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Collections
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Papers, Harvard Law School Library, Cambridge,
Massachusetts.
Index




Abbot, Francis E., 62n5 Austin, John, 11, 14n9, 16, 18, 38, 85, 92,
abstraction, in legal theory, 20 94, 95; analytical positivism of, 96;
abstractions of law, coercive power of, 110 command de¬nition of, 68; on
abstract rights, status of, 58 consistency of law, 122; critique of,
activism, and restraint, 33. See also judicial 104, 120, 158, 174; and custom, 69; on
restraint duty vs. rights, 68; and law and morals,
admiralty law, liability in, 83 159; Lectures on Jurisprudence of, ix, 66,
af¬rmative action, judicial decisions on, 2 72, 112; legal classi¬cation offered by,
77, 128, 157; legal order of, 111, 545;
A History of the Common Law of England
(Hale), 54 legal positivism of, 39, 57, 58, 61,
Aleinikoff, Alexander, 124 65“66, 171; revolutionary
Alschuler, Albert W., xi“xii; on law and jurisprudence of, 64; on separation of
morals, 59; Law without Values, xi, 17; law and morals, 36, 87, 160; on unitary
and moral realism, 101 system of authority, 21
A Matter of Interpretation (Scalia), 13, 153,
Bacon, Francis, 42
165
America, nineteenth-century, 47 Bain, Alexander, 64
American law, nature of, 26“27. See also law balancing test, 124, 124n18
American Law Review, Holmes™s editorship Beadel v. Perry, 32, 32n17, 76, 78, 142,
of, 60 147
American Philosophical Association, xi beliefs: and judicial decisions, 116; and
analytical positivist tradition, 18. See also judicial opinions, 113“14
positivism “benevolent yearning,” 150
Ancient Law (Maine), 14n9 Bentham, Jeremy, 14n9, 21, 66, 67, 94, 545;
Anglo-American law: origins of, 30; on common law, 55; utilitarian reform
principles of, 158. See also law of, 111
anthropological document, law as, 97n45 Berkeley, George, 63
“The Arrangement of the Law. Privity,” 72 Bickel, Alexander, 2, 172
A Theory of Justice (Rawls), 174 Bill of Rights, and originalists, 154
Atiyah, P. S., 80, 82, 93, 159n7 Bix, Brian, 96, 97, 115


195
Index
196

Blackstone, Sir William, 18, 48, 49, 69 wisdom in, 107; and decentralized
naturalistic ethics, 36n24; as
Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Law and
Legal Theory (Bix), 97 delayed-action measuring device,
125; early theorists and, 55;
Black & White Taxi Co. v. Brown & Yellow
foundation for, 163“64; Hobbes™s
Taxi Co., 166
Bork, Robert H., 150 rejection of, 20; Holmes™s
boundary, notion of, 64 interpretation of, 47; Holmes™s
Bowen, Francis, 12n4, 62n5 transformation of, 13“14, 18; and
Brandeis, Louis, 61 interpretation of Constitution, 152;
Breyer, Stephen G., 12, 13 and judicial authority, 56; and law and
business, and organized labor, 119, 120 morals, 114; and legal indeterminacy,
business men, as judges, 88 27; and maturing lines of precedent,
146; modi¬cation of, 115; objective
California Constitution, 147 standard of liability in, 148;
Cambridge, Massachusetts, perspectives on, 55; pervasive
nineteenth-century, 11, 63 collective wisdom in, 108; philosophy
of, ix; privilege and, 126; reason in, 49;
Cantwell v. Connecticut, 155
capital punishment, Roper decision on, 2“3 role for judges in, 35; Scalia™s view of,
Carter, James Coolidge, 160 13, 153, 166“67, 168; skepticism of
central authority, Holmes™s defense of, 47, moral terminology in, 102“3; and
statutory construction, 167; in
54
certainty, gradations of, 135. See also statutory context, 140n7; and
uncertainty textualism, 13; theory of, 16, 85; as
change: Holmes™s focus on, 159; law as theory of public inquiry, 156; and
process of, 76 timing for, 164
The Common Law (Holmes), ix, 8, 14, 19,
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway v.
Minnesota, 144, 145 54, 60, 80, 85, 88, 92, 119, 157; Beadel
Civil Rights Act (1964), 2 decision cited in, 78; de¬ciencies of,
Civil War, American, 13, 17“18, 94 15; Dicey™s comments on, 12, 86; essay
classi¬cation. See legal classi¬cation on common carriers in, 121;
“clear and present danger,” test for, 176 experience vs. logic in, 111, 120;
“Codes, and the Arrangement of the Law” negligence in, 89; on premature
(Holmes), 67 judicial intervention and resolution,
codi¬cation: Bentham™s call for, 67; essay 15; reaction to, 160; reviews of, 10, 93;
on, 57; Pollock™s view on, 71“72 theory of liability in, 81, 82
Coke, Sir Edward, 18, 102, 109; on common law method, 166; as approach to
common law, 46, 47, 48; on custom constitutional interpretation, 152“53;
and law, 50, 50n17; on duty vs. rights, as case-speci¬c inquiry, 19; elements
68; Hobbes™s attack on, 50; on process of, 141; revision of, 163; and textual
of re¬nement, 103 interpretation, 164“65
Cold War, 59 common law theory, 18; classical, 59, 90;
collective insight, notion of, 107 compared with legal positivism, 29;
common carriers, Holmes™s essay on, 121 critical inquiry in, 34“35; early
common law: as acentric legal order, 57; articulation of, 56; Holmes™s, 166;
and analytical classi¬cation, 157; supreme legal authority in, 40
Blackstone™s interpretation of, 48; Commonwealth v. Churchill et al., 140n7, 165,
case-speci¬c method of, 150; collective 167, 169
Index 197

