International Conference on Systems Sciences.
33. Espinosa, A. & Carmel, E. (Forthcoming). The impact of time separation on coordination in global
software teams: a conceptual foundation. Journal of Software Process Improvement and Practice.
34. Adapted from Espinosa, A. & Carmel, E. (2004). Ibid.
35. Espinosa, J. A., Cummings, J. N., Wilson, J. M. & Pearce, B. M. (2003). Team boundary issues
across multiple global ´¬ürms. Journal of Management Information Systems, 19(4), 157ÔÇ“190.
36. Grinter, R. E., Herbsleb J. D. & Perry, D. E. (1999). The geography of coordination: dealing
with distance in R&D work. International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group
Work (Group 99), Phoenix, Arizona, ACM Press.
37. Daft, R. L. & Lengel, R. H. (1986). Organizational information requirements, media richness
and structural design. Management Science, 32(5), 554ÔÇ“571.
38. Even a promising technology like application sharing is somewhat limited because there is only
one ÔÇťappÔÇŁ open at a time. Note that when we work face-to-face there is also pointing, tone of
voice, and other non-textual messages.
39. There are many who study the impacts of new software tools on software productivity. For
example, Software Engineering researchers meet yearly at the Global Software Development
workshop that is part of the International Conference on Software Engineering.
40. Knowledge management (KM) systems are now in practice at the Tier-1 IT providers. For exam-
ple, by the early 2000s Indian-based provider Infosys introduced a corporate-wide KM system
with incentives called knowledge currency (KC) to encourage inputs by its software engineers.
Some projects even had a designated KM coordinator.
41. Partially based on Hinds, P. & Weisband, S. (2003). Knowledge sharing and shared under-
standing in virtual teams. In: Gibson, C. B & Cohen, S. G. (eds), Virtual Teams that Work,
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
42. The 2003 study was repeated in 2004. The ´¬ürst study appeared in: Lu, M., Wynn, E., Watson-
Manheim, B. & Chudoba, K. (2003). Understanding virtuality in a global organization: toward
a virtuality index. 24th International Conference in Information Systems.
43. 2004 Intel data suggests that this number is underestimating the scale of coordination.
44. In this vein see: Resnick, P. (2002). Beyond bowling together: socio-technical capital. In: Carroll,
J. M. (ed.), HumanÔÇ“Computer Interaction in the New Millennium. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
267 End notes
45. Best practices for selecting the right people is based on: Majchrzak, A. & Malhotra, A. (2003).
Deploying Far Flung Teams: A Guidebook for Managers. Society for Information Management,
May. And on: Blackburn, R., Furst, S. & Rosen, B. (2003). Building a winning virtual team.
In: Gibson, C. B. & Cohen, S. G. (eds), Virtual Teams That Work, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
46. A useful set of tips for choosing another type of loner ÔÇ“ teleworkers (telecommuters) was com-
piled at Cisco. Cisco is one of the most distributed American technology companies and has an
active telecommuting program. See: Smart Valley Telecommuting Guide http://www.cisco.com/
47. Carmel outlined the selection criteria for the Global Team Manager above and beyond other tra-
ditional leadership qualities. These ´¬üve criteria were represented in the acronym MERIT: Multi-
culturalist (the ability to switch cultures); Electronic-facilitator (the ability to manage via
technology); Recognition promoter (seeking support for the distant sites at headquarters);
Internationalist (conversant in the political-economic issues of team sites); and ´¬ünally, Traveler
(an easy traveler). Carmel (1999), Ibid.
48. Herbsleb, J. D. & Mockus, A. (2003). An empirical study of speed and communication in glob-
ally-distributed software development. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 29(3), 1ÔÇ“14.
49. This discussion of dependencies is but a derivation of Dave ParnasÔÇ™ classic essay on modularity
and cohesion in software programs. Parnas, D. L. (1972). On the criteria to be used in decom-
posing systems into modules. Communications of the ACM. 15(12).
