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End notes


Preface

1. For the use of the term “offshore” for tax havens see: Irwin, B. P. (2001). Offshore corporations:
a brief introduction, Harvard Business School case 9-799-119.
2. Nearsourcing is found in Sahay, S., Nicholson, B. & Krishna, S. (2003). Global IT Outsourcing:
Software Development Across Borders. Cambridge University Press.




Chapter 1
1. G7 nations are the major economic powers of the post World War II period: USA, Canada,
Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan.
2. The International product cycle was originally applied to explain foreign direct investment in
manufacturing. Vernon, R. (1966). International investment and international trade in the prod-
uct cycle. Quarterly Journal of Economics, May.
3. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2004). World Investment Report 2004:
The Shift to Services. www.unctad.org
4. Interview with Simonyi in: Murphy, C. (2003). Future view: software jobs will be mechanized
in the long run. InformationWeek, November 17.
5. Carmel, E. & Agarwal, R. (2002). The maturation of offshore sourcing of information technol-
ogy work. MIS Quarterly Executive, 1(2). The stage model was also adapted in: McCarthy, J. C.
(2003). Users offshore evolution and its governance impact. Forrester Brief, December 4.
6. Diamondcluster (2004). Global IT Outsourcing Study. Research Report.
7. This composite cost saving is based on studies by Deloitte Consulting, Sand Hill Group, and
Gartner. The latter two used only US ¬rms. The results are reported in greater detail in Chapter 2,
Offshore Economics and Offshore Risks.
8. Based on presentation slides of Stan Lepeak of the Meta Group, presented at Russian
Outsourcing Conference in St. Petersburg, June 2004.
9. McCarthy, J. C. (2003). Users offshore evolution and its governance impact. Forrester Brief,
December 4.
10. Chung, W. & Alcacer, J. (2003). Knowledge sources and foreign investment location in the US.
Conference of the Academy of International Business, Monterrey, CA; June.
11. Another important strategic approach in software R&D is through acquisitions targeted at gaining
talent for innovation. This is practiced by global technology ¬rms that buy technology companies in
Israel. More than one hundred Israeli ¬rms, from start-ups to established companies, were acquired
by foreign technology companies in the period from the mid 1990s through the early 2000s.
12. Carmel, E. (1999). Global Software Team: Collaborating Across Borders and Time Zones.
Prentice Hall-PTR.
258 End notes


13. Morales, A. W. (2004). Has this trend sprung a leak? Software Development Magazine, January.
www.sdmagazine.com
14. Morales, A. W. (2004). Ibid.
15. The estimate appears in: Martin, K. (2003). Research and development goes offshore. Meta
Group News Analysis, September 12.
16. Forrester (2003). Unlocking the Savings in Offshore. Research Report, February.
17. Koch, C. (2004). Bursting the CMM Hype, CIO Magazine, March 1.
18. Cusumano, M., MacCormack, A., Kemerer, C.F. & Crandall, W. (2003). A global survey of soft-
ware development practices. MIT Sloan School Working Paper No. 178, June.
19. Study by Administrative Staff College of India as appeared in: Yamamoto, M. & Said, K.
(2004). Offshoring. News.com, May 4.
20. Lieberman, J. I. (2004). Offshore Outsourcing and America™s Competitive Edge: Losing Out in
the High Technology R&D and Services Sectors. Of¬ce of US Senator Lieberman, May 11.
21. Deloitte Research compiled an estimate that gives us some idea of the magnitudes involved.
Deloitte estimated that by 2009, the global ¬nancial services industry will shift two million jobs off-
shore, while in the communications industry 275,000 jobs will be shifted offshore. Some of these
jobs are in software, while the majority are in IT-enabled services, such as call centers. Deloitte
Research (2004). Making the Off-shore Call: The Road Map for Communications Operators.
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22. Roberts, B. (2004). The perfect storm brews offshore. Electronic Business, March 1.
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26. Ovum Holway (2003). The Offshore Services Report. Ovum Holway underlined the relatively
small size of the sector: if offshore were a single player, it would rank at number 13 in Ovum

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