communitarianism, 174 contract law: and liability theory, 93; state
community inquiry: and common law, 163; law limiting, 149, 150
concept of, xi Corwin, Edward S., 144, 145, 153
community standards: and constitutional criminal cases, protection of defendants in,
liability, 151; judicial deference to, 155
161; in jury determinations, 158; and criminal law, and liability theory, 93
legal interpretation, 172 critical inquiry, law as, 34
competition, free, 129, 131“32 culpability, and liability, 83. See also liability
The Concept of Law (Hart), 38, 112, 113 custom, notion of: Austin™s view of, 68; in
conceptualist tradition, opposition to, common law, 48, 49, 53; Hale™s
de¬nition of, 53“54; Holmes on, 68;
122“23
conduct, from moral to external standards in jury determinations, 90; and
of, 58. See also standards process of rule making, 109“10
confessions, forced, 175 cynicism, and skepticism in law, 108. See
con¬‚ict: and common-law rule making, also skepticism
161; Holmes™s response to, 138;
between legislative and constitutional Darwin, Charles, 42, 64, 105
rights, 147; and role of law, 53; social, Darwinian evolution, 94
Davidson, Thomas, 62n5
111
consensus, revisable formation of, 108 Davidson v. Board of Administrators of New
consequentialist theory of law, 152n39 Orleans, 143
Constitution, U.S.: and judicial process, 3; decision making, case-speci¬c method of,
and judicial review, 153n44; and legal 103. See also judicial decisions
tradition, 174. See also speci¬c De Jonge v. Oregon, 155
democratic inquiry, Dewey™s theory of,
amendments
constitutional adjudication, derived from 109
common law, 17 democratic theory, central government in,
constitutionalism: and common law, 139, 54
152“53; and economic theory, 149; Descartes, Ren´ , 63
e
popular, 139 determinism, assumption of judicial, 9
constitutional jurisdiction, expansion of, Dewey, John, 34, 37, 44, 53, 109;
anti-Cartesianism of, 43; on legal
45
constitutional language, 116 process, 30“31; on nature of law, 26
constitutional law: in England, 48“49; Dialogue (Hobbes), 46“47, 51“52
Holmes™s approach to, 34; and public Dicey, Albert Venn, 10, 12, 16, 21, 22, 86, 93
controversy, 140“41; values in, 175“76 dispute, and role of law, 53
constitutional liability, community dissenting opinions, value of, 146
standard and, 151. See also liability due process, 136, 147; as common law
constitutional rights, 106; emerging concept, 153; development of
consensus to, 174; and legislative substantive, 145; and enforcement of
rights, 147; limited, 151; as matters of law, 145; expansion of, 156; federal,
degree, 142; popular foundation for, 143; and state regulation, 144
due process clause, analysis of, 144
174
constitutional theory, Holmes™s, 152n39 Durkheim, Emile, x
contextualists, 12. See also textualism duty, concept of, 71; Austin™s preference
contract: evolution of legal relations from for, 66“67; Holmes on, 67“70; and
status to, 57; free, 129 legal classi¬cation, 72, 75
Index
198