50. Conways Law appears in: Conway, M. E. (1968). How do committees invent? Datamation, 14(4).
51. Architectures for distributing work in software development is based on: Grinter, R. E.,
Herbsleb, J. D. & Perry, D. E. (1999). The geography of coordination: dealing with distance in
R&D work. Proceedings of International ACM SIGGROUP Conference Supporting Group
Work, pp. 306ÔÇ“315.
52. Krishnamurthy, S. (2002). Cave of community? An empirical examination of 100 mature open
source projects. First Monday, 7(6), June. www.´¬ürstmonday.org/issues/issue7_6/
1. The study appears in: Swigger, K., Alpaslan, F., Brazile, R. & Monticino, M. (2004). Effects of cul-
ture on computer-supported international collaborations. International Journal of HumanÔÇ“Computer
Studies, 60, 365ÔÇ“380.
2. Hofstede, G. (2003). Lecture at American University, Washington D.C. AuthorÔÇ™s notes, July.
3. HofstedeÔÇ™s seminal study should be particularly validating to readers of this book, because his
data were derived from a very large sample of IBM employees in of´¬üces around the world. Thus,
in spite of all of them being both members of the computer culture as well as members of the
IBM organizational culture, the individuals could still be grouped across major national cultural
orientations. Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of
Management Executive, 7(1), 81ÔÇ“93. Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations:
Software of the Mind. London: McGraw Hill.
4. Our recommendations for practical and enjoyable books on cultural differences: Nisbett, R. E.
(2003). The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently and Why.
NY: The Free Press. Schneider, S. C. & Barsoux, J. Managing Across Cultures. London:
Prentice Hall 1997. Hampden-Turner, C. & Trompenaars, A. (1993). The seven cultures of
capitalism. New York: Currency Doubleday.
268 End notes
5. Yet another implication of the relationship orientation is the need to save face which is very
strong in most collectivist cultures. Be careful criticizing people in a group; generally this
should be done individually.
6. Hampden-Turner, C. & Trompenaars, A. (1993). The Seven Cultures of Capitalism. New York:
Currency Doubleday. Trompenaars, F. & Woolliams, P. (2004). Business Across Cultures. Capstone.
7. Nisbett, R. E. (2003). The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently
and Why. NY: The Free Press.
8. The table is adapted from the one appearing in: Bennett, M. (1998). Intercultural communication:
a current perspective. In: Bennett, M. (ed.), Basic Concepts of Intercultural Communication:
Selected Readings; Intercultural Press.
9. Constantine, L. (1995). Constantine on Peopleware. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Yourdon Press.
10. This section bene´¬üted from two sources: Shewell, C. (2000). Good Business Communication
Across Cultures. Briston, UK: Mastek; And from presentations and discussions with Lu Ellen
Schafer who authored a case later in this chapter.
11. The humorous table ÔÇťWhat the English really meanÔÇŁ has been in popular usage by culture train-
ers for decades. We were not able to determine the original author.
12. Johansson, C., Dittrich, Y., & Juustila, A. (1999). Software engineering across boundaries ÔÇ“
student project in distributed collaboration. Working Paper, University of Karlskrona, Sweden.
13. Lu Ellen Schafer is the author of the case study at the end of this chapter.
14. Massey, A. P., Montoya-Weiss, M., Hung, C. & Ramesh, V. (2001). Global virtual teams: cultural
perceptions of task-technology ´¬üt. Communications of the ACM, 44(12), 83ÔÇ“84.
15. Kiel, L. K. (2003). Experiences in distributed development: a case study. Proceedings of the
International Workshop in Global Software Development, International Conference on Software
16. Peters, P. & den Dulk, L. (2003). Cross cultural differences in managersÔÇ™ support for home-based
telework: a theoretical elaboration. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 3(3), 329.
