contemporary, 44, 115;
de¬ning, 22, 96“97; early articulation
38, 41, 45, 119, 133, 160
of, 56; inclusive, 135; limitations of,
Patnoude v. New York, New Haven & Hartford
70; nature of law in, 26; pure, 58; and
Railroad, 123, 125, 146
separation of law and morals, 112;
Patterson v. Colorado, 155
Peckham, Rufus W., 148, 150, 151 twentieth-century, 41. See also legal
pedigree, notion of, 112 positivism
Peirce, Charles Sanders, 11, 14, 34, 38, 41, positivist trap, 35
43, 62, 64; conception of scienti¬c Posner, Richard A., 95
inquiry of, 110; Holmes™s recollection “possession,” essay on, 105
of, 63n5; in¬‚uence on Holmes of, 104; possession, law of, 105“6
Pragmatic Maxim set forth by, 105; possessory rights, 86“87
skepticism of, 107 Postema, Gerald J., x, 49, 102, 103, 107,
Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon, 139, 158, 163“64
Pragmatic Maxim, 105, 106, 110
150
pragmatism: American school of, 14;
The People Themselves: Popular
Holmes™s holistic, 38“39, 43; as school
Constitutionalism and Judicial Review
(Kramer), 5 of thought, 63; nineteenth-century,
personal rights, and Fourteenth 110
Amendment, 154 precedents: and applicable policy, 128;
picketing, rulings on, 127, 127n25 common law, 165; and common law
rule making, 161; and continuum of
Plant v. Woods, 130, 131, 132, 134, 150, 161
con¬‚icting activities, 162;
Plessy v. Ferguson, 2, 155
Pohlman, H. L., 17 distinguished from interests, 117;
police power: and constitutionalism, nonstatutory lines of, 168; powers
142“43; in state regulation, 144 embodied in, 101; reasoning from,
policy: and community standards, 120; in 168“69; reinterpretation of, 106
Holmes™s phraseology, 123; and “Primitive Notions in Modern Law”
judicial decisions, 119, 121; judicial (Holmes), 81, 84, 87, 122
response to, 122; standards of, 163 principles: of Anglo-American law, 158;
political theory, nature of reasoning in, con¬‚icting, 173; and continuum of
con¬‚icting activities, 162; eternal, 101,
173
politics: and judicial decisions, 164; and 107; Holmes on, 101; and judicial
Supreme Court decisions, 3 decisions, 112“13, 114, 116“17; moral,
Pollock, Frederick, 10, 50, 51n18, 68, 70, 58; in place of inquiry, 129; status of,
81, 95, 120, 158; on Beadel decision, 59
78; friendship with Holmes of, 71; privilege, common law of, 126“27
Index
204

“Privilege, Malice, and Intent” (Holmes), Richardson, Elliot L., x
118, 126, 128, 130, 132 Rideout v. Knox, 141
privity, essay on, 72, 75 Riggs v. Palmer, 112, 113, 114, 114n33, 115,
progress, and court rulings, 2 129, 150
property, constitutionally impermissible rights: Austin on, 66“67; con¬‚icts between
deprivations of, 141“42 legislative and constitutional, 147;
Holmes on, 67“68
The Province of Jurisprudence Determined
(Austin), 61 Roberts, Owen J., 156
“Proximate and Remote Cause,” 68 Roe v. Wade, 2
prudence: external standard of, 163; Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 101
standards of, 163; test of common, 158 Roosevelt, Theodore, 24, 119, 137, 138“39
“prudent man” standard, 41n33, 88, Roper v. Simmons, 2“3
Rosenberg, David, 24, 81
89“90, 108, 125
public inquiry, 170; common law as theory
of, 156; theory of, 146 Sandel, Michael J., 174
public policy: in jury determinations, 121; Scalia, Antonin, 3, 10, 44, 52, 173; A Matter
reason in, 109 of Interpretation, 165; on common law,
public pressure, of controversies, 145 10, 12, 47, 121, 153, 166“67, 168; and
public standards, and judicial restraint, independent judiciary, 167; and
statutory interpretation, 55, 166“67;
175“76
as textualist, 13, 168
racial segregation, 59 science, Holmes™s view of, 96
Rawls, John, 174 Scottish Enlightenment, 11, 14, 36n24,
Raz, Joseph, 4 41n3
reason: in common law, 49; and common Scottish realism, 63
law tradition, 108; and experience, 85; self-education, Holmes™s work as, 60
Holmesean, 109 servant, legal status of, 73. See also
reasonable man standard, 108, 158. See also master-servant relationship
“prudent man” standard Shattuck, George, 11, 80
reasonableness, subjective test of, 147 Shavell, Steven, 7, 8
reasoning: in political theory, 173; from Sherman Act, 32, 138, 139
precedent, 168“69 Simpson, A. W. B., 55
reconciling cases: after series of skepticism: about law™s formation and
determinations, 28; in common law usage, 21, 23; of analytical
theory, 34 classi¬cation, 157; and biases, 101; of
Reconstruction Congress, 15n14, 155 doctrinal certainty, 103“4; of empty
re¬nement, process of, 103 abstractions, 145; of ¬rst impressions,
103; Holmes™s, 102; and social inquiry,
Re¬‚ections by the Lord Chiefe Justice Hale on
Mr. Hobbes his Dialogue of the Lawe 107
(Hale), 50, 51, 52“53, 103, 111 Slaughter-House Cases, 144“45
“re¬‚ective equilibrium,” 174 Smith, Adam, 41n33
Reimann, Matthias, xi“xii social advantage: as emphasis on policy,
restraint, notion of, 110. See also judicial 120; of law, 39
restraint social con¬‚ict, recognition of, 111
retrospective generalization, Holmes™s social context: embedded in law, 16, 163;
model of, 163 and judicial decisions, 1, 7
Rhenquist Court, 12 social desirability, notion of, 175
Index 205