Dworkin, Ronald, 4, 6, 13, 18, 58, 65, 98, substantive content into, 142; state
129, 135, 150, 173; on law and morals, regulatory laws challenged under,
113; and legal indeterminacy, 115; on 151n36; word “liberty” in, 150
legal positivism, 96; on pedigree of Frankfurter, Felix, 4, 5, 101
legal rules, 112 fraud, 90“91
free contract: and common law, 129; rights
economic theory: general propositions of, of, 129
149; laissez-faire, 106 free speech: clear and present danger test
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 42, 43 for, 176; and Fourteenth Amendment,
eminent domain, right of, 141 155
employees, rights of, 127 Freund, Paul A., ix, 2, 156, 157
England: common law in, 176; Friedman, Lawrence, 55
sixteenth-century, 163; Fuller, Lon L., 31, 38, 44, 113, 160;
seventeenth-century, 54, 55; challenge to Hart of, 65; on moral
eighteenth-century, 55 principles and abstract rights, 58
Erie Railroad v. Tomkins, 166
eternal principles: Holmes on, 101; judges™ Gilmore, Grant, 138n3
reliance on, 107. See also principles Gitlow v. New York, 155
ethical standards, and law, 88. See also law Glendon, Mary Ann, 13
and morals; standards Grant, Ulysses S., 18
Europe, “common law” of, 19 Gray, Asa, 64
Everett, C. C., 62n5 Gray, Horace, 137
evolutionary theory, Holmes™s, 94, 94n35 Gray, John Chipman, 15
experience, in law, 120 Green, Nicholas St. John, 11, 62, 62n5, 64;
expository tradition, 71n36 as in¬‚uence on Holmes, 104; on
externalizing standards, universal theory liability for personal injury, 68
of, 126. See also liability Greenhouse, Linda, 12
Grutter v. Bollinger, 2, 2n3
Fairness vs. Welfare (Kaplow and Shavell), 7 guilt, Austin™s use of term, 88, 88n18
fallibilism, 47, 110n26
federal courts, controlling nominations Hale, Sir Matthew, 18, 48, 85, 102“3; on
to, 9. See also Supreme Court, U.S. custom, 53“54, 69; on duty vs. rights,
Fifth Amendment: due process clause of, 68; and Hobbes™s view of common law,
141, 143; jurisdiction of, 176 50“51; Re¬‚ections, 50, 51, 52“53, 65,
First Amendment, jurisdiction of, 176 102“3, 111
Fisch, Max, 41 Hamilton, William, 42, 63
Fiske, John, 62n5 Hand, Learned: and free speech in
¬‚ag salute case, 1943, 5 time of war, 4; on Supreme Court
jurisdiction, 5
folcright, 48
foresight: and liability, 88“89; test of, 91 harm, foreseeability of, 88“89
Fourteenth Amendment, 15, 15n14; and Hart, H. L. A., ix, 4, 16, 18, 29, 30, 58,
constitutional restraint, 117; due 164“65; The Concept of Law, 113;
process clause of, 25, 139, 141, 143, Dworkin™s attack on, 113; and legal
146, 147; and free speech, indeterminacy, 115; on legal language,
155; judicial inquiry under, 163; 51; on legal rules, 70; positivism of,
jurisdiction of, 176; language of, 154; 44, 96, 112, 171; revival of legal
and personal rights, 154; reading positivism by, 37; “Rule of
Index 199

Recognition” of, 97, 98; legal views of: on common law, 27“28;
and separation between law and con¬‚ict in, 21“22; constitutional law
morals, 96“97, 171n1 tradition, 18; deference to sovereign
Hartshorne, Charles, 63n5 power, 37; on growth of law, 31; and
Harvard Law School, 13, 60 Hobbesian tradition, 22; on
Harvard Law School Association of New indeterminate cases, 32; law as critical
York, 135 inquiry, 34; on negligence, 76“77; on
Hayek, F. A., 16n15, 160 process-orientation of law, 92; role of
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 87 timing in, 3; on sovereignty, 65; on
Hegelian logic, 173 standards of liability, 79
Hemenway, Albert, 137 Lowell Lectures, 19, 64, 91, 92
personal characteristics of, 6“7, 138, 162
Henningsen v. Bloom¬eld Motors, Inc., 112,

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