17. Intercultural Press (Interculturalpress.com) has an excellent selection of books on communicat-
ing with speci´¬üc cultures, such as ÔÇťEncountering the Chinese,ÔÇŁ ÔÇťFrom Da to Yes,ÔÇŁ (for commu-
nicating with Russians), and ÔÇťAmerican Interactions with Israelis.ÔÇŁ
18. Edward T. Hall, author of The Silent Language (1959) and The Hidden Dimension
(1969), identi´¬üed two classic dimensions of culture. Based on his experience in the Foreign
Service, his high and low concept refers to the way information is transmitted, or communicated.
19. At the end of the 1990s, Baan got into serious problems and was ´¬ürst acquired by British based
Invensys, and later by US-based SSA Global.
1. Demand for offshore services will continue growing by roughly 20% a year. Meta Group
(2004). METAspectrum Report on the Offshore Outsourcing Market, October.
2. Lanvin, B. & Quian, C. Z. (2004). Poverty e-readication: using ICT to meet millennium devel-
opment goals. In Dutta, S., Lancin, B. & Paua, F. (ed.) The Global Information Technology
Report 2003ÔÇ“2004. Oxford University Press.
3. Kraemer, K. & Dedrick, J. (1999). National policies for the information age: IT and Economic
Development. Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations. University of
269 End notes
4. Nollen, S. (2004). Intellectual property in the Indian software industry: past role and future
need. Paper distributed at the IIPI Conference Strategies for Building Software Industries in
Developing Countries, Hawaii, May.
5. There are Indian ´¬ürms successfully exporting software products. They include i-´¬‚ex solutions
and RiteChoice Technologies (´¬ünancial packages), Eastern Software Systems (ERP software)
and Sasken Communication Technologies (telecom products).
6. The discussion of Sri Lanka is based on input from Raja Mitra.
7. Voice over IP, which routes calls over the Internet rather than over traditional telephone circuits.
8. The section on bene´¬üts from software exports is based in part on: Carmel, E. (2003). The new
software exporting nations: impacts on national well being resulting from their software export-
ing industries. Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 13(3), 1ÔÇ“6.
And on Arora, A. & Athreye, S. (2001). The software industry and indiaÔÇ™s economic develop-
ment. United Nations University, Wider Discussion Paper.
9. Job creation is also signi´¬ücant in the IT-enabled services (ITES) sector, which requires educated
workers in export-focused knowledge services. In 2004, the Indian sector has 245,000 workers,
such as in call centers and administrative functions. This sector is also growing fast in other
countries. In 2003, there were more than 400 call centers in South Africa, offering employment
to almost to 80,000 people (including black Africans). It is estimated that the number of jobs
work will increase by more than 200% until 2007. UNCTAD, World Investment Report 2004.
The Shift Towards Services. United Nations, New York and Geneva, 2004. The ITES sector cre-
ates opportunities to young women who would have remained unemployed or would have set-
tled for a less lucrative profession. In Indian call centers, the proportion of women is estimated
at 38ÔÇ“68 percent. A job in this sector gives them new con´¬üdence and social empowerment, as
has not been experienced ever before. It assures a woman, in her twenties, a quality of working
life that is much better than what she could have had in traditional feminized occupations.
Mitter, S. (2004). Offshore Outsourcing of Information Processing Work and Economic Empower-
ment of Women, Presentation at the World Bank, Washington, June 2.
10. Behrens, A. (2003). Brazilian software: the quest for an export-oriented business strategy.
11. Heeks, R. (1996). IndiaÔÇ™s Software Industry. State Policy, Liberalisation and Industrial
Development. Sage Publications.
12. Parthasarathi, A. & Joseph, K. J. (2004). Innovation under export orientation. In: DÔÇ™Costa,
A. P. & Sridharan, E. (ed.), India in the Global Software Industry.
13. Net earnings from exports are lower than the gross foreign exchange earnings. This is due to
expenses related to international travel, living allowances of software workers who undertake
their contracts overseas, foreign marketing, multinational pro´¬üt repatriation, and importation of
hardware and software. Indian net earnings are estimated to be around 55% of the gross ´¬ügures.