social desires: and con¬‚ict, 134; and Sunstein, Cass, 28, 125
judicial interpretation, 135 supremacy, assumption of judicial, 9
social mores, law and, 160 Supreme Court, U.S.: challenges to state
social welfare legislation, judicial law before, 143; Holmes™s
invalidation of, 8 appointment to, 24; laissez-faire
society, and law, 58 conservatives on, 151n36
sovereignty: boundary linked to, 66; debate The Supreme Court and the Idea of Progress
over, 67; deference to, 40; issue of, 65 (Bickel), 172
special interests: and judicial decisions, Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) of
116“17; and policy, 126; and Massachusetts, 8, 11; Holmes™s
precedent, 117 appointment to, 118; Holmes as Chief
speci¬cation: Holmes™s notion of, x; Justice on, 137; Holmes on, 119;
process of, 94n34 same-sex marriage decision of, 2
speech. See free speech surrender: law of, 83; money as alternative
Spencer, Herbert, 42 to, 85; and tort liability, 86
Stack v. New York, 175, 175n8 Swift v. Tyson, 166
standards: community, 151, 158, 161, 172; synchronic entity, law as, 59
developing and changing, 95; and jury
determinations, 159n7; and legal Taking Rights Seriously (Dworkin), 6, 98
interpretation, 172; objective, 139; of Taking the Constituion Away from the Courts
policy, 163; universal theory of (Tushnet), 5
externalizing, 126 Tasker v. Stanley, 126
standards of prudence, and burden of taxonomic analysis, law as, 59
injury, 134. See also “prudent man” teleology, judicial, 45
standard terminology: in moral law, 104; moral
overtones of legal, 91; of morals, 92
stare decisis, 56, 168, 169
state legislation: and Supreme Court, 151; textualism, 13; absolute, 170; in judicial
and Fourteenth Amendment, 139 decisions, 29; as judicial guide, 6;
state power: centralized view of, 95; and Straus on importance of, 153
due process, 144; law and, 160 textualists, 12
state regulation: constitutional deprivation texture: openness of, 165; open texture
by, 142“43; Fourteenth Amendment cases, 30
challenging, 151n36 Thayer, James Bradley, 4, 5, 11, 21
statutes: in common law, 48, 56“57; custom “The Theory of Torts” (Holmes), 71, 75,
and, 69; in mid-nineteenth century, 56 83, 84, 108, 120
statutory law, interpretation of, 165“66 “time for law,” 164
Stephen, James F., 51n18 timing: Holmes™s legal sense of, 33;
Strauss, David A., 152, 153, 163 judicial, 175; in judicial self-restraint,
“strict construction,” 13 72
subjectivism, and law, 36 Transcendentalism, 63
substantial damage, 33 “transparency,” in judicial opinions,
succession: law of, 86; problem of legal, 73 23
“successive approximation,” 88, 103; and “Trespass and Negligence” (Holmes), 88,
common law, 109; Holmes™s view of, 161
39; and negligence liability, 89; Tribe, Laurence, 13
process of, 28 Truax v. Corrigan, 146
Sunday laws, 149 Tushnet, Mark, 5, 119, 121
Index
206

Twentieth Massachusetts Regiment, 14n9, Vetter, Jan, 82
vicarious liability, doctrine of, 74
18

uncertainty: and judicial intervention, 33; Warner, Joseph B., 62, 62n5
and skepticism in law, 107 Warren, Earl, 155
union action, and courts, 130“31 Washburn, Emory, 14n9
union workers, rights of, 127 Western Europe, philosophers of, 23
Unitarianism, 63, 64 Whewell, William, 42
universals, Holmes™s critique of, 78n53 White, G. Edward, 93, 101, 158
usury laws, 149 White, Morton G., 37“38
utility: theory of, 66; utilitarian reform, 87, Wiener, Philip, 105
Will, Frederick L., 115n33
111
Willey, Basil, 23
values: and judicial decisions, 113“14, 116; Wood, Gordon S., 13, 167
law without, 59; moral, 98“99 Wright, Chauncey, 11, 12n4, 14, 38, 43, 44,
62, 63, 68, 105; critique of teleology
Vegelahn v. Guntner, 127“28, 129, 129n29,
of, 45; early in¬‚uence of, 41“42, 104;
130, 131, 134, 149, 161
vengeance: and ancient liability, 84; and and scienti¬c knowledge, 64
theories of liability, 92 Wright, Horatio, 18

<< . .

 23
( 23)



Copyright Design by: Sunlight webdesign