Joseph, K.J. (2002). Growth of ICT and ICT for Development. Realities of the Myths of the
Indian Experience. United Nations University, WIDER Discussion Paper No. 2002/78.
14. Carmel, E. (2003). The new software exporting nations: success factors. Electronic Journal on
Information Systems in Developing Countries, 13(4), 1ÔÇ“12.
15. We often see too optimistic exports targets drafted in national IT strategies. The ´¬ürst REACH
initiative of 1999, the strategy for Jordanian ICT development, stated the goal of IT exports
of 550 million USD by 2004. This goal has been revised to 100 million USD by 2006.
16. Parthasarathi, A. & Joseph, K. J. (2004). Ibid. Supra note 12.
17. Reichgelt, H. (2000). Software engineering services for export and small developing countries.
Information Technology for Development, 9(2), 77ÔÇ“90.
18. NASSCOM (2004). www.nasscom.org
270 End notes
19. Liu, X. (2004). Technology policy, human resource and chinese software industry. Proceedings
of IIPI Strategies for Building Software Industries in Developing Countries. Hawaii, May.
20. Terdiman, R. (2001). CIO Update: A World of Choices for Application Outsourcing. Gartner
InSide, December 5.
21. Nicholson, B. & Sahay, S. (2003). Building IranÔÇ™s software industry: an assessment of plans and
prospects. Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 13(6), 1ÔÇ“19.
22. Behrens, A. (2003). Brazilian software: the quest for an export-oriented business strategy. In:
Commander, S. (ed.), The Origins and Dynamics of the Software Industry in Emerging Market.
23. Bruell, N. (2003). Exporting software from Indonesia. Electronic Journal on Information
Systems in Developing Countries, 13(7), 1ÔÇ“9.
24. Nguyen, T. D. (2004). Software industry development in Vietnam. Paper distributed at the IIPI
Conference Strategies for Building Software Industries in Developing Countries, Hawaii, May.
25. Tjia, P. (2003). The software industry in Bangladesh and its links to The Netherlands. Electronic
Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 13(5), 1ÔÇ“8.
26. The assumptions used to tabulate the number of IT graduates per year vary quite a bit. These
numbers should be viewed with caution.
27. Dijk M. P. van & Wang, Q. (2003). The development of a software cluster in Nanjing. Paper for
the EADI workshop on October 30ÔÇ“31, Novara, Italy.
28. Kripalani, M. & Engardio, P. (2003). The Rise of India, BusinessWeek, December 8.
29. Indians and Chinese started one-third of technology companies in Silicon Valley between 1995
and 2000. Based on research of Saxenian, quoted in: Immigrant Entrepreneurs and the Bay Area
Economy: How Human Capital from Asia Places the Bay Area at the Heart of New Global
Networks. Bay Area Economic Forum, Panel Discussion, Spring 2003.
30. Florida, R. (2002). The Rise of the Creative Class: And How its Transforming Work, Leisure,
Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books.
31. The Business Software Alliance estimates the piracy rates in 2003 in Vietnam, China, and
Indonesia at around 90%.
32. The internal use of IT in India is still limited. According to NASSCOM, the Indian software and
services exports over 2003ÔÇ“2004 were 12.5 billion USD; the domestic market was only 3.4
33. Behrens, A. (2003). Brazilian software: the quest for an export-oriented business strategy. In:
Commander, S. (ed.), The Origins and Dynamics of the Software Industry in Emerging Markets.
1. The Guardian (2003). Xansa retreats from the continent. December 5.
2. Wells, J. (1998). IT Services. A Handbook for Exporters from Developing Countries.
International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO, Geneva.
3. Sridharan, E. (2004). Evolving towards innovation? the recent evolution and future trajectory of
the Indian software industry. In: DÔÇ™Costa, A. P. & Sridharan, E. (eds), India in the Global
4. Screen design is culturally sensitive. An example is the use of colors. Too many colors, espe-
cially those that are too bright, are jarring to the Western eye.
5. The Indian NASSCOM sells reasonably priced market intelligence reports on a large number of
countries and regions (e.g. Latin America, US, Australia, and Europe). It also publishes reports
271 End notes
on competing countries (e.g. Russia, Ireland, South Africa, and The Philippines). These reports
are useful when considering new markets.
6. Tjia, P. (2004). Offshore Outsourcing. GPI Consultancy, Markt Rapport, in Dutch, February.
7. Coward, C. T. (2003). Looking beyond India: factors that shape the global outsourcing decisions
of small- and medium-sized companies in America. Electronic Journal on Information Systems
in Developing Countries, 13(11), 1ÔÇ“2.
8. Nicholson, B. & Sahay, S. (2003). Building IranÔÇ™s software industry: an assessment of plans and
prospects. Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 13(6), 1ÔÇ“19.
9. Behrens, A. (2003). Brazilian software: the quest for an export-oriented business strategy. In:
Commander S. (ed.), The Origins and Dynamics of the Software Industry in Emerging Markets.
10. Major e-marketplaces are Elance, ProjectPool, Rent A Coder, Scriptlance, and Smarterwork.
11. Tjia, P. (1999). Market Survey ÔÇ“ Computer Software and IT Services from Developing
Countries. CBI Rotterdam.
12. Moore, S. & Martorelli, W. (2004). Indian Offshore Suppliers: The Market Leaders. Forrester
Market Overview, April, 7.
13. See http://www.intellectuk.org/groups/offshore/offshore_code_of_conduct.pdf
14. InfoTech (1992). International studies of Software and Related Services. IndiaÔÇ™s Software and
Services Export Potential and Strategies. The World Bank-funded Report for the Department
of Electronics Government of India. Volume I and II. New Jersey: InfoTech Consulting Inc.
15. The 2004 survey of Transparency International lists many other offshore nations as well. The
Nordic countries, New Zealand, and The Netherlands are among the least corrupt.
16. International Trade Centre (2002). Country Pro´¬üle: Lithuania. Geneva.
17. Individual country associations usually strengthen their position by participating in both
regional and global associations, such as Asia-Oceania Computing Industry Organization
(ASOCIO). The dominant international organization is World Information Technology and
Services Association (WITSA), a consortium of 60 IT industry associations from different
countries. WITSA activities include promoting policies for industry growth and development,
facilitating international trade and investment, sharing bene´¬ücial knowledge and experience,
creating a worldwide contact network, and hosting speci´¬üc world ICT events.
18. Elevator pitches are presentations to make others interested in your services. They are very
short, as in the 30 seconds duration in an accidental encounter in an elevator.
1. McCarthy, J. C. (2002). 3.3 million US service jobs to go offshore. Forrester News Brief,
November 11, www.forrester.com
2. Forecast by The Australian Computer Society 2003.
3. Hira, R. (2003). On the offshoring of high-skilled jobs. Testimony to the US House of
Representatives Committee on Small Business, October 20.
4. Economic Policy Institute, Offshoring, Frequently Asked Questions. Accessed June 2004.
5. Lieberman, J. (2004). Offshore Outsourcing and AmericaÔÇ™s Competitive Edge: Losing Out in the
High Technology R&D and Services Sectors. Of´¬üce of US Senator Lieberman, May 11.
6. Deloitte Research (2004). Making the Off-shore Call: The Road Map for Communications
Operators. Research Report.
272 End notes
7. The happy ending: The hiring ´¬ürm was very pleased with the four programmers hired and
quickly raised the salaries of some. Gumpert, D. E. (2003). US programmes at overseas salaries.
BusinessWeek Online, December 2.
8. Foote Partners data as appears in: LaFave, R. (2004). Career watch. Computerworld, July 5, 2004.
9. By comparison, German labor markets are less ´¬‚exible due to the cumbersome labor laws. Only
40% are re-employed according the Economist (2004). Offshoring: more gain than pain. July 17.
10. US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2004). Extended mass layoffs associated
with domestics and overseas relocations, ´¬ürst quarter 2004. News Release, June 10.
11. Tjia, P. (2004). Offshore Outsourcing. GPI Consultancy, Markt Rapport, in Dutch, February.
12. Agrawal, V. & Farrell, D. (2004). Who wins in offshoring. McKinsey Quarterly, Number 4.
13. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2004). World Investment Report 2004:
The Shift to Services. www.unctad.org
14. Cooper, C. (2004). Poll shows support for offshoring tax. CNET News.com, May 4.
15. Computing Research Association data as appears in: Kessler, M. (2004). Fewer college students
choose computer majors. USA Today, August 8.
16. Lohr, S. (2004). Microsoft, amid dwindling interest, talks up computing as a career. New York
Times, March 1.
17. Karnitschnig, M. (2004). Vaunted German engineers face competition from China. New York
Times, July 15.
18. AeA Offshore Outsourcing in an Increasingly Competitive and Rapidly Changing World: A
High-Tech Perspective, Report, 2004.
19. Lieberman (2004). Ibid.
20. Lieberman, J. (2004). Lieberman Calls Offshore Outsourcing of US Jobs Tip of Economic
Iceberg. Press Release, US Senate, May 11.
21. Ricciuti, M., Frauenheim & Yamamoto. (2004). The next battle´¬üelds of advanced technology,
CNET News.com, May 7.
22. Bonvillian, W. (2004). Offshoring Policy Options. Speech given at National Academies. STEP
Board, February 20.
A.T. Kearney, 52, 73 Bangalore, 21, 22, 27, 30, 32, 72, 80, 97, 108, 109,
Abdullah II, king of Jordan, 199, 211 187, 212, 214, 217, 236
ABN Amro Bank, 23, 29, 54, 58, 66 Bangladesh, 34, 51, 70, 88, 200, 211, 212, 213, 214,
Accenture, 21, 27, 30, 222 217, 227, 231, 237, 239
access to new markets. See new market access Bank of America, 29
accounting services, 204, 206 Bank of Ireland, 241
Acquired Rights Directive, 114 Bapu, K., 193
acquisition of companies, 27, 96, 223 Barclays Bank, 87
Africa, 29, 30, 177, 178, 205, 216, 231 Barrett, C., 244
Agarwal, R., 8 Basis (Bangladesh), 238
agent, 60, 217, 227, 228, 229 Bayer, 88
agglomeration. See clustering Bayman, S., 109
agility, 11, 55, 98, 160 Beijing, 99, 214
airline and hotel reservations, 28, 205 Belarus, 86, 219, 231
Alcatel, 86 Belgium, 70, 87, 146, 235, 239
alliance, 105, 214, 229, 239 benchmark, 29, 35, 41, 42, 54, 57, 106, 127
Amdocs, 24 Bennett, M., 180
American Express, 18, 29, 30 Berne Convention, 113
American-Born Chinese (ABCs), 217 Beulen, E., 130
Andhra Pradesh, 201, 236 Bhubaneshwar, 212
animation, 28, 207 biotechnology, 237
Apple, 98 Birlasoft, 109
Aptech, 87 blended charge rate, 78. See also charge rate
architectural drawings, 28 BMW, 22
Argentina, 27, 74, 117, 216 body language, 12, 151, 176
Armenia, 239 body shopping, 34, 106
Asian Development Bank (ADB), 240 Bonvillian, W., 248
Asia-Oceania Computing Industry Organization brain drain, 81, 86, 207, 208, 247
(ASOCIO), 271 brand recognition, 219, 222, 236
Asocpor (Czech Republic), 238 Brazil, 5, 8, 23, 27, 32, 70, 74, 200, 211, 212, 218,
Atos Origin, 27, 130, 146 227, 231
attrition, 38, 39, 48, 104, 137 Breukink, L., 190
Australia, 8, 32, 74, 117, 216, 222, 243 British Airways, 21, 29, 100, 206
automation of software development, 7 British Telecom, 18, 21, 29
autonomy, 195 Broadengate Systems, 105
AXA, 86 BS 7799, 142
budget, 39, 40, 43, 56, 67, 221
Baan, 23, 193, 194, 195, 209 bugs, 12, 57, 59, 133, 160
back-of´¬üce work, 28, 30, 204, 205, 206 build, 4, 17
backup site, 39, 46, 50, 75 build operate transfer (BOT), 106, 120, 124
BAIT (Bulgaria), 238 build strategy, 103, 104. See also subsidiary
Balanced Scorecard, 107, 142, 145, 147 Bulgaria, 51
BaliCamp, 23, 217 bulletin board forum, 160
Baltic IS Cluster, 86 bureaucracy, 104, 162, 211
bandwidth, 4 business case, 56, 58
business continuity, 45, 74 Cognizant Technology Solutions, 223, 232
business culture, 21, 62, 83, 105, 131, 133, 175, 220, cohesion barriers, 13, 153
224, 234, 235 collaboration across distance and time.
business domain knowledge, 14, 39, 61, 62, 102, See distributed collaboration
131, 132, 194, 203, 204, 205, 206, 209, 221 collaboration strategy, 103, 109
business process outsourcing (BPO). See collaborative technologies, 149, 164, 165
back-of´¬üce work collectivism, 177, 178, 268
business-friendly climate, 3, 211 Colombia, 219
buy strategy, 103 Colombo, 204
colonial history, 21, 88, 183
Cadence, 20 Colt Telecom, 242
calendaring, 161, 164, 165, 167 commission, 227
call center, 12, 28, 30, 38, 204, 205, 216 commoditization, 4, 14, 98, 203
Camtic (Costa Rica), 238 communication, 59, 141, 143, 150, 152
CAN (Nepal), 238 breakdown, 12, 151, 181, 188
Canada, 27, 32, 69, 74, 76, 116, 117, 216, 222 costs, 127
Capability Maturity Model (CMM), 6, 62, 81, 88, culture, 167, 170, 176, 180, 187
127, 132, 142, 160, 209 high-context vs. low-context, 179, 189
Cape Verde, 30 knowledge transfer, 134
Capgemini, 27 lateral, 185
captive center. See subsidiary low-context vs. high-context, 179, 189, 190
Carmel, E., 8, 11, 34, 93, 130, 161, 210 synchronous vs. asynchronous, 158, 165, 168
cartoons, 207 company culture. See business culture
CBI, Centre for the Promotion of Imports from competition, 10, 25, 26, 27, 31, 34, 94, 205, 211,
Developing Countries, 239, 256 214, 221, 225, 243
CeBIT trade fair, 231 competitiveness, 10, 11, 15, 47, 244
centrifugal forces, 151, 154, 157 computer aided design (CAD), 28, 206
change agent. See offshore champion con´¬üdentiality, 67, 113, 124, 126, 235
change management, 57, 130, 135, 136, 139, 140 con´¬‚ict, 75, 129, 152, 153
charge rate, 33, 34, 62, 65, 233 Confucianism. See future orientation
Check Point, 84 connections. See linkages
Chennai, 109, 161, 214 Constantine, L., 180
ChevronTexaco, 30 consultants, 55, 70, 187, 227, 229, 238
Chief Executive Of´¬ücer (CEO), 145 contingency, 46
Chief Information Of´¬ücer (CIO), 55, 136, 145 contract, 67, 118, 141
ChildrenÔÇ™s Online Privacy Protection Act breach, 75
(COPPA), 116 enforcement